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					  AMS-02 Experiment
   (Alpha Magnetic Espectrometer)
      Detector and Expectations

A. Diago             UniverseNet School ‘09
IAC (Spain)             October 2, 2009
                   AMS-01

 AMS-01 was launched
  on the Shuttle
  Discovery on 2th June
  1998.
 180 hours of data: 108
  events.


                           Discovery with AMS-01 seen from MIR
                   AMS-01: Results
 Feasible proyect
 Measures of fluxes p, He3, He4, e+, antiprotons.
 New limits to the existence of antihelium
    AntiHe/He<0.9x10-4
    (Buffington)              AntiHe/He<1.1x10-6

 Secondary spectrums near earth orbit under the
  geomagnetic cutoff:
           Protons
           Leptons
           Helium                        AMS-02
Detector’s Features

      Second part of the AMS Experiment.
      Developed         with     international
     cooperation.
      It will be on ISS in autumn 2010.
      General points:
        active 3 years at minimum
                                       1010
                 +
                                       nuclei
        acceptance of 0.5 m2.sr
             Detector’s Features

Size: 3m x 3m x 3m
   Weight: 7 tons

Subdetectors:
   TRD
   TOF
   TRACKER
   Anticounter
   RICH
   ECAL
         Studies ready to be done
                      Cosmic rays composition
                     (TRD, TRACKER, RICH)
                      Photon detection up to 1 TeV
                     (TRACKER, ECAL)
                      Propagation (TRACKER, RICH)

                      He3/He4      B/C Be10/Be9
                      Antimatter searching Z>1
                     (TRACKER, RICH)
                      Dark matter searching
                     (TRD, TRACKER, RICH)
Size: 3m x 3m x 3m
  Weight: 7 tons
How does it work?
         Transition Radiation
e-           e/p separation




     Discrimination e/p
     Transition Radiation
e-       e/p separation
                            p
         Transition Radiation
e-           e/p separation


     Discrimination e/p
        e/p~102-103




      x 20

                   AMS Collaboration
   Time of Flight
     LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger
       Time of Flight
        LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger             selection
         Time of Flight
            LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger                 selection

ttravel= 1 ns            downwards
130 ps                   -upwards
precision
 Time of Flight
     LV1, dir, β, Z




e-
 Time of Flight
     LV1, dir, β, Z




e-           e -
 Time of Flight
     LV1, dir, β, Z




e-           e -




                      e+
       Time of Flight
        LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger             selection

Dir:                       e-/antiP
downwards-
upwards                    e+/p
        Time of Flight
          LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger               selection

Dir:                       e-/antiP
downwards-
                            e+/p
upwards
Charge Z separation (up to 1 GeV)
Time of Flight
  LV1, dir, β, Z




AMS Collaboration
       Time of Flight
        LV1, dir, β, Z




LV1: Trigger             selection

Dir:                     e-/antiP
downwards-
                          e+/p
upwards
Charge Z separation
Mesure of b with few %
precision
             Superconducting
                 Magnet


AMS-01           AMS-02
Nd-Fe-B          Superconducting
BL2= 0.14 T·m2   BL2=0.86 T·m2




                 R=2.5 TV
    Silicon Tracker
          Z,R




Measure of rigidity
          p c
     R
          Z e

Measure of charge
                                                                        Silicon Tracker
                                                                                Z,R




Combined Z measurements for 4 or more ladders on the K and S sides   AMS Collaboration
Anticounter
 Acceptance
                    RICH
                     β, Z



n(aerogel)=1,05   n(NaF)=1,335
                                         RICH
AMS Collaboration                         β, Z


                    Charge Z

                    Speed b



                               AMS Collaboration
      Electromagnetic
        calorimeter
        e/p separación, E




Discrimination e/p
Measure of energy




    AMS Collaboration
What is the
information
that we get?
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p: 106
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p
 Speed b: s(b)/b10   -3



  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z:s(Z)/Z0.2
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R: 2.5 TV
  Energy E
Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
              s (E0.1TeV )
 Energy E:      E0.1TeV
                              2.5%


Direction dir
  Mass m
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
                 Distinction
Direction dir:   power: 10-9


  Mass m
Separation e/p
  Speed b
  Charge Z
 Rigidity R
  Energy E
Direction dir
 Mass m: 2%(<1GeV)
What can be done with all this
       information?
• What kind of particle is it?
      Lepton, hadron, gamma
What can be done with all this
       information?
• What kind of particle is it?
      Lepton, hadron, gamma
• Flux of the different particles
     Composition: Fluxes

    He (1 year)
     P week)
    Fe (1 month)      e (3 days)
                      C -(10years)




PAMELA PAMELA          PAMELA




                       AMS Collaboration
    Composition: Fluxes




PAMELA                PAMELA



                       AMS Collaboration




PAMELA
Collaboration
What can be done with all this
       information?
• What kind of particle is it?
      Lepton, hadron, gamma
• Flux of the different particles

• Ratios
                Composition: ratios
                                     (1 day)
                                               Interestelar
                                               medium density



Diffusion parameter




                        AMS Collaboration
What can be done with all this
       information?
• What kind of particle is it?
      Lepton, hadron, gamma
• Flux of the different particles
• Ratios
• Isotopic separation
Compostion: isotopic separation
      He3   He4
                          Be9     Be10

                  p   D




                            Rui Pereira, 2006
                           AMS Collaboration
What can be done with all this
       information?
  Is AMS-02 better than PAMELA?



