Volume 14, Issue 2 February 2004
Avoiding Double Duplicate Research
I did it again. You'd think that I would know bet- And yes, another friend (not the same one) got a copy
ter, but I went off to the library unprepared a few of the book as a Christmas present.
weeks ago. I took only my notebook and some
This embarrassing and costly error underlined for me
random notes about two individuals of the
the need to keep track of what books I've already pur-
BALL surname with me. What I failed to take
chased. As a result, I spent a few hours one evening
with me was my Research Log for that surname
writing bibliographic citations for each book in my col-
and, as usual, I wasted my time and money re-
lection using my word processor. I've been using a
searching and copying from a book I'd already
Sony Clie handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) for
photocopied from—twice before!
a couple of years now, and a program on it called
In this week's "Along Those Lines . . ." column, "Word To-Go" allows me to download Microsoft Word
let's discover how to avoid this kind of duplica- documents to the PDA. I now have a handy reference
tion—or double duplication—and examine a list available on the PDA, which I can check when I
method to help keep track of what we've already visit bookstores to make certain I won't duplicate my
researched. book purchases again.
How Embarrassing Avoiding Duplicate Research
I seem to do things three times. Don't ask me For many years I have been using Research Calendar
why, I just do. There's one book about state cen- forms to keep track of my research. If I unfailingly re-
sus records that I've bought for myself, not once cord the information on these log sheets, it helps pre-
but three times. You'd have thought I would re- vent me from duplicating my research efforts. The An-
member the cover and the contents since I'd read cestry.com Research Calendar is just one of the free ge-
it from cover to cover the first time and referred nealogy forms you can find under the Family Trees tab
to it on several occasions. Nevertheless, when- on Ancestry.com (A direct link to access the form can
ever I visit a bookstore, I always look for new be found at: http://www.ancestry.com/save/charts/
genealogy-related books. Seeing what I thought researchcal.htm).
was another great resource on the topic, I strode
What I personally do is maintain a Research Calendar
to the checkout desk and bought the book. When
I arrived home, I was dismayed to realize I'd (Continued on page 3)
bought a duplicate. "Oh well," I said. "I have a
friend who would love the book." And that's CONTENTS
how the book became a birthday gift. Six months President’s Column, Future Events 2
later, at another bookstore in another town, I Advice for tracking your Italian Ancestors 4
purchased the same book again. When I got
Judging your own research 5
home this time and discovered my error, I was
really embarrassed and felt very stupid indeed. Identifying digital photos 7
PAFINDER February 2004
Future President’s Column
Events From the desk of the Pres…..
Don’t talk to me about global warming. Have you looked outside recently? We have had very cold
temperatures and a great deal of snow. The news people are all hyped up about the cold weather.
February 5, 7PM
DUH!!! IT’S WINTER. Mark will have some interesting pictures to share with us upon his return
General Meeting from a business trip.
March 4, 7PM So what have you been doing since you don’t want to venture out in this weather? I have cleaned
General Meeting up the computer room. Don’t seem so surprised. I found some stuff I didn’t know I had. Try it
sometime. I have also been helping a new researcher who is really new to computers. He should be
April 1, 7PM coming to our next meeting. Give him a warm welcome, as he is interested in joining. Henry came
General Meeting to one of our Genealogy Conferences many moons ago. He has a lot of data on paper. He wants to
computerize it. I am teaching him one-on-one.
May 6, 7PM
Have you been to the Family History Center recently? You should visit. We have some NEW
stuff. Thanks to a generous patron, we have 5 computers online. The Church has contracted with
June 3, 7PM Ancestry.com to provide access to their online databases, which include Census images. Come
visit, Sylvia and I work a shift on Thursday from 9-1.
You better interview those older relatives. How many of your relatives passed away on 2003?
July How are you doing with your own personal history? Do you spend time writing down those sig-
NO MEETING nificant stories of what happened in your life, so that your posterity can read about YOU?
