INDIGO-KR_plancomm_pII_v1.ppt - iucaa

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An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal

                       IndIGO Consortium
         (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)

                                          Version: pII_v1 Jun 20, 2011 : TS

    LIGO-India: Salient points of the megaproject
• On Indian Soil will draw and retain science & tech. manpower
• International Cooperation, not competition LIGO-India success critical to the success
   of the global GW science effort. Complete Intl support
• Shared science risk with International community 
   Shared historical, major science discovery credit !!!
• AdvLIGO setup & initial challenge/risks primarily rests with USA.
    – AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by > 2 years.
    – India sign up for technically demonstrated/established part (>10 yr of operation in initial LIGO ) 
      2/3 vacuum enclosure + 1/3 detector assembly split (US ‘costing’ : manpower and h/ware costs)
    – However, allows Indian scientist to collaborate on highly interesting science & technical challenges
      of Advanced LIGO-USA ( ***opportunity without primary responsibility***)
• Expenditure almost completely in Indian labs & Industry huge potential for
   landmark technical upgrade in all related Indian Industry
• Well defined training plan                  core Indian technical team thru Indian postdoc in related exptal areas
   participation in advLIGO-USA installation and commissioning phase, cascade to training at Indian expt. centers
• Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO network with huge potential
   for widespread University sector engagement.
• US hardware contribution funded & ready advLIGO largest NSF project, LIGO-
   India needs NSF approval but not additional funds
                 Advanced LIGO
• Take advantage of new technologies and on-going R&D

   >> Active anti-seismic system operating to lower frequencies:
   (Stanford, LIGO)

   >> Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics :
   (GEO )

   >> Higher laser power 10 W  180 W
   (Hannover group, Germany)

   >> More sensitive and more flexible optical configuration:
      Signal recycling

   • Design: 1999 – 2010 : 10 years of high end R & D

   • Construction: Start 2008; Installation 2011; Completion 2015
 Schematic Optical Design of Advanced LIGO detectors
Reflects International cooperation
  Basic nature of GW Astronomy

   AEI, Hannover

                                           GEO, UK
                                          LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity
                    LIGO labs LIGO-India
• 180 W pre-stabilized Nd:YAG laser
• 10 interferometer core optics (test masses, folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling mirrors)
• Input condition optics, including electro-optic modulators, Faraday isolators, a suspended mode-cleaner (12-m
long mode-defining cavity), and suspended mode-matching telescope optics.

• 5 "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages
capable of ~200 kg payloads)
• 6 "HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages
capable of ~200 kg payloads)
• 11 Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems

• Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems
• Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended optics

• Baffles and beam dumps for controlling scattering and stray radiation
• Optical distortion monitors and thermal control/compensation system for large optics
• Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics, actuation electronics and conditioning

• Data conditioning and acquisition system, software for data acquisition
• Supervisory control and monitoring system, software for all control systems
• Installation tooling and fixturing
                   Advanced LIGO Laser
• Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein Institute, Germany
• Much higher power (to beat down photon shot noise)
   – 10W  180W
• Better stability
   – 10x improvement in intensity and frequency stability

                           Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb                 6
                   Advanced LIGO Mirrors
                                                   • Larger size
                                                      – 11 kg -> 40 kg
                                                   • Smaller figure error
                                                      – 0.7 nm -> 0.35 nm
                                                   • Lower absorption
                                                      – 2 ppm -> 0.5 ppm
                                                   • Lower coating thermal noise

•   All substrates delivered
•   Polishing underway
•   Reflective Coating process starting up

                                        Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb                    7
          Advanced LIGO Seismic Isolation
• Two-stage six-degree-of-freedom active isolation
   – Low noise sensors, Low noise actuators
   – Digital control system to blend outputs of multiple sensors,
     tailor loop for maximum performance
   – Low frequency cut-off: 40 Hz -> 10 Hz

                         Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
                      Advanced LIGO Suspensions
                         • UK designed and contributed
                           test mass suspensions
                         • Silicate bonds create quasi-
                           monolithic pendulums using
                           ultra-low loss fused silica fibres
                           to suspend interferometer optics
                             – Pendulum
                             Q ~105 -> ~108

four stages
                             Suppression at 10 Hz : ?
                                           at 1 Hz : ?

