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									    VOLUME X NUMBER 5

  A :RI

     *SWAPO Intensifies
      The Struggle
     oInside Zimbabwe
      Refugee Camp
     *Maputo Conference
     oApartheid In Sport
*o   e#






   SOUTHERN                                 CONTENTS
   AFRICA           JUNE/JULY 1977
                  VOLUME X NUMBER 5

                                                                       11   2   INSIDE
                                                      A                         SWAPO
Our Collective:
Barbara Barnes Carole Benglesdorf Wes                                           THE STRUGGLE
Cohen Paddy Colligan Jennifer Davis
Michael   Davis     Charlie   Ebel   Mimi                     U.N./Raynor
Edmunds Carolyn Fleuhr-Lobban Nancy
                                             4   NO NEW BALL GAME
Gear    Lynn Goodwin      Peggy Halsey
                                                 APARTHEID IN SPORT CONTINUES
Janet Hooper Paul Irish Tami Hultman
Alan Isaacman Bill Johnston Marci Kerr       7   SPECIAL REPORTS
Richard Knight Reed Kramer Richard                7 ZIMBABWE REFUGEE CAMP
Leonard      Richard Lobban      Edgar               AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT
Lockwood     Bill Minter   Ruth Minter            9 MAPUTO CONFERENCE
Antonio Neves     Dipankar Ray Susan                 NO U.S. TRIUMPH
Rogers Christine Root Karen Rothmeyer       10   SOUTH AFRICA
Mike Shuster Janet Siskind Pat Smith             10       ONE YEAR AFTER SOWETO: VORSTER INTRANSIGENT
Louise Stack     Jinni Stroman    John           12       SQUATTERS FIGHT BACK
Stroman    Stephanie Urdang    Roberta
Washington Jim Weikart Leiza Zadel
                                            13   U.S.
                                                 13       YOUNG CALMING WHITE FEARS
                                                 14       MONDALE AND VORSTER IN VIENNA
                                                 19       U.S. SEEKS ROLE AS PEACE-MAKER
                                                 20       U.S. CORPORATIONS-IRON FIRST IN VELVET GLOVE
                                            15   OVERVIEW
Southern Africa is published monthly,
except for July-August, when bi-monthly,
                                            16   NEWS BRIEFS
by the Southern Africa Committee, 156       18   UPDATE
Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10010.     21   MOZAMBIQUE
                                                 21       EDUCATION   FOR THE PEOPLE
Subscriptions: Individual (domestic and
foreign)/$8.00; Institutional/$18.00; Air   24   ZAIRE
mail: Africa, Asia, Europe/$20.50; South         24       A LONG STRUGGLE AHEAD
and Central America/$17.50.                 25   ANGOLA
                                                 25       FACTIONAL REVOLT SUPPRESSED
                                                 26       FIGHTING ON MANY FRONTS
                                            26   NAMIBIA
                                                 26       SETTLEMENT PLOYS CONTINUE
Southern Africa is available on microfilm        27       TERRORISM TRIALS
through University Microfilm, Xerox Com          28       FOREIGN CORPORATIONS EXPLOIT URANIUM
pany, Ann Arbor, Mich. 68206, and is             29       SWAPO NATIONAL CONFERENCE MEETS IN WINDHOEK
listed in the Alternative Press Index.      29   ZIMBABWE
                                                 29       RHODESIAN SETTLEMENT: ONE MORE TIME
                                                 30       REGIME IN TROUBLE
                                            31   BOOK REVIEWS
                                                 31       WHAT HAPPENED IN ANGOLA?
Cover photo: Primary School in              33   ACTION NEWS NOTES
Katutura, Namibia.

                                                                            JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA   1
       SWAPO public meeting in Otjiwarongo-      August, 1976

                       by Marilyn Biman

   At a primary school in Katutura-the        Local political parties and organizations   sprayed on the walls with aerosol paint.
black "location" outside Windhoek            have ceased to maintain their indepen        Evidence is also found along the roads,
fifty children run towards one of the        dent status and have amalgamated with        where "SWAPO" is fingered in the dust
national executive members of the             SWAPO in one fashion or another. The        that covers road signs. It is found in the
South West Africa People's Organiza          Rehoboth Volksparty disbanded last           discussion groups currently being
tion as he is snapping their picture.        August and elected to join SWAPO. In         formed throughout the country, groups
Some have their arms raised in the           November four important groups               that are serving as vehicles for local
clenched fist salute, others are giving      together they represent 80% of the           mobilization on a mass scale by educat
the V-sign for victory or have their         37,000 people of southern Namaland           ing people about the struggle for libera
thumbs up. Smiles, laughter, and ex          followed suit. So did the Namibia Afri       tion.
citement are all captured in the result      can People's Democratic Organization            SWAPO public meetings occur almost
ing photo.                                   (NAPDO). Throughout the country one          every week throughout the country.
   It is a brief moment, and yet this        hears more and more people saying,           There is always a heavy BOSS (Bureau
moment makes the most striking state         "I'm not a Nama or an Ovambo. I'm a          of State Security) presence at these
ment about what is happening inside          Namibian," and "One Namibia, one             meetings, complete with cameras and
Namibia. Everywhere-in schools, in           nation."                                     tape recorders to have a full record that
the factories, in the mines, on the             Namibian students joined their coun       may later be used in court. Conse
reserves-the people know SWAPO               terparts in South Africa in a sustained      quently, if SWAPO publicly and direct
and give it their visible support. That is   boycott of their end-of-year examina         ly supports the armed struggle now
the message conveyed by these chil           tions in protest against the Bantu edu       being waged in the northern sections of
dren. As in Mozambique, so in Namibia,       cation system. Workers have also been        Namibia, its members will be tried
the children have become the Continua        mobilizing through educational cam           under the Terrorism Act.
dores, the continuers of the Revolution.     paigns in the work place and through            But the organization's message comes
   There has been a consolidation of         the formation of broad-based unions.         across clearly and succinctly, as can be
resistance to the South African occupa          But increased repression and the          seen in the words of Pastor Hendrik
tion regime in Namibia in the last year.     increased intimidation of the Namibian       Witbooi, "captain" of one of the south
                                             people have inevitably accompanied           ern Nama groups that recently joined
                                             these developments.                          SWAPO: "The people in the south are
Marilyn Biman is a member of the                                                          like the venemous snake that lives
Toronto Committee for the Liberation         Resistance Symbols                           there. If you leave it alone, it won't
of Southern Africa (TCLSAC), who has           Symbols of resistance are found            bother you. But if you bother it, then it
recently returned from a trip through        underground in the mines, where              strikes. And whose fault is it that the
Southern Africa and Namibia.                 "SWAPO" and "Power" are often                snake bites you?"