August 7, 2PM How are your plans coming for a trip to that elusive cemetery this summer? Sylvia and I are plan-
Summer Picnic ning to visit Holland and Germany the summer of 2005. It seems that my Dutch ancestors came
from Germany. Am I Dutch or German? Do I get to pick? What about you? Have you connected
September 2, back to Charlemagne or maybe to Attila the Hun?
7PM How is your scanning of your old photographs coming along? What we ALL need to do is turn off
General Meeting the idiot box and do something meaningful with our time. Even if we only spend one hour a week
doing it; we are doing it.
October 7, 7PM
General Meeting Did you get one of those wonderful Christmas letters from one of your relatives? We got a few,
and Sylvia sent one out. Looking back on the past ones she sent, we see what has happened in our
November 4, 7PM lives. If you don’t have one, make one.
General Meeting The trip to Ellis Island would have to be a special trip. The tour companies don’t have a regular
scheduled trip till July 31, a Saturday, and it will cost $50.00 per person. We could carpool it and
Dec. 2, 6:30PM visit it from the New Jersey side. Comments?
We are in need of a program for May. Our presenter backed out. Please get your suggestions to
Barb Fisher, our Second Lady.
That’s all Folks…..
Munchie Sponsors this month are:
Joan Howard, Dody Yingling and Franklin Long
Visit our webpage: www.rootsweb.com/~pastgc/
PAFINDER February 2004
(Continued from page 1) 476), 1962, Anna Lorena Holder.
form for at least a family surname. In some cases,
because I am performing intensive research on a Note: It helps to memorize the citation formats for the
specific individual, I have created and maintained most common materials you will use so that you know
a separate collection of these forms for that per- all the information you will likely need to record.
son. Elizabeth Shown Mills' book, Evidence! Citation &
Analysis for the Family Historian, is the definitive ref-
If you examine the Ancestry Research Calendar erence book for writing citations of all types of materi-
form, you'll see there are a number of columns als.
you might use. Let's briefly discuss how to use
them. Time Period/Names Searched—In this column, you
can note the names of the persons whose information
Date—Enter the date on which you performed you were researching as well as the time period in
research using each resource you list on the form. which you were researching. I initially started using the
Repository—In this column, enter the name of Research Calendar form without entering the time pe-
the place where you accessed the information. riod and ultimately regretted that I had not. This infor-
This might be a library, archive, courthouse, or mation helps me to recognize what historical period the
another location. The column also has a label for contents include, and I will use this reference when I
call number or microfilm number. It is always begin searching for other family members' records.
helpful when you're retracing your research steps This simple notation can, at a glance, give me a pointer
to know exactly where to locate the particular re- to specific resources that might contain the informa-
cord(s) you discovered. The call number is the tional treasures I seek.
Dewey Decimal Classification (in public librar- Results—The last column is used to indicate briefly
ies) or the Library of Congress Classification (in what you found, or didn't find. You definitely want to
most academic libraries) under which the re- record every resource you have checked on the Re-
source is filed. If you are using microfilm or mi- search Calendar, regardless of your results. In geneal-
crofiche, enter the number associated with that ogy, we all learn that sometimes it isn't what you do
resource, including the reel number on the film or find, but what you don't find that may speak volumes.
the page number of the fiche. The name of the By indicating what your research results were for every
repository is essential, especially when you have source, you will be creating a reference that prevents
accessed unique, rare, or one-of-a-kind materials, you from looking at a source more than once.