  40 kg silica test
                                  Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb           9
                        LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ?
Primary advantage: LIGO-India Provides cutting edge instrumentation &
   technology to jump start GW detection and astronomy.
Would require at least a decade of focused & sustained technology developments
                         in Indian laboratories and industry
•   180 W Nd:YAG: 5 years;
     – Operation and maintenance should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers.
     – Applications in high resolution spectroscopy,
     – precision interferometry and metrology.
• Input condition optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs
• Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years of expt and R&D.
     – Experience in setting up and maintaining these systems  know how for
       isolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology,
       AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc.
• 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and
  develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years of
  dedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology.
• Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of
  development.. Not trivial to implement.
     – Benefit other physics experiments working at the quantum limit of noise.
 LIGO-India: Expected Indian Contribution

• Indian contribution in infrastructure:
     Site (L-configuration: Each 50-100 m x 4.2 km)
     Vacuum system
    HPC -Data centre

• Indian contribution in human resources:
     Trained Scientific & engineering manpower for detector
   assembly, installation and commissioning
    Trained SE manpower for LIGO-India operations for 10 years
    Major enhancement of Data Analysis teams
    Expand theory and create numerical relativity simulation
                     LIGO Beam Tube

                                          •     LIGO beam tube under
                                                construction in January 1998

                                          •     16 m spiral welded sections

                                          •     girth welded in portable
                                                clean room in the field

1.2 m diameter - 3mm stainless
50 km of weld
                                                 NO LEAKS !!
LIGO-G1100108-v1       IndIGO - ACIGA meeting                              12
                     Beam Tube Construction



  LIGO-G1100108-v1      IndIGO - ACIGA meeting   13
                    LIGO beam tube enclosure

• minimal enclosure

• reinforced concrete

• no services

 LIGO-G1100108-v1        IndIGO - ACIGA meeting   14
                   LIGO Vacuum Equipment

LIGO-G1100108-v1        IndIGO - ACIGA meeting   15
            Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure

• 5 Engineers and 5 technicians

    o Oversee the procurement & fabrication of the vacuum system
    components and its installation.
    o If the project is taken up by DAE then participation of RRCAT & IPR is more
    o All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves, pumps, residual gas
    analyzers and leak detectors will be bought. Companies L&T, Fullinger,
    HindHiVac, Godrej with support from RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab.

• Preliminary detailed discussions in Feb 2011 : companies like HHV,
Fullinger in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair (ACIGA) since this
was a major IndIGO deliverable to LIGO-Australia.

• Preliminary Costing for LIGO-India (vacuum component 400 cr)
          Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
                 S.K. Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT),
                        S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)
•To be fabricated by IndIGO with designs from LIGO. A pumped volume of
10000m3 (10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of 10-9 torr
(pico-m Hg).
   o Spiral welded beam tubes 1.2m in diameter and 20m length.

   o Butt welding of 20m tubes together to 200m length.

   o Butt welding of expansion bellows between 200m tubes.

   o Gate valves of 1m aperture at the 4km tube ends and the middle.

   o Optics tanks, to house the end mirrors and beam splitter/power and signal
   recycling optics vacuum pumps.

   o Gate valves and peripheral vacuum components.
   o Baking and leak checking
LIGO-India: … the challenges
   National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project
   Identify a lead institution and agency
   Project leader
  Construction: Substantial Engg project building Indian capability in large
  vacuum system engg, welding techniques and technology
   Complex Project must be well-coordinated and effectively carried out
    in time and meeting the almost zero-tolerance specs
  Train manpower for installation & commissioning
   Generate & sustain manpower running for 10 years.
   Site
   short lead time
   International competition (LIGO-Argentina ??)
   vacuum enclosure (tubes & end station)
   Detector assembly
  Data centre
                                                 LIGO-India: … the challenges
Trained Manpower for installation & commissioning
  LIGO-India Director

  Project manager

  Project engineering staff:
      Civil engineer(s)
      Vacuum engineer(s)
      Systems engineer(s),
      Mechanical engineers
      Electronics engineers
      Software engineers
      Detector leader
      Project system engineer

  Detector subsystem leaders
  10 talented scientists or research engineers
  with interest and knowledge collectively spanning:
  Lasers and optical devices, Optical metrology, handling and cleaning,
  Precision mechanical structures, Low noise electronics, Digital control systems
  and electro-mechanical servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling)
                   Detector Installation using Cleanrooms

•   Chamber access
    through large doors

LIGO-G1100108-v1            IndIGO - ACIGA meeting          20
                      HAM Chamber

LIGO-G1100108-v1   IndIGO - ACIGA meeting   21
                              Optics Installation Under
                               Cleanroom Conditions

LIGO-G1100108-v1   IndIGO - ACIGA meeting            22
                        Logistics and Preliminary Plan
   • Assumption: Project taken up by DAE as a National Mega
                        Flagship Project.
All the persons mentioned who are currently working in their centers would be mainly in a
     supervisory role of working on the project during the installation phase and training manpower
     recruited under the project who would then transition into the operating staff.