Repression                                  out all the whites. We want to make the     the total population) live on reserves or
  Many Namibians have been arrested         white man aware of the inevitability of     bantustans in the poorest third of the
and charged under the Terrorism Act or      change and that if he wants to stay in      country and chronic food shortages
any of a number of other types of           the country, he must have a change of       resulting from an arid climate and
repressive legislation and in May South     attitude."                                  sandy soils force Africans off the land
Africa carried out the execution of a                                                   and into employment in the white
                                            SWAPO's Work                                owned and white-controlled farms and
SWAPO militant, accused of terrorism.
  It was to escape such repression that       Two of the main components of             mines in the central and southern parts
                                            SWAPO's activity inside Namibia are         of the country. Namibia's 99,000 whites
some 300 students fled the country
                                            the mobilization of the masses and          are in full control of two-thirds of the
following the boycott of examinations
that Namibian students launched last        political education. Organizationally,      country, which includess all fertile
                                            SWAPO is tackling this through the          farmland, mines, ports, urban areas,
November. The action was initially          SWAPO Youth League, the SWAPO
intended in support of similar protests                                                 and transport facilities.
                                            Elders' Council, and the SWAPO
against Bantu education in Soweto, the      Womens' Council. Women I talked to            Mining is the foundation of the Nami
South African township where African
                                            saw their struggle as taking place on       bian economy, and most foreign-owned
resistance broke out last June. But the
boycott in Namibia rapidly became a
protest against the entire apartheid
   Within three weeks the boycott had
spread throughout the territory, involv
ing over 1,000 students. The regime
responded harshly and quickly. While
some fled into Botswana, Zambia, and
Angola, many others were brought in
for "questioning." One student is known
to have died from the beatings he
received from the police.

No Phony Independence
   The increased resistance of the Nami
bian people is partly in response to
South African Prime Minister John
Vorster's attempts to implement his
neocolonialist plans for Namibia through
the Turnhalle constitutional talks. It is
becoming increasingly clear to Nami
bians that the main concern of the
ruling party is to usher in an "indepen
dence" that continues to protect its
position of power and privilege at the
expense of the majority of the popula
tion, and the population is determined
to resist this ploy.
   Accordingly, inside Namibia the
South African regime has been mount
ing a massive propaganda campaign to
promote Turnhalle. There is a vehe                                Living conditions in a Namibian reserve.
ment anti-SWAPO campaign that in
cludes outright intimidation and terror     two levels: against the oppressive apar     corporations make their wealth in this
ism as well as such tactics as pamphlets    theid system that dominates both men        sector. Work conditions at the mines
that show SWAPO President Sam               and women, and against traditional          are similar to work conditions every
Nujoma and SWAPO National Chair             ideas and training that maintain the        where in Namibia: low wages and
man Daniel Tjongarero with lion's           idea that women cannot be leaders. In       inadequate food for the workers and
heads, devouring little children.           addition, many men and women say            high profits for the companies. As one
   But contrary to the image of Namibia     that the liberation of women must           mine worker commented: "If there's
reflected by the South African press        happen simultaneously with the national     any apartheid in Namibia, it's on the
axnd western media-an image of a            liberation of the country.                  mines. These firms are here only to
racial holocaust with black killing            It is this mass mobilization and grow    steal. These firms are the ones that pay
white-one hears a different interpreta      ing political consciousness that presents   to keep apartheid here. These firms
tion from the Namibians themselves.         the regime with its biggest threat. It is   explain to us why countries like the
"We don't fight against black faces or      clear that the occupying South African      United States use the veto. But we
white faces. We fight against a system,"    regime will not give up without a fight.    know what they are doing. They are the
says a 17-year-old student from                                                         oppressors!"
Khomasdal, the "coloured" location out      Hanging On
side Windhoek. A worker from Consoli           Namibia is an important strategic        Workers Organize
dated Diamond Mines in southwest            buffer zone for South Africa. Namibia is       Even with oppressive living and
Namibia told me: "This country is for all   also an important source of natural         working conditions, there has been a
Namibians-black and white. And we           resources, particularly base metals and,    long history of resistance by Namibian
want all to live together peacefully. We    more recently, uranium. Labor is cheap,     workers, a resistance which culminated
are not fighting for the freedom to cast    Namibia's 852,000 blacks (almost 90% of     in the massive strike of 1971-1972, when
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        3
almost 20,000 contract laborers in               There are presently 50,000 South             South Africa is now attempting to
mines, factories, and fisheries walked        African troops in the north. In the past     "win" the population through providing
off their jobs and returned to their          year they have created a "free-fire"         bread and cookies, and offering people
homes in the north. Such resistance is        zone along the northern border between       rides in their military vehicles. But it is
still in evidence today, in the study         Namibia and Angola. Villages have been       all too little and much too late. Even
groups that have been forming at the          uprooted, crops burned, livestock con        now, the regime locates its smaller
work place and in a broad-based Nami          fiscated and slaughtered, and Mexican        bases mainly in the heavily populated
bian Workers Union that is just beginn        Sisal, a poisonous plant that causes         areas, and then only near hospitals,
ing to emerge.                                sores that never heal, has been planted      schools, or churches because it knows
   While SWAPO is consolidating its           in large areas. Yet despite this cam         SWAPO will not attack the people.
support in the south, PLAN (the Peo           paign of terror, SWAPO soldiers con
ple's Liberation Army of Namibia, the         tinue to expand their activities.               SWAPO now has semi-liberated areas
armed wing of SWAPO) has been esca               Guerrillas warface depends for its        in the north, where South African
lating the armed struggle in the north.       success on the full support of the local     troops are reluctant to go without air
Here, as in the south, SWAPO has the          population. One SWAPO member,                cover. The struggle is not yet won in
support of the majority of the popula         when asked by a reporter how many            Namibia, but the courage and the mili
tion. The white-owned Windhoek Ad             soldiers SWAPO has, answered: "The           tancy of its people is reflected in the
vertiser has reported that SWAPO's            Namibian people, we regard them as           names becoming common for newborn
support in Ovamboland alone is as high        the soldiers of SWAPO." The Namibian         children-names such as Tukondgeni
as 70%, and it is clearly still growing.      people seem to agree with that view.         Let Us Fight.                        El