but it also helps you avoid researching the same
materials in a repository you visit on multiple oc- Creating an Electronic Research Calendar
casions. I know some people who have created their own ver-
sions of the Research Calendar in a spreadsheet pro-
Description of Source—In this column, you gram. While this requires a lot of data entry upfront to
should enter a description that is as complete as produce, if you design it well in the beginning and de-
possible. For example, if I were entering material fine columns for name, date, repository, etc., you can
on a book, I would note the bibliographic citation then use your spreadsheet program to sort the data by
information such as in the following: each of these fields. As an example, you might sort an
Wright, Stuart T., Historical Sketch of Person entire Research Calendar spreadsheet by surname and
County. Danville, Va.: Womack Press, 1974. given name, and that would allow you to group all the
resources you've researched for that individual to-
If I access documents at a courthouse, I would gether. Another possible sort might be first by reposi-
enter a citation such as the following: tory, and then by source. This would group all the re-
sources of a particular library together, for instance, so
Georgia, Floyd County. Probate Court Office, that you know what you have already researched and
Rome. Probate file #676 (Recorded Book J, Page (Continued on page 4)
PAFINDER February 2004
(Continued from page 3) Advice for tracking your Italian
so you can avoid duplication. Ancestors
My double duplicate research isn't part of my in-
Lynn Nelson, author of the book "A Genealogist's
creasing number of "senior moments," I'm sure. It
Guide to Discovering Your Italian Ancestors," gives
is a result of my enthusiasm for the research and
the following tip for those of you having a difficult
my hunger for new materials. However, I really
time building the Italian side of your family tree:
would rather spend my time and money in working
with new materials rather than covering old terri-
"There has long been a strong custom in Italy that
tory again and again. You'll find that by using the
determines how children are named:
Research Calendar approach and investing time and
discipline in recording the information, you will ac-
* The first male is named after his paternal grandfa-
tually save time and money and become a more ef-
* The second male is named after his maternal
Happy Hunting, grandfather.
George * The first female is named after her paternal grand-
George G. Morgan would like to hear from you at * The second female is named after her maternal
email@example.com. Unfortunately, due to the grandmother.
volume of e-mail received, he is unable to answer
every message. Please note that he cannot assist The subsequent children can be named after the par-
you with your individual research. Visit George's ents, a favorite aunt or uncle, a saint or a deceased
website at http://ahaseminars.com/atl for informa- relative."
tion about speaking engagements.
Nelson does add that although this naming custom is
pervasive, a good genealogist should never assume it
Ancestry Quick Tip to be the law. For more tips on how to track down
your Italian ancestors, pick up a copy of "A Genealo-
We are transcribing a local cemetery for my son's Eagle gist's Guide to Discovering Your Italian Ancestors,"
Project. We were surprised to find many graves in Ger- available at your bookstore, toll-free at
man and an unknown language. Checking family trees 1-800-289-0963 or through secure online ordering at
online, we surmised they were Hungarian. Lacking any- http://www.familytreemagazine.com/store/display.
one who could read the graves, I did a little searching asp?id=70370 -- where you also can find out more
and found that Hungarian names are written with the
about the book's contents.
surname first, then given name.
Many of the transcribers had already identified given
names as surnames and vice versa. On some graves the
names were Americanized, with an obvious given name
first and known surname last, but with Hungarian epi-
With American children giving Hungarian information
to American headstone engravers, and then years later
transcribed by American volunteers, no wonder it can be
confusing. If your ancestors come from a country that
lists surname first in its native tongue, always check for
transposed names for the first generations in America.
PAFINDER February 2004
Judging your Own Research search. Again and again I have seen invalid lineages
revealed in information sent by clients as soon as I
started compiling a whole family with all the sib-
It can be difficult to judge our own work. Because I lings and cousins.
am an editor, I find it easier than many researchers
do to change hats and assume a purely analytical I find that it often helps to view any family group as
role. Recently I found it necessary to define some having three generations (parents, children, grand-
of the questions I raise when analyzing research. children), not just the two provided on the standard
You may find it easier to analyze your own work family group sheet. One benefit is that when I care-
by asking yourself these five questions. fully determine birth dates for all grandchildren (not
just those in the line of interest), use their birth dates
Does the Chronology Fit? to estimate marriage dates in the second generation,
List all of the events for each family, each with an and use the marriage dates to estimate birth dates in
associated date and place. Sort them chronologi- the second generation, sometimes a significantly dif-
cally. ferent family structure appears for the parents and
Indicate for each event if the date is REAL (from a children in the first and second generation than I got
record), STB (Said To Be, as in a family history by focusing only on them.
which did not give a REAL source), or EST This is another good way to highlight potential
(estimated). Are there far more entries labeled STB same-name problems. When cousins, nephews and
and EST than labeled REAL? If a date is STB, this uncles, or fathers and sons share the same given
implies that you should be able to track down the name, reexamine all events to see that each is as-
source and turn it into a REAL. signed to the correct individual.