• Instrument Engineering: No manpower required for design and
  development activity. For installation and commissioning phase
  and subsequent operation

• Laser ITF: Unnikrishnan, Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhaker.
  TIFR, RRCAT, IITM. 10 Post-doc/Ph.D students. Over 2-3 years.
 Spend a year at Advanced LIGO. 6 full time engineers and
   scientists. If project sanctioned, manpower sanctioned, LIGO-
   India project hiring at RRCAT, TIFR, other insitututions/Labs.
                         Technology Payoffs
• Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase noise, excellent
  beam quality, high single frequency power
• Applications in precision metrology, medicine, micro-machining
• Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for earthquake prediction
  and other precision metrology
• Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than telescope
  mirrors..Ultra-high reflective coatings : New technology for other fields
• Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications for mineral prospecting
• Squeezing and challenging “quantum limits” in measurements.
• Ultra-high vacuum system 10^-9 tor (1picomHg). Beyond best in the
• Computation Challenges: Cloud computing, Grid computing, new
   hardware and software tools for computational innovation.
        Logistics and Preliminary Plans
42 persons (10 PhD/postdocs, 22 scientists/engineers and 10 technicians)
• Mobile Clean rooms:
    – Movable tent type clean rooms during welding of the beam tubes and assembly of the
      system. Final building a clean room with AC and pressurization modules. SAC, ISRO. 1
      engineer and 2 technicians to draw specs for the clean room equipments & installation.

• Vibration isolation system: 2 engineers (precision mechanical)
    – install and maintain the system. Sourced from BARC. RED (Reactor Engineering
      Division of BARC) has a group that works on vibration measurement, analysis and
      control in reactors and turbo machinery.
• Electronic Control System: 4 Engineers
   – install and maintain the electronics control and data acquisition system.
      Electronics & Instrumentation Group at BARC (G. P. Shrivastava’s group) and
    – Preliminary training:six months at LIGO. Primary responsibility (installing and
      running the electronics control and data acquisition system): RRCAT & BARC.
      Additional activity for LIGO-India can be factored in XII plan if the approvals
      come in early.
              … Logistics and Preliminary Plans
 Teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Groups at BARC may be interested
   in large instrumentation projects in XII plan.
• Control software Interface: 2 Engineers
    – install and maintain the computer software interface, distributed
       networking and control system). RRCAT and BARC. Computer software
       interface (part of the data acquisition system) and is the “Human-
       machine-interface” for the interferometer. For seamless
       implementation man power to be sourced from teams implementing
       Electronic Control System.
• Site Selection & Civil Construction
    – BARC Seismology Division Data reg. seismic noise at various DAE sites
       to do initial selection of sites and shortlist based on other
       considerations such as accessibility and remoteness from road traffic
       etc. DAE: Directorate of Construction, services and Estate Management
       (DCSEM): Co-ordinate design and construction of the required civil
       structures required for the ITF. 2 engineers + 3 technicians (design &
       supervision of constructions at site). Construction contracted to
       private construction firm under supervision of DCSEM.
                                                            LIGO-India: … the challenges
  Manpower generation for sustenance of the LIGO-India observatory : Preliminary
                              Plans & exploration

• Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time, participants will be identified
who will be deputed to take part in the commissioning of Advanced LIGO and
later bring in the experience to LIGO-India

• Successful IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway
    o High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,..
    o 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT
    o Plan to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters

• IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging opportunity in GW
     o 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA)

• Post graduate school specialization courses , or more
  Jayant Narlikar: “Since sophisticated technology is involved IndIGO should like
     ISRO or BARC training school set up a program where after successful
                completion of the training, jobs are assured.”
                                                      LIGO-India: … the challenges
                   Indian Site

• Low seismicity
• Low human generated noise
• Air connectivity,
• Proximity to Academic institution, labs, industry

Preliminary exploration:
IISc new campus & adjoining campuses near Chitra Durga

     • low seismicity
     • 1hr from Intl airport
     • Bangalore: science & tech hub
     • National science facilities complex plans
           LIGO-India: Action points
If accepted as a National Flagship Mega Project under
   the 12th plan then…
•   Seed Money
•   Identification of 3-6 project leaders
•   Detailed Project Proposal
•   Site identification
•   1st Staffing Requirement meeting Aug 1-15
•   2nd Joint Staffing Meeting with LIGO-Lab
•   Vacuum Task related team and plans
             Concluding remarks on LIGO India
• Home ground advantage !!! Once in a generation opportunity
• Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window
                 Thank you !!!
  in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global effort
• Cooperative, not competitive science
• India at the forefront of GW science with 2nd generation of detectors:
  Intl. shared science risks and credit
• Low project risk: commit to established tech. yet are able to take on
  challenges of advLIGO (opportunity without primary responsibility)
   “Every single technology they’re touching labs & pushing, and
• Attain high technology gains for Indian they’re industries there’s
   a lot of different technologies they’re touching.”
      (Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. )
• India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy:
”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity”
An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for India. India could
  play a key role in Intl. Science by hosting LIGO-India.
           Deserves a National mega-science initiative
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer


Path A

Path B

         Difference in distance of Path A & B  Interference of laser light at
                             the detector (Photodiode)
Path difference of light  phase difference

          Equal arms:
          Dark fringe

                  The effects of gravitational
                  waves appear as a fluctuation in
                  the phase differences between
                  two orthogonal light paths of an

                    Unequal arm:
                     Signal in PD
           Tailoring the frequency response
• Signal Recycling : New idea in interferometry
 Additional cavity formed with
  mirror at output
 Can be made resonant,
  or anti-resonant,
  for gravitational wave frequencies

 Allows redesigning the noise curve
 to create optimal band sensitive to
  specific astrophysical signatures
         Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer

     Power Recycled
                                         LIGO Optical Configuration
     Michelson                                 end test mass

     with Fabry-Perot Arm                                 Light bounces back and
     Cavities                                             forth along arms about
                                                          100 times

        Light is “recycled”
        about 50 times                         input test mass


                                signal             beam splitter

Difference in distance of Paths  Interference of laser
          light at the detector (Photodiode)                          Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Initial LIGO Sensitivity Goal
                  • Strain sensitivity
                      <3x10-23 1/Hz1/2
                      at 200 Hz
                     Sensor Noise
                       » Photon Shot Noise
                       » Residual Gas

                     Displacement Noise
                       » Seismic motion
                       » Thermal Noise
                       » Radiation Pressure

                   LIGO and Virgo TODAY
Milestone: Decades-old plans to build and operate large interferometric GW detectors now
realized at several locations worldwide
Experimental prowess: LIGO, VIRGO operating at predicted sensitivity!!!!

 Pre-dawn GW astronomy : Unprecedented sensitivity already allows
      • Upper Limits on GW from a variety of Astrophysical sources. Refining theoretical
      • Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars,
      • Exptally surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound on Stochastic GW..
          “Quantum measurements”
      to improve further via squeezed light:
• New ground for optical technologists in India

• High Potential to draw the best Indian UG
students typically interested in theoretical
physics into experimental science !!!
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
           Observatory (LIGO)

               IndIGO - ACIGA meeting     38
                      Rewards and spinoffs
 Detection of GW is the epitome of breakthrough science!!!
• LIGO-India  India could become a partner in international
  science of Nobel Prize significance
• GW detection is an instrument technology intensive field pushing
  frontiers simultaneously in a number of fields like lasers and
  photonics. Impact allied areas and smart industries.
• The imperative need to work closely with industry and other end
  users will lead to spinoffs as GW scientists further develop optical
  sensor technology.
• Presence of LIGO-India will lead to pushing technologies and greater
  innovation in the future.
• The largest UHV system will provide industry a challenge and
                       … rewards and spinoffs

• LIGO-India will raise public/citizen profile of science since it
  will be making ongoing discoveries fascinating the young.
 GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction and a pioneering facility in India
     participating in important discoveries will provide science & technology role
                     models with high visibility and media interest.
• LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and LIGO-India will
  provide a platform to increase it and synergetically benefit.
• Increase number of research groups performing at world
  class levels and produce skilled researchers.
• Increase international collaborations in Indian research &
  establishing Science Leadership in the Asia-Pacific region.
                        Scientific Payoffs
         Advanced GW network sensitivity needed to observe
             GW signals at monthly or even weekly rates.
• Direct detection of GW probes strong field regime of gravitation
 Information about systems in which strong-field and time dependent gravitation
dominates, an untested regime including non-linear self-interactions

• GW detectors will uncover NEW aspects of the physics
 Sources at extreme physical conditions (eg., super nuclear density physics), relativistic
motions, extreme high density, temperature and magnetic fields.

• GW signals propagate un-attenuated
weak but clean signal from cores of astrophysical event where EM signal is screened by
ionized matter.

• Wide range of frequencies  Sensitivity over a range of astrophysical scales

To capitalize one needs a global array of GW antennas separated by
continental distances to pinpoint sources in the sky and extract all the
             source information encoded in the GW signals

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