by Trevor Richards                             play white "national" teams. But al         ministrators, both inside South Africa
                                               though African teams could play white       and in the West. "The race barriers
    When the National Party came to           teams at a national level, people of         came down in Sport" and "Now it's
 power in South Africa in 1948 it set          different races could never play to         multi-racial sport in South Africa" were
 about rigidly enforcing apartheid in all      gether on the same teams or in the          typical headline claims.
 spheres of life, including sport. Over       same club. This new policy, of allowing         However, experience has taught that
 the years, in an effort to roll back South   teams from one racial group to play          the fine print of these announcements
 Africa's increasing isolation in interna     teams from another racial group, was         completely changes the meaning con
 tional sport, which developed as a form      called "multi-national sport."               veyed by the sensational headlines.
 of protest against the regime's policy,         As long ago as 1956, black sportsmen        In fact, South Africa's sports policy
 the government's sports policy has           clearly rejected the apartheid multi         has not changed even though expensive
 undergone changes. These changes,            national sport policies. Non-racial sports   and skilled public relations exercises by
 however, have always proved to be            bodies were organized by blacks com          the Republic's then Minister of Sport,
 more apparent than real.                     mitted to the Olympic principles over        Dr. Piet Koornhof, and his government
    Under apartheid, Africans must join       the past two decades. Despite increas        colleagues have tried to disguise this
African clubs, Coloureds join Coloured        ing government intimidation, harrass         fact.
clubs and Asians, Asian clubs. These          ment, and prosecution these non-racial         Dr. Koornhofs September 23, 1976,
racial clubs each belong to their own         bodies have continued to grow. At the        statement was composed of a series of
"national" bodies. Thus, in South Africa      present time there are non-racial sports     specific points. The first clause states
there are often as many as four "nation       bodies in every major sport.                 that taking into account the applicable
al" bodies. Thus, in South Africa there          They come together under the um           (apartheid) regulations, "the interests
are often as many as four "national"          brella of the non-racial South African       of South Africa and all its peoples in
bodies for each sport-one for each of         Council on Sport. These non-racial           respect of sport can best be served in
the government's major racial classifi        bodies are open to whites, although          terms of the sportsmen and women
cations.                                      very few whites have had the courage         belonging to their own clubs and that
Some Earlier Alterations                      to join them. As usual, in South Africa,     each should control, arrange, and man
                                              those who defy apartheid are faced with      age its own sporting fixtures." This is
   In 1971, government policy was             a web of segregation-enforcing laws,
altered to allow, "under special circum                                                    no more than a restatement of the
                                              and it is much more comfortable for          government's belief in apartheid sport.
stances," African "national" teams to
                                              whites to avoid such confrontations.         The second clause states that "councils
                                                                                           of the different race groups should
                                              The New 'Changes'                            consult together or have such contact as
 Trevor Richards is national chairperson         Last September, in response to white      would advance the interests of the sport
 of Halt All Racist Tours (HART), a           South Africa's exclusion from interna        concerned." Again, this is a restatement
position he has held since 1969. HART         tional athletics and soccer bodies, the      of the status-quo. No mention is made
is a major New Zealand anti-apartheid         South African government announced           here, or elsewhere, of the non-racial
 organizationand has organized success        new "changes" in its sports policy.          sports bodies, and their role in the
ful campaigns against sports contacts.        Immediately there was an ocean of            scheme of things-all references are to
with South Africa.                            praise from politicians and sports ad-       the apartheid bodies.
  The consultation the statement refers
                                                                         r11 NEW
                                                                               iO0K   TIMES TIiU-S.AY   11A.y
to is vague and non-explicit, and en                                                                              2. 1171

sures that the present inter-group con
sultations will proceed on the same
basis as in the past, i.e., when the white
body feels that there is some benefit
and advantage in such consultations
taking place. In a number of sports,
including rugby, cricket, soccer, tennis,
athletics and golf, the black and
coloured sports bodies have developed a
subservient stooge relationship with the
white body.