Examine events with EST dates. We often have to Did You Follow the Females?
estimate events in areas with insufficient records. Is your research unbalanced? Do you have much
However, consider whether it is a reasonable esti- more information on sons and brothers than on
mate based on other events or whether you esti- daughters and sisters?
mated it as you did because that's what you wanted
it to be. Quite frankly, it's easier to focus on the males in a
family. They left more records, and they didn't
Add events such as county formations to indicate change their names. You probably found it relatively
that the switch from Brown County to Greene easy to find records for all the males in a family be-
County was probably not a move. Add an event for cause they were listed in the index right there with
any moves. This is usually a range of years. Make the male ancestor you knew about and were re-
sure that the number of moves is reasonable and searching.
that they make sense. This is a good way to spot
same-name problems. Females are a different matter. First, there are more
names to check. You'll have to look for the records
Jot down the age at which significant events such of them, their husbands, and their children under
as first marriage, first purchase of land, and death their married surname(s). Second, it is unlikely that
occurred. Make sure they are reasonable. Calculate you started your research knowing all of those
the time between the births of the children. Any names. Make a list of all female names (with their
gap that is too small indicates a serious problem. spouses) and review all of the sources you examined
Any gap that is larger than expected may suggest originally.
the death of a wife and a remarriage.
Was Your Ancestor a Widower?
Are the Cousins All Accounted for? What evidence do you have that the woman whose
I find it scary to contemplate how much of my re- name is listed as the wife of your ancestor is the
search was done solely by tracing my lineage, be-
(Continued on page 6)
fore I understood the value of whole family re-
PAFINDER February 2004
(Continued from page 5) Conclusion
mother of his children? Many widows and widow- Why do these questions matter? I can't predict for
ers remarried, particularly those with children still any given case, but I do know that asking these ques-
in the home. Look at each of the children, not just tions and following up often changes lineages, rear-
your ancestor, and ask yourself why you think this ranges families, and leads to solving genealogical
child belonged to both the man and the woman you problems.
have listed as parents. ----------------------------------------------------------------
Patricia Law Hatcher, CG, FASG, is a technical
Some common "gotcha's" derive from the US cen- writer, instructor, and professional genealogist. Her
sus, which did not request relationship information oft-migrating ancestors lived in all of the original
until 1880. Even then, stepchildren of the head of colonies prior to 1800 and in seventeen other states,
household may have been listed as children and presenting her with highly varied research problems
possibly even shown with the same surname. Be and forcing her to acquire techniques and tools that
sure you have found every child on every census help solve tough problems. She is the author of Pro-
during their life to protect against this problem. ducing a Quality Family History.
What is the last record you have for each female?
Have you been looking unsuccessfully for a tomb-
stone, death certificate, and other record under the Humor
surname of your paternal ancestor? You won't find
them if she remarried. Mr. Schwartz was the oldest of seven children, so he
had to quit school and work to help support his
Have You Used Up the Leftovers? younger brothers and sisters. He never learned to
Leftovers are records that aren't assigned to an indi- read, so when he married and started a checking ac-
vidual in a whole-family construction. If you re- count, he signed his checks simply "XX".
searched properly and collected information on all
persons of the surname in the time and locality, you Eventually he started his own business, which imme-
usually have leftovers. diately prospered.
Some leftovers are understandable. For example, if He soon was a very rich man. One day, he got a call
you have three Samuel Smiths in your family from his bank.