     Of course!
What can be done with all this
       information?
       AntiHe/He




       AMS-01



          PAMELA
What can be done with all this
       information?
 Is AMS-02 better than FERMI?


                      We will try it
                      with photons
   AMS-02: Models constrains
An anomalous positron abundance in cosmic rays with
energies 1.5-100 GeV.
               O. Adriani etal 2009

        Why this anomaly?
                               MDM=10 TeV

Posible answers:               DM+DM                   W+W-
                               s v=6·10-22   cm3/sec
                                ann

Dark matter contribution?      M. Cirelli, A. Strumia 0903.3381v2




                     antip/p   AMS-02
                                                                    e-+e+
       e+/(e++e-)




     e-+e+
Posible answers:
Pulsars contribution?                  e+/(e++e-)
                                           J. Pochon (2009)


                                        pulsars




                                                      background

         PAMELA                          AMS-02
          83 GeV        0.3 TeV (checked);  1 TeV (under studies)
            Searching strangelets
                           Normal nuclei: Z/A 0.5
Reyco Henning, 1998
                           (Proton: Z/A 1)

                           Anomalous cosmic ray
                             Z/A 0.115 (Z=2)
                           Confirmed with AMS-01

                           Anomalous candidate
                             Z/A 0.123 (Z=5)

                          It must be confirmed with
                                   AMS-02
Photons
          J. Pochon (2009)


   
                  Conclusions
 AMS-02 will be the best detector for particles
 in the outer space due to:
    More statistics than ever: 1010.
    Studies of:

Cosmic rays              Searching of        Anomalous
composition              antimatter          cosmic rays

         Propagation and          Searching of
         density in the           dark matter
         interestelar medium
extras
Photons
                                              AMS Collaboration

                                                                                  FINLAND
                                                                                                                        RUSSIA
                                                                                  HELSINKI UNIV.
                                                                                                                        I.K.I.
                                                                                  UNIV. OF TURKU
                                                                                                                        ITEP
                                                                DENMARK                                                 KURCHATOV INST.
                                                                UNIV. OF AARHUS                                         MOSCOW STATE UNIV.
                                           NETHERLANDS
                                           ESA-ESTEC                                               GERMANY
                                           NIKHEF                                                  RWTH-I
                                           NLR
                                                                                                                                                          KOREA
       USA                                                                                         RWTH-III
      A&M FLORIDA UNIV.                                                                            MAX-PLANK INST.                                        EWHA
      JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.                                                                          UNIV. OF KARLSRUHE                        KYUNGPOOK NAT.UNIV.
      MIT - CAMBRIDGE
      NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
                                            FRANCE                                                 ROMANIA                   CHINA BISEE (Beijing)
      NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER             GAM MONTPELLIER                                        ISS                               IEE (Beijing)
      UNIV. OF MARYLAND-DEPRT OF PHYSICS    LAPP ANNECY                                            UNIV. OF BUCHAREST                IHEP (Beijing)
      UNIV. OF MARYLAND-E.W.S. S.CENTER     LPSC GRENOBLE
                                                                                      SWITZERLAND                                    SJTU (Shanghai)
      YALE UNIV. - NEW HAVEN                                                          ETH-ZURICH                                     SEU (Nanjing)
                                                                                      UNIV. OF GENEVA                                SYSU (Guangzhou) TAIWAN
                                             SPAIN
                                                                                                                                     SDU (Jinan)
                                             CIEMAT - MADRID
                                             I.A.C. CANARIAS.                     ITALY                                                         ACAD. SINICA (Taiwan)
                                                                                  ASI                                                                  CSIST (Taiwan)
    MEXICO                                                                        CARSO TRIESTE                                                       NCU (Chung Li)
                                                                                  IROE FLORENCE                                                        NCKU (Tainan)
    UNAM                                                                          INFN & UNIV. OF BOLOGNA                                             NCTU (Hsinchu)
                                                    PORTUGAL                      INFN & UNIV. OF MILANO                                              NSPO (Hsinchu)
                                                                                  INFN & UNIV. OF PERUGIA
                                           LAB. OF INSTRUM. LISBON                INFN & UNIV. OF PISA
                                                                                  INFN & UNIV. OF ROMA
                                                                                  INFN & UNIV. OF SIENA




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