 Still 'Multi-Racial'
   Clause three says that "inter-group
 competition in respect of individual
 types of sport be allowed at all levels,
 should the controlling bodies so decide."
 Put simply, this means when all the
 apartheid sports bodies in each sport
 agree, sportsmen from the white body
 will be able to compete against sports
 men from the black and coloured bodies.
 This is not non-racial sport, but multi
 national sport. The first clause makes it
 clear that the seperate race bodies must
 remain, so there will only be competi
tion between the different groups when
 decided by all concerned, which basi
cally means when the whites want it.
"At club level" simply represents an
extension of the multi-national policy.
   The fourth clause is a further rein
forcement of the first clause, and spells
out very clearly that the basis of sport
in South Africa continues to be apar
theid sport. It states that "in respect of
team sports, the councils or committees
of each racial group should arrange
their own leagues or programs within
the racial group." Within a week of
making the announcement, Dr. Koorn
hof had removed the word "should"
some sports administrators mistakenly
thought it meant should as opposed to
   The fifth clause reads "where mutu
ally agreed, councils or committees
may, in consultation with the Minister
of Sport, arrange leagues or matches
enabling teams from different racial
groups to compete." There is nothing
                                                                                                       Takea goodlookat these picturesofSouth Afrcsas at play.
new in multi-national matches, and                                                           Thesewere some theevents on our 1976
                                                                                                                of                        sport calendar Bythe -y. all
                                                                                             these  menareeligibleto represent     SouthAfrica because our
again, the Minister has the final say as                                                      teams are selectedon merit - andmerlt only.
to when, at what level, and how fre                                                                    Consider
                                                                                                                  now the factthat South Africahas been barredfrom the
                                                                                                                   other ioernoional sportorganisations the pretext
quently they will be allowed.                                                                that ic practices discrmination in sport
                                                                                                       We know bettr Sportis simpy sed by some asameansto try
                                                                                             and change SouthAfrica's            'hile Russia
                                                                                                                         polaiics,             Uganda. Cuba. Angola
                                                                                             and many others- some ofiwhoseinternalpolltcs othersmayalsonot
Seperate Arrangements                                                                             -
                                                                                               kilk pariclpate with impunty
                                                                                                        Ifyou feel. hke us.that pofiticshasno placeinsport. let us hear
   The sixth clause is again a restate                                                       from you. Orbettertsil. write to the
                                                                                              Internaional OlympicCommitteee
ment of past policy, and states that                                                         Ch        0, Vldy, 1007 usa...
                                                                                                       Dteau oice your protost                        fo  a in es
"each racial group should arrange its                                                        Swiserland, to
                                                                                                                                     ........       insport
own sporting relationships with other
countries or sports bodies in accordance
with its own wishes and each should
award its own colors and badges to           This ad was placed in major US newspapers at the beginning of this year by the
participants." Coloured and African          Committee for Fairness in Sport, a South African propaganda organization. The
teams have toured overseas in the past       Committee was formed in 1973 and among its sponsors are Wilf Isaacs, a business
(e.g. the Proteas, the team of the           man, who owns a cricket team; Gert Wolmarans, Chairman of CFS and former sports
coloureds only S.A. rugby federation,        editor of the pro-government paper Die Vaderland, and millionaire Louis Luyt. Mr.
toured Britain a few years ago). There       Luyt has financed such ads in Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the US.
                                                                                               JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA                                             5
is nothing new, or desirable, in the                                                     was no less forthcoming. He stated
awarding of seperate colors and badges.                                                  flatly that the players had acted "in
   The seventh clause said "that if and                                                  defiance of both the government's
when invited or agreed, teams compris                                                    sports policy and the law."
ing players from all racial groupings can                                                   Over the past six months, the non
represent South Africa irrespective of                                                   racial sports bodies have made dramatic
whether the type of sport is an Olympic                                                  gains. The blacks-only South African
 sport or not, and that such participants                                                Rugby Board, which had been affiliated
can be awarded badges or colors which,                                                   on a subservient basis to the national
if so desired, can incorporate the Na                                                    white body for a number of years,
tional flag or the colors of the National                                                announced that it will break its relation
flag." Again, there is nothing new in                                                    ship with the whites and join the
 South Africa being represented by                                                       non-racial South African Rugby Union.
 "mixed" teams, although it certainly is a                                               Recently, several clubs from the col
 rarity. A "mixed" gymnast team toured                                                   oureds-only South African Rugby Fed.
West Germany in 1975. However, these                                                     eration, another stooge body, have left
teams are not chosen by open merit                                                       and joined S.A.R.U., making it the
competition, but from within each                                                        second biggest rugby board in a country
seperate racial group. The non-racial                                                    where rugby is the national sport. In
sports bodies have condemned all                                                         soccer the non-racial body is the largest
aspects of these teams, and will not                                                     and most powerful of all the soccer
allow any of their members to put                                                        groups.
themselves forward for selection.                                                           Even amongst those blacks who still
   The eighth and final clause states                                                    belong to apartheid sports bodies in
"that attendance at sporting fixtures be                                                 creased opposition to the sports policies
arranged by the controlling bodies."                                                     of the whites is emerging. Last year
Again, a repeat of the status-quo.                                                       members of the blacks-only tennis union
   Non-racial sport is not mentioned                                                     refused to compete in the South African
once in the statement. Nowhere in the                                                    Tennis Open because they regarded
statement is there even a suggestion                                                     their participation as a ploy of the
that multi-racial sport will be allowed.                                                 whites to convince the outside world
The whole direction of the stated move           Sports spectators still segregated.     that changes were really coming to
is away from multi-racial sport. The                                                     South African sport. In athletics the
statement reinforces and in several           S.A. Council of Sport had been given       black- and coloured-only bodies are
areas extends the apartheid multi                                                        weak, and only have any strength in the
                                              associate membership of the Supreme
national sports policy of the South           Council for Sport in Africa, the conti
                                                                                         townships where they are organized by
African government. It should be                                                         either the mining companies or mem
                                              nental sports body representing all
stressed and re-emphasized that the           member states of the O.A.U. Non-racial     bers of the Bantu Affairs Department.
announcement breaks no new ground in                                                        African opposition to apartheid ath
                                              sports administrator Morgan Naidoo
terms of policy directions. If anything,      was arrested on a trumped-up charge of     letics is such that 80% of the executives
the statement signals an intensification      breaking one of the provisions of his
                                                                                         of the African-only athletics union is
and reinforcement of apartheid in sport.                                                 white-Africans refuse to administer
                                              banning order, and general harrassment
Since September 23, there has been no         increased.
                                                                                         racist athletics. But the whites hang on
further policy statement on sport. It is         Since the September announcement        determinedly, knowing that they have
the September statement that is the           the government and the whites-only         many friends overseas.
operable sports policy of the Republic.       sports administrators have provided
                                              ample evidence that nothing          has   US Complicity
Policy Rejected                               changed. It was reported, for example,        In the US, the Lawn Tennis Associa
                                              on October 9 by The Guardianthat "The
  The non-racial bodies have completely                                                  tion firmly supports the International
                                              South African government has made it
rejected the September statement.             crystal clear that its new sports policy
                                                                                         Lawn Tennis Federation and refuses to
Norman Middleton, until recently Presi                                                   expel the whites-only South African
                                              does not allow for mixed rugby clubs."
dent of the non-racial South African          The newspaper quoted a Department of
                                                                                         Lawn Tennis Union from membership.
Council on Sport, said of the policy "It is                                              The ILTF is one of the last major sports
                                              Sport and Recreation spokesman as
not acceptable. It is based on racialism.     saying that "it is against the govern
                                                                                         bodies of which South Africa is still a
Multi-national games-that is race                                                        member. Being a member enables the
                                              ment policy to allow integrated teams."
groups playing other race groups-has          The spokesman, Mr. E.J. Pienaar, said
                                                                                         country to compete in both the Davis
been rejected by the non-racial sports                                                   Cup and the Federation Cup. The US in
                                              the government's new sports policy was
organizations, and the whole world.                                                      fact was host to the Federation Cup last
                                              nothing more than an extension of the
South Africa continues to be out of           old policy down to club level.
                                                                                         year in Philadelphia. Anti-apartheid
step ...   My organization will continue                                                 demonstrators poured oil on the courts
to press for complete isolation of South                                                 and marched outside the gates at the
Africa until all of us, irrespective of       No Compromise                              Davis Cup match in California in April.
color, or race, can have integrated sport        Later in the month, eight white            The single most important contribu
from club level upwards. We will not          rugby players, including Springboks        tion the US could make to the interna
compromise on this."                          trialist Cheeky Watson, played a game      tional struggle against apartheid in
   The South African government pays          with blacks from the Kwaru club. White     sport would be to actively push for the
attention to the non-racial bodies only       response was immediate and uncompro        expulsion of South Africa from the
when it wants to harrass, persecute or        mising. Dr. Craven, President of the       ILTF. Until the US takes that stand, it
victimize them. This process was quick        whites-only South African Rugby Board      is viewed internationally and by South
ened when it was announced at the             stated that the players had "violated      Africa as a good friend of racism in
beginning of the year that the non-racial     state and rugby laws." Dr. Koornhof        sport.                                  0

 Special Reports
  Mounting harrassment by Rhodesian         i.W
security forces has led thousands of
Zimbabweans to flee to neighboring
Botswana and Mozambique and both
these countries have also been sub
jected to repeated raids by the Smith
army. Botswana government officials
report that 800 new refugees are arriv
ing each week, while some 12,000 have
already been airlifted to safer areas in
  In early June the Mozambique De
partment of Defense reported that in
the previous 17 months Rhodesian
troops had killed 1000 people and
wounded more than 300 in 120 raids into
Mozambique territory; the June raid on
Mapai highlighted the continuing Rho
desian aggression, against both the
Zimbabwe people and the countries that      k
give them aid.
  In late February, Carol Collins, a
member of the Chicago Committee for
African Liberation, visited two refugee
camps in Mozambique: Nyazonia, a
camp abandoned after a Rhodesian
attack in August 1976 in which 640
people were killed, and Doiroi, cur-                                     "
rently home to about 11,000 refugees,
including 2000 survivors of the Nya
zonia massacre. The following is a
report of her visit to Doiroi.