(father, son, and nephew), all of whom were be-
tween 25 and 50 in 1841, and you have a record for "Mr. Schwartz," said the banker, "I need to ask you
a Samuel Smith who served on a jury that year, you about this check. We weren't sure you had really
will not be able to determine which Samuel the re- signed it. All these years you've been signing your
cord should be assigned to. checks 'XX', but we just got one that was signed with
On the other hand, if the 1841 record is a marriage,
but according to your family construction all three Mr. Schwartz answered, "No problem, my friend.
men have wives at the time, then you have a prob- It's just that since I've become so wealthy, my wife
lem. A BIG problem. Dig in and research this, even thought I ought to have a middle name."
if no Samuel is in your ancestral line. Resolving
this may rearrange the family and realign your own
ancestral lines as a result.
There is another type of leftover to watch for--a po-
tentially important person such as a beneficiary in a
will or a sponsor to a baptism whom you did not
identify. They may hold the key to answers you
PAFINDER February 2004
Identifying Digital Photos the font style, family, and size before inserting the
Print the resulting image on the top part of a sheet of
On all photos in my genealogy collection, I scan the
paper, and distribute copies to each person you want
photos and use Jasc Paint Shop Pro (other software
to query. With a few copies of the original image
will work) to add text to the bottom of each digital
handy, the grayed, numbered image makes it easy
photo. I add names, dates, locations, what's written
for friends and family members to respond to your
on the back of the photo, or anything pertinent on
request for help.
the bottom of the photo. You can change the text
color to white on dark photos. Or if you have a lot Bruce King
of typing, I make a rectangular box, fill it with New Milford, CT
white paint, and type the words in the box. For fam-
ily reunion photos, I scan the photo, put the generic Photocopy the Picture
text at the bottom (1944 Riggs family reunion), then In large group pictures, you can take a photocopy of
save it (Riggs 1944 reunion.jpg). The I type the the picture and using the copy, number each of the
name of the person right on the chest of the person, people. Then, on a separate piece of paper, write all
or above the person, and once all the people are the numbers, filling in all names and information
named, save the file with a new but similar name about the photograph as you know it. Then let other
(Riggs 1944 reunion names.jpg). That way if I find family or friends fill in the blanks. This works great
new information and some of the names are wrong, for me, and I keep the copy with my family tree fo-
I can start over with the no-names photo, and add lio. You could also make copies to send to distant
the names again. relatives for their input.
Thanks, Mike Hollis
Look at Angles for Faint Writing
Identify People by Number I have had a set of photos of my "Great-great-great"
Here's a variant of Sally Kramer's Quick Tip in the relatives for over five years. I did not know who they
July 3rd Ancestry Daily News in which she de- were. There appeared to be nothing on the back or
scribed a method of identifying the subjects in a the front identifying them. Last weekend I was going
group photo. through some old papers and these 1880s photos
slipped out of the cover I store them in. By a trick of
Instead of drawing heads by hand, you can use a
the angle of light I saw on the back of one "Great-
photo-editor to adjust the image whose subjects you
Grandmother Cashel, Grandmother Cashel and a
want to identify. I use Adobe Photoshop Elements,
Great-Aunt" written very faintly in pencil by my fa-
v. 2 (APE2), but the following directions are suffi-
ther's sister, Aunt Doris. I looked at the backs of the
ciently general that they ought to work in other
three other photos at the same angle to the light and
lo and behold—there were the names of those peo-
Save a copy of the original photo. If it's a color pho- ple! The lesson here is, do not always look at photos
tograph, remove the color from it. (In APE2, choose straight on. Try various angles of light; you may be
Enhance > Adjust Color > Remove Color.) Then surprised and delighted (as I was) by what you find.
decrease the contrast and increase the brightness un-
til the photo consists of light, flat, gray tones. (In
APE2, choose Enhance > Adjust Brightness/
Contrast > Brightness/Contrast...)