   The first view of a refugee camp is
always a shock-the incredible number
of people in tattered clothing, the few
resources, the overwhelming sense of
vulnerability of people suddenly and
catastrophically uprooted from the fami
liar-from their land, houses, few small
possessions, from their villages and
friends. At Doiroi, two other things
were also striking, the determination
with which many people had set about                                                                                      Tempo
building new lives, and the deep scars     In 1976, Smith's troops massacred over 600 people at the Nyazonia refugee camp in
that still marked many who had fled        Mozambique.
from the Smith regime's campaign of
terror.                                    survivors of the massacre of Nyazonia.       untary reaction to strange faces is
   Among the first people I saw in the     In the most severe cases it seems to be      especially severe. To stand in this ward
camp were several young women, who         complicated by partial paralysis. There      and to experience the involuntary reac
had what seemed like involuntary           appears to be no physical origin of the      tions of terror of these patients on
whooping hiccups. In some cases the        symptoms, but speculation is that it         seeing me is an experience I hope never
hiccuping accelerated in intensity when    may be a hysteric reaction to the horror     to relive.
the young women saw my strange face.       its victims were subjected to before            This was my introduction to Doiroi
   No one knew the origin of this          leaving their homes.                         refugee camp, a small city of 11,000 set
phenomenon. It has occurred only in           I visited a special ward which has        in a hollow near a river. The camp itself
young women or older girls, particu        been set apart for the most seriously        has little in the way of resources except
larly those who have recently escaped      affected cases, in which partial paralysis   what can be gleaned from the surround
from Rhodesia, and in some of the          is involved or where the spastic, invol-     ing countryside. For housing, there are
                                                                                        JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA         7
crude huts made of branches and                 Another refugee described how the           Illness is rampant. In addition to the
thatch. Young men and women sleep            women in his village, coming home from      hiccuping disease, there is another
dormitory style, 200 to 400 crowded          the fields a few minutes after the          ailment at Doiroi which residents call
into each hut. Nearby are smaller huts       curfew time of 6 p.m. set by the            the "hurricane" after a popular dance in
for the few families that escaped            government, were met by security            Zimbabwe. Those striken with it walk
together. With between 50 and 80 new         forces who fired on them, leaving many      with an erratic, springing/shaking gait
refugees arriving weekly, even these         dead and most of the rest wounded.          in its early stages; later they often fall
rough accomodations cannot accomodate          Despite the immense hardships they        down paralyzed and moaning. There is
everyone: camp officials told me that        have experienced and still face, the        speculation that the "hurricane" may be
about 4,000 people were sleeping out         spirit among the refugees is good, and      a result of contamination of food sup
side on the ground without even a            many are eager to join in the liberation    plies by herbicides used by Rhodesian
blanket to cover them as the winter          struggle. The head of Doiroi camp told      security forces in areas where guerrillas
months drew on.                              me how, returning from a trip, he had       are suspected of operating. It seems to
                                             found his wife and mother dead and all      affect the nervous system and there is
                                             the huts in the village burned. "At first   no known cure at this time.
Little Food                                  you want to kill yourself," he said.           People have a low resistance to dis
    Food is a major problem. One is          Instead, he decided to leave for Mozam
                                                                                         ease as a result of their inadequate diet.
struck by the sight of long lines of quiet   bique in the hope of joining the Zim        550 people had gangrenous infections.
people waiting to receive their one meal     babwe People's Army. As ZIPA was not        Few people had shoes, so feet are
for the day-hot porridge made of corn        operating from the refugee camps he         infested by hookworm; malaria, bil
meal cooked in big metal drums. For an       had turned his energies to working          harzia, tuberculosis, diarrhea, anaemia
American, it is hard to realize what this    where he was. I met several of the          and a host of other diseases were
means: no sugar, no vegetables, nothing      camp's "responsavels" (people respon        common.
but corn meal.                               sible for specific tasks), and they
   Even this sometimes runs danger           showed me the work that was being              Medical supplies include very few
ously low. As I was about to leave the       done.                                       antibiotics, which is why wounds or
camp a truck arrived with bags of corn                                                   scratches have become such a problem.
meal. That morning, the camp had had                                                     There was a shortage of even simply
only four bags of meal left. What food       Building Schools                            things like iodine, bandages and gauze,
there is comes from the United Nations          Wadzani Tichiona, a young woman          lactogen for new-born babies, vitamin
and from the Mozambican government.          with a warm smile and serious manner        supplements for the 38 pregnant women
FRELIMO used to supply fresh fruits,         was in charge of the elementary school      in the camp, and insecticides to keep
but the massive floods of last February      program in the camp. Although the           conditions more hygienic and bearable.
wiped out whole crops in the central         camp was barely 7 months old, classes          The United Nations refugee agency
south region leaving one out of every 20     had already been set up for 1260            (UNHCR) and FRELIMO have both
Mozambicans homeless, and the govern         primary school children, who were           worked hard to provide what there is,
ment can no longer afford to do this.        being taught by 9 teachers. They had        and there is a close and strong working
The Zimbabweans did plant an exten           built classrooms, huts with rough wood      relationship between Zimbabweans and
sive garden, but this was washed away        benches and desks; schoolwork and           the FRELIMO representatives in the
in the floods, and only the maize fields     charts hang from the rafters. Wadzani       camp. But the Mozambican government
still survived.                              thought that if additional supplies         itself has very few reserves, so that
   Yet as hard as conditions are in the      became available they would be able to      quantities of everything are limited,
camp, Zimbabweans keep coming, be            establish secondary school classes,         and transport problems have further
cause what they leave behind is so much      because there were several teachers         complicated the task of supplying the
worse.                                       among the refugees, able and willing to     camps.
                                             teach.                                         Responding to my question about
                                                I visited classes in mathematics, crea   useful forms of assistance one camp
Smith's Terror Tactics                       tive writing, science, history and geo
   Several people at the camp told me                                                    official said: "We really could use about
                                             graphy. There are currently four            anything people can send us. We could
that in Rhodesian operational areas          streams of grade 1, one stream each for     use clothing and things like tennis
people were being driven into concen         grades 2 through 4, and two streams in      shoes; we need blankets for the cool
tration camps where there was not            grades 5 and 6. English is the major        nights." I was told of the need for
enough food and no schools. They were        language of instruction, though Shona is    text-books, notebooks, chalk; the need
forced to abandon their cattle, often        sometimes used, as in beginning math        for medical items like anti-biotics, band
their only economic resource or form of      classes. Several classes were meeting       ages and vitamins was obvious.
wealth. Refugees described the areas         under trees for lack of classroom space,       What struck me most, over and over
along the border as now totally de           the students eager in their responses,      again in conversations, was the strong
serted.                                      alert and attentive, although few had       desire of the people in the camp to do
   Students told me of returning from        exercise books. The energy I sensed in      things themselves. "If we could only
boarding schools to find their parents in    this part of the camp was truly amaz        have our own sewing machine and cloth,
concentration camps and their home           ing: teachers dressed as poorly as their
villages burned to the ground. One told                                                  then we could be self-sufficient and
                                             pupils sparkled in their interactions       make clothing for ourselves," one man
me how soldiers came to his home and         with the students, gently pushing them      told me.
beat three of his teenage brothers who,      to speak out more.
since they were not in school or in the                                                     The camp had many problems, and
army, were suspected of sympathizing                                                      needs many things, but I came away
with the guerrillas. Two were taken by       Poor Medical Facilities                     greatly impressed by the energy and
the Rhodesian soldiers and not seen            Of all the problems facing Doiroi,        commitment of the refugees and their
again. His parents were later taken to       none was more affecting than the lack of    'responsavels,' who have already done
court. The student left soon afterward       adequate medical facilities. Currently      much with very little, and who are so
in fear of his life and doesn't know what    these extend to only a few huts and a       seriously beginning to create a new life
has become of them.                          handful of drugs.                           out of the destruction of the old.      0]

by Paul Irish                               tory, with its culmination in the election       Machel answered the western myths
                                            of Jimmy Carter as President. Stories         surrounding the struggles in Namibia
    The UN sponsored conference, in         of his own meeting with the President         and Zimbabwe with devastating sim
 support of Zimbabwean and Namibian         of FRELIMO, Eduardo Mondlane in               pliticy:
 liberation, held in Maputo May 16-21,      1961, and Carter's childhood association            We are told that in Namibia the
 was unique in UN annals. It was held in    with a black AME bishop were given as            main stumbling block to a negotiated
 Mozambique, a country only recently        evidence of the Administration's identi         solution is the existence of only one
 liberated by armed struggle, and ses       fication with African interests.                nationalist movement-SWAPO -and
 sions met just sixty miles from the           Young suggested that the Zimbab              we are told that one movement alone
 South African border. "Right under the     wean people use "economic weapons"              cannot claim to represent the inter
 nose of the enemy" was the way             and buy nothing but food and medicine           ests of all the people. Simultaneously
 SWAPO President Sam Nujoma charac          for six months to force a settlement. He        we are told that in Zimbabwe the lack
 terised it.                                barely mentioned Namibia, and his only          of unity creates an obstacle to the
                                            reference to US policy dismissed the            discussions, the difficulty is the exist
    Also unusual was the strong US and                                                      ence of many nationalist move
 western presence. These countries have     effectiveness of economic or arms sanc          ments ....    The only obstacle to
 traditionally shunned such events. This    tions against South Africa, and ap              national independence is colonialism.
 time the US, at any rate, seemed bent      pealed for trust in US efforts to achieve       Machel rejected attempts by the
 on using the Conference, and Amabas        negotiated settlements with the white        white settlers and their puppets in
 sador Andrew Young, both in and out of     regimes.                                     Zimbabwe and Namibia to be involved
 the sessions, engaged in a type of          Ignoring History                            in negotiations as "third parties." This
 personal diplomacy aimed at gaining                                                     violated the experience of all colonial
 support for the Carter policies.               His speech was not well received.
                                             African delegates flatly rejected the       countries which had proved that effec
    Young's arrival in Maputo was part of                                                tive negotiations must take place only
 a well-orchestrated US diplomatic ma        analogies between the civil rights move
                                             ment and the African liberation strug       between the colonial power and the
 neuver, which began May 18 with a                                                       patriotic forces. Machel attacked the
 statement by President Carter that the      gle. Leslie 0. Harriman, Nigerian UN
                                             Ambassador and Chairman of the UN           hypocrisy of countries which allow 'pri
 US was prepared to take "all steps                                                      vate' corporations to break sanctions
 short of war" to achieve an acceptable      Committee Against Apartheid, said,
                                             "Ten years ago if I had heard the speech    and individual citizens to serve as
 solution in Namibia. The next day Vice                                                  mercenaries.
 President Walter Mondale met with           in Atlanta I would have found it inter
                                             esting. Now I find it irritating. We are       Robert Mugabe delivered a stirring
 South African Prime Minister John                                                       rejection of direct US participation in
 Vorster in Vienna, while, simultane         not talking about improving the lot of
                                             Africans. We are talking about libera       any constitutional conference on Zim
 ously, Young delivered his first major                                                  babwe. He noted the experience of
 speech on southern African before a UN      tion."
                                                Zimbabwean leaders were particu          Vietnam, where the US, after partici
 forum.                                                                                  pating with the French in the Geneva
    Carter's statement created expecta       larly angered by the way in which
                                             Young's boycott proposal ignored Zim        accords of 1955, then assumed the
 tions among delegates that Young                                                        colonial war on its own.
 might announce concrete policies in         babwean history. Robert Mugabe, a
                                             leader of the Patriotic Front, noted that      After extensive discussions, in which
 support of African liberation, including                                                western delegates sought to further
 acceptance of a mandatory arms em           Zimbabweans had "used strikes, sit-ins,
                                             and passive resistance. We tried these      soften the relatively moderate language
 bargo of South Africa. Instead Young                                                    proposed, a Maputo Declaration and
 urged the pursuit of a "silent, non         methods and our people got shot....
                                             we came to the conclusion that what         Program of Action were adopted by
 violent revolution." Both in private                                                    consensus. But the US, France, West
 sessions with the leaders of SWAPO          remained to be tried was the armed
                                             struggle."                                  Germany, Britain and Canada disassoci
 and the Patriotic Front, and in his                                                     ated themselves from the call for a
public address, Young presented no              Sensing that his approach had
                                            flopped, but still defending his belief in   mandatory arms embargo of South
discernible shift in established US                                                      Africa and a cut-off of all postal and
policy.                                     the efficacy of western intervention,
                                            Young told reporters somewhat con            tele-communications links with Rho
A Sermon on Civil Rights                     temptuously that "the UN deals in           desia.
   Laying aside his prepared text,          word-power; the United States deals in          At the end of the Conference,
Young delivered what amounted to a          real power."                                 FRELIMO invited the delegates to a
thirty-minute sermon, consisting large                                                   rally held in a sports arena filled with
                                            Armed Struggle                               thousands of Mozambicans. Symbol
ly of personalized anecdotes.
   Weaving a tale around the civil rights         Despite the presence of the west       ically, the rally brought the message of
and anti-war movements, Watergate           ern powers, the conference provided a        the conference to Mozambique. Joaquim
and its aftermath, Young claimed a          strong display of the determination of       Chissano, the Foreign Minister, spoke
"revolution" in recent American his         the front-line states, backed by much of     and led his people in songs and chants.
                                            the world, to support the armed strug        Representatives from around the world
                                            gle. Mozambique President Samora             witnessed a moving display of the deep
Paul Irish is a member of the Southern      Machel, Jamaican Prime Minister              bonds of solidarity that exist between
Africa collective. He attended the          Michael Manley and former Swedish            the Mozambique people and the men
Maputo Conference on behalf of the          Prime Minister Olof Palme, all spoke on      and women continuing the struggle to
American Committee on Africa.               this theme.                                  liberate all of southern Africa.         []
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA           9
             lat              Almfia


                                                     ATERI                                  _ETO

                                                 ousinig most blackf can hope for.                               "
       Under ADartheid this is the best hc