Then use a Text tool (the Type tool in APE2) to su-
perimpose a black number on each individual in the (Continued on page 8)
gray image. (You may have to set the text color, and
PAFINDER February 2004
(Continued from page 7) Unusual Given Name has Ancient
Family Reunion Photo Pre-Identified History
At your next family reunion, before you take a
group photo give each person an 8 1/2 x 11 piece of I have noted on some mailing lists mention of the
stiff white paper. Each paper is numbered with a given name of Benoni. This is an unusual name, and
large black number from 1 to whatever number of some people think that it is an Italian family name
people there are present. Have each member write and the child is named after his or her mother's fam-
their full name, address, phone, email, and which ily and then indicate that they have been unable to
branch/part of the family they are related to. Ar- find a family with that surname.
range everyone for the photo with everyone holding
their number just under their face. Make sure the Actually Benoni is a Biblical name that means "son
photographer can clearly see each number. Take a of my sorrow."
shot. Then have everyone lower their number and It was the original name given to the younger son of
take another shot in the same position. Afterward, the patriarch Jacob. Rachel, his mother, in her dying
you can easily match up faces with names and you agony named the child Benoni.
have the information for a master list of all who at- (Genesis 35:18).
tended the reunion.
Janet Wolf This name was often given in American Colonial
times to a child whose mother died in childbirth or
Enlarge Photos whose father died before the child was born. In fact,
For those who have family photos which are small, this is an important clue. When one sees the name
especially group photos, take them to your local of- Benoni, look to see what sad event might have
fice supply store, or where you get you photos caused the child to be given that name. It might have
done, and have an enlargement made. been the death of a grandparent, a parent or a sibling.
Sometime back I took a photo from a family reun- By Carl Hommel
ion and had it blown up, and once enlarged I was firstname.lastname@example.org
surprised to find my great grandmother, grand-
mother, and even my father as a small boy, in the
photo. The small size of the original had kept me
(and my older relatives) from identifying people.
The enlargement made it possible to identify nearly
all of them.
Archaic Medical Terms
For archaic medical terms found in genealogy or
death certificates try this web page:
I-8 3 The Susquehanna Trails Genealogy Club was established in
M t. Ro se Ave . 1991 to aid genealogist who use Personal Ancestral File
E xit 18
Ho llywo od Dr. software. Meetings are held on the first Thursday of each
Church month at the LDS Church, 2101 Hollywood Drive, York
PA, near the Queensgate Shopping Center. Starting time is
Que e n S t. at 7 PM and we try to end around 9PM. The first part of the
meeting covers club business and is kept as short as possi-
S p ring woo d Rd . ble. The second part of the meeting is informational in na-
M cDonald's ture. Information from other historical societies, local/ state/
Owe n Dr. federal archives, or other sources, that may be of interest to
the membership, is presented. The third part of the meeting
E xit 16B Quee n S t. is our monthly program. Programs are presented that are of
interest to novice through advanced genealogists. Programs
can cover anything from basic researching techniques,
sources of information, genealogical based computer soft-
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints ware and tools, and basic through advanced features of PAF.
2100 Hollywood Drive Come to a meeting and enjoy the experience! STGC is a
York, PA 17405 non-profit organization and is not affiliated with the Church
Library Phone # (717) 846-4539 of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
Visitors are welcome and encouraged to attend the meetings!
EXECUTIVE BOARD APPOINTED POSITIONS
President - Jackson Sonneborn (717) 757-2331 Historian - Dorothy Gagermeier (717) 292-0377
Vice President - Barb Fisher (717) 292-5531 Editor - Mark Gagermeier (717) 292-0377
Treasurer - Malcolm Schetky (717) 755-8574
Secretary - Jerry Ellis (717) 258-4075
email@example.com Visit our website: www.rootsweb.com/~pastgc/index.html
Membership Application for STGC
Computer type (check one) PC/Operating System______________ Macintash
What computer genealogy program(s) do you use? Version
Membership Type and Dues: (check one)
Individual $18.00 Corresponding $8.00 (newsletter only)
Family $25.00 (two or more people at the same address - only one copy of PAFINDER will be mailed)
Payment is due with application form. Please make checks payable to STGC.
First time member Renewal (due by January meeting)
Please mail completed forms with payment to: Malcolm Schetky, 155 Emig St. Hallam, PA 17406
PUBLICATION OF THE
GENEALOGY CLUB, YORK, PA
3960 Biesecker Road
Thomasville, PA 17364-9611