   It has been a year since the uprising      tion of the apartheid system to its          rising rents, education, transport,
of South African blacks began in Soweto       fullest extent, via the rapid extension of   taxes, influx control, and pass laws.
and other townships near the centers of       bantustan structures. Thus, despite          And resistance among Africans, al
white-controlled industry and govern          appeals from various white groups, he        though less reported than a year ago,
ment in South Africa. In the interim,         has refused to make concessions on           has continued.
South Africa's 4 million whites have          issues such as black trade-union rights,
                                              job reservations, permanent rights of           To South Africa's most influential
engaged in heated debate on the coun                                                       industrialists, these are signs that time
try's economic, political, defense, and       residence for urban Africans, or the
                                              pass laws-one of the most constantly         is, indeed, "growing short." "Basically,"
foreign affairs policies. The outcome of
                                              provocative of the regime's laws.            George Palmer, former editor of South
this debate could well have significant                                                    Africa's Financial Mail says of the
impact on the future strategies of South      The Alternatives
Africa's minority rule regime.                                                             Afrikaner business community, "it's a
                                                 Broadly, South Africa's reform            feeling that their investments are at
   Pressure for the reforms thought to        minded whites view the future of the         risk." It is to protect such investments
be sufficient to "win over" the country's     country in terms of two options. They        that South African capital has launched
19 million blacks has increased consider      see the conciliation of black resistance     its drive for appeasement. Industrialists
ably in the past year. But the leaders of     as the only alternative to armed revolu      are instituting reforms in the economic
this important pressure group-South           tion. They are convinced that if the         sector independent of governmental
Africa's industrialists, its liberal politi   ruling Nationalist Party continues in        policy. And they are joining liberal
cians, its government-appointed black         flexibly on its present course, violent      whites in the arena of minority-rule
officials-have been confronted with a         confrontation    with the oppressed          politics in pressing for the reform-or
regime that has pressed inexorably            majority of South Africans is inevitable.    even the abolition of formal aspects of
toward the further development of the         Unemployment has been reaching stag          the apartheid system. To compound the
apartheid system. According to Prime          gering levels among Africans-up to           urgency, the South African economy
Minister Vorster the current crisis is        20% according to some estimates, as          has continued to decline to its lowest
the result of too little, not too much,       compared with 1% among whites.               point since the world depression of the
apartheid.                                    There are chronic problems of hunger         1930s. This, too, is in great measure
  What is required, his Nationalist           facing blacks-together with critical         due to the problems arising from mass
Party argues, is the swift implementa         issues relating to citizenship, housing,     resistance to minority rule.
African 'Middle Class'                                                                      interests from within our own
   For South Africa's verligte (enlight                                                     borders."'
ened, outward-turning) industrialists                                                       Widespread black unemployment has
and politicians, the crisis took on its                                                  provoked other proposals from the
current urgency only when black resist                                                   alarmed business community. There
ance, that surfaced so visibly after June                                                have been reports of starvation in both
16, started to take its toll in economic                                                 urban and African areas. In Pietmaritz
terms. The South African economy is                                                      burg starving Africans recently broke
closely connected to the industrial eco                                                  into a white home in search of food.
nomies of Europe and the US, and                                                         Such developments have led to wide
suffers the same cycles of growth and                                                    spread calls for a major overhaul in the
slump, though lagging slightly behind                                                    national unemployment insurance pro
its larger partners. Thus even before                                                    gram-for which most unemployed
June 16, the economy continued to                                                        blacks do not qualify. But the govern
suffer the effects of the mid-1970s crisis                                               ment has shown no sign of reforming
in Western economies. And some South                                                     the system.
African executives had already recog
nized that the foreign investment that is
vital to the economy's well-being would      Harry Oppenheimer, chairman of South        Political Opposition
be easier to attract if the face of          Africa's biggest corporation, Anglo
                                                                                            South African business interests have
apartheid were somehow to be lifted.         American, seeking to save his millions.     also entered into minority-rule politics
   But the uprisings in Soweto and                                                       in force. There have been attempts at
                                                                                         political alliances between Afrikaners
elsewhere have proven to be a turning
point in their outlook. According to a                                                   and English-speaking liberals among
                                             Deflecting Resistance                       the country's parliamentary whites,
recent report in London's Financial
                                                A spate of such concessions were         based primarily on the various factions'
Times, "the inflow of long-term private                                                  common opposition to apartheid. The
capital [for South Africa last year]         proposed in the aftermath of Soweto,
                                             ranging from the provision of electricity   aim seems to be either to "redesign"
was roughly matched by a net outflow
                                             in Soweto to the right to buy houses        apartheid through reforms or to "re
of short-term private capital; and the                                                   place it" it with a system under a
figure for the total net inflow of capital   on a restricted basis, in ghetto areas
                                             to even more radical proposals such as      different name altogether. One such
would only have been a fraction of                                                       proposal calls for the creation of semi
what it was but for the large official       the lifting of some pass law controls.
                                                                                         autonomous cantons, as in Switzerland,
drawings on the IMF and foreign banks,           And through various chambers of         and could include some role for blacks
deliberately made to bolster foreign         commerce and other organizations,           living outside tribal areas.
reserves. Clearly there are limits to        South African industrialists began to
such drawings, and sooner or later they      develop tactics designed to deflect fur        The proposal, put forth in the form of
must be paid back." Thus businessmen         ther African resistance. Such long-time     a suggestion by South African Educa
were confronted by the urgent need to        advocates of these measures as Harry        tion Minister Pieter G. Koornhof, is the
develop policies that would restart the      F. Oppenheimer of the Anglo-American        result of a year's discussion by a cabinet
flow of funds quickly.                       Corp. of South Africa have been joined      committee. It calls for "plural democra
                                             recently by increasing numbers of vocal     cies" in which whites, Indians, and
   Equally clear last year was the causal    Afrikaner industrialists. In mid-Novem      Coloured would be substantially self
relationship between the faltering eco       ber of last year Oppenheimer convened       governing, with equal represenation in
nomy and the resistance of South Afri                                                    "an over-arching institution" that would
                                             such a group to launch a multimillion
can blacks to the political and economic     dollar fund to improve the living condi     control national affairs. Blacks in the
conditions that have traditionally made      tions of urban blacks.                      nine homelands would be in a separate
the country an attractive investment. It         Oppenheimer's project is typical of     category.
is now reported that South Africa may        the many now under consideration in
be approaching the "risk" category in                                                       Koornhof, taking care not to commit
                                             the white business community. Perhaps       the government to the plan, noted in a
the Western investment classification        not surprisingly, a spokesman for the
used to rate potential capital invest                                                    speech in Capetown that there is some
                                             group said at the time that the plan was    feeling in the country that blacks per
ments and loans.
                                             being worked out "in a spirit of assist     manently living outside the homelands
                                             ance to the Government and not as a         should also be given a direct role in the
   The country's verligte politicians and    confrontation with it." Moreover, very
businessmen see the solution to this                                                     new structure. "Politics, especially in
                                             few of the plans being proposed make        these times are unpredictable, and only
crisis in the cultivation of an African      mention of recognizing black trade
"middle class" that would cut across                                                     time will prove whether this line of
                                             unions or any other form of organization    thought is feasible or not," Koornhof
racial lines and serve to give limited,      for African industrial workers. These
controlled power to a small section of                                                   said.
                                             efforts have, rather, a very specific aim      Supporters of the canton proposal
the African population. These blacks         in mind, as the following quotation from
would then have a vested interest in the                                                 apparently see in the plan the advan
                                             the August 27, 1976 Financial Mail          tage of government under the accepted
survival of the white-controlled capital     suggests:
ist economy. And as early concessions                                                    rubric of the Swiss cantonal system.
                                                   The starting point of the Transvaal   But the federalist proposal keeps a
to Soweto's "mayor," T.J. Makhoya,              Chamber of Industries' eminently
and the Soweto Urban Bantu Council                                                       place for the black bantustans that are
                                                sensible proposals is that the black
have demonstrated, these officials              'middle class' must be won over to       the end result of apartheid. Now they
would function much as did black lead                                                    would be called by some other name and
                                                the side of the whites in order to
ers in the indirect rule structure once         contain 'on a long-term basis the        apartheid, to the relief of the verligtes,
employed in the British colonies. This is       irresponsible economic and political     would be gone-if only in name.
now a major part of white, non-govern           ambitions of those blacks who are           At the same time, the Progressive
mental strategy.                                influenced against their own real        Reform Party, to which a great number
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA          11
of liberal whites adhere, has been           little positive response from the Vorster    be gained internationally by conforming
attempting to form an alliance with          government. The recent appointment of        to the West's drift toward the abandon
"moderate" black leaders who hold gov        former Washington and UN ambassador          ment of the Smith regime in Salisbury
ernment-appointed        positions.  This    Pik Botha as Foreign Minister-desig          in favor of a Western-installed and
touchy exercise has apparently been          nate has been taken in liberal circles as    supported black government. But "kith
responsible for the failure to date of       an encouraging sign of a shift in Pre        and-kin" sentiment within the National
a political alliance between the PRP and     toria's policy. Botha, like Vorster in the   ist constituency has prevented any such
the Afrikaners, but building bridges to      earlier years of his administration, has     deviation from Pretoria's current
moderate blacks is seen as priority          advocated mild reform of the apartheid       stance-to disregard international sanc
number one by the more sophisticated         system and detente with black Africa on      tions against Rhodesia and to remain
of the whites. "Credibility with the         the foreign policy front.                    the Smith regime's economic lifeline.
blacks," the FinancialMail has noted in         But Botha's appointment is a rare            This same pattern is clearly in evi
this regard, "is the one thing the PRP       positive sign, for South Africa's verligte   dence in South Africa's domestic mat
cannot afford to jeopardize at this          camp, among many negative indications        ters, as well. The administration in
critical point in South Africa's political   of the direction the Vorster government      Pretoria has shown no signs of com
history." However, a recent visitor          is taking. Increasingly, Vorster is hav      promising over the intensification of
from South Africa has told Southern          ing to defend his right flank against the    apartheid-even though to do so would,
Africa informally that there is a real                                                    as liberal politicians have argued, make
                                             criticism of the verkrampte (conserva
possibility of "an alliance among the        tive) farmers and white workers that         Western support of the minority more
Afrikaners, the PRP, and some black                                                       feasible. Rather than reform, Pretoria
                                             make up the majority of his constitu
leaders."                                                                                 has apparently chosen the stand-fast
                                             ents. The South African position on
Vorster - We Will Not Be Moved               Rhodesia is a good illustration of this.     option that liberals have been desperate
   But so far these efforts have met with    Officials in Pretoria clearly see much to    to avoid.                             El

   "The reasonwhy people are squatting       squatters in the greater Cape Town           * migration from desperately poor rural
is not only a result of the government's     area. The number is higher now, and          areas to urban areas with jobs but no
apartheid laws. It is also because the       African squatters are thought to exceed      available housing, particularly for peo
bosses are only interested in their          coloured.                                    ple wishing to live together as families
profits and because the authorities act         Contradictions between the apartheid      rather than with the adult(s) in "single"
in the interests of the rich and do not      system and the profit-oriented capitalist    person barracks and the children in the
answer to the people."                       economy have produced this large body        reserves.
     -from an editorial in Forward/          of people whose labor is essential to
       Voorwaarts/Phambili (a squatter       Cape production yet who must provide         Squatters Unify to Win
      newspaper), November 1976              their own minimal housing under diffi        Concessions on Housing
                                             cult and illegal conditions. The waiting        Shifting the guilt to the victims,
   There have been squatters in the          period for city council housing is now       Minister of Community Development
Cape Town area of South Africa for           seven years and most Africans would          Marais Steyn in an Assembly debate on
over 100 years. Today homeless people        not be eligible for such housing anyway,     an appropriations bill in February 1977,
in greater Cape Town number at least         as they are either classified as migra       emphasized that as "people who are law
400,000, many of them Africans who are       tory laborers-who are supposed to live       breaking," his government felt no need
in the area illegally, having come to the    in "single" men or women hostels, or         to consult with the squatters over
town to seek work, although their            are working in the area illegally.           resolving their housing problem. The
passes do not allow them to be there                                                      thought of "consulting" with African or
officially.                                     In addition to the laws which only        coloured squatters would probably
                                             allow most Africans into Cape urban          never have entered the discussion ex
No Right To Be Anywhere                      areas as migratory workers, people are       cept for the important developments
   Squatters are homeless South Afri         also drawn to squatting by a number of       taking place within squatter comniuni
cans, coloured and African, often with       other circumstances, the most common         ties around the country. The squatters
out legal permission to be anywhere at       of which include:                            are organizing themselves.
all in their country. They live in hap        * eviction from council housing because        Many squatter communities now have
hazard collections of makeshift dwell        of inability to continue to pay rent due     committees whose purposes are to
ings constructed of wood, corrugated         to unemployment (African unemploy            organize the communities to meet com
iron sheeting, cardboard, and other          ment is now estimated at 2 million) and      munity needs for sanitation, education,
scrap building material, poor shelter        the steeply rising cost of living, esti      and order, and to defend the settle
from the fierce storms and extremes of       mated at 100% annually for the lowest        ments from government attack. The
temperature that are part of the Cape's      income families, according to the Gar        organizing tasks are made particularly
none-too-gentle climate. Usually sanita      ment Worker, a South African union           difficult by the extremely precarious
tion facilities are confined to those the    newspaper, in July 1976.                     economic situation of squatters and the
very poor inhabitants of these com           * eviction from areas reserved under         legal vulnerability of both settlements
munities can provide for themselves.         the Group Areas Act for occupancy by a       and residents. Nonetheless some vic
Electricity, streets, water taps, refuse     different ethnic group.                      tories have been won.
collection, schools, health centers,         * marriage or other reasons for estab
shops, and other basic amenities are         lishment of a new household before           Bulldozing School An Official Mistake
rarely available. A 1974 government          council housing is available (from the         In the squatter community of Cross
survey estimated 200,000 coloured            seven year list).                            roads the people had gotten together to
                                                                                               Joint statement from the Squat
                                                                                            ters' Advisory Group, the Modder
                                                                                            dam Road Squatters' Committee
                                                                                            and the Lourdes Farm Squatters'

                                                                                               "Squatters do not ask to be
                                                                                            squatters. They would much rather
                                                                                            have proper houses at a reasonable
                                                                                               "They cannot afford prestige pro
                                                                                           jects like Mitchell's Plain and there
                                                                                            are insufficient-with the result
                                                                                           that there is squatting."
                                                                                              Three weeks ago it had been
                                                                                           announced that the Government
                                                                           -7-             would undertake no housing pro
                                                                                           jects for squatters.
                                                                                              "All along the authorities have
                            /                                                              refused to provide squatter areas
                                                                                           with basic interim facilities such as
                                                                                           water, toiltets, refuse removal and
                           Squatters Camp-    Cape Town                                       "Now the authorities are at
                                                                                           tempting to solve the squatter
                                                                                           problem by demolishing shacks and
build and staff a two-room school for        anti-government       protests     which
250 children of the settlement. The                                                        applying influx control."
                                             touched all of South Africa's urban              "We would be ignorant to think
Bantu Administration came in and bull        areas.                                        that the authorities will stop with
dozed it on the grounds that it was an          In early February 1977 the South           the Werkgenot, Unibel and Mod
illegal building and had to be demol         African Ministry of Community Devel           derdam Road areas. We call for
ished. As the squatters paper Forward        opment served notice on the residents         solidarity and unity among squat
(January 1977) explained: "Now when          of the Modderdam Squatters Camp,              ters."
the men came home they became very           home to some 10,000 people, that it
angry. They said 'there is a limit to        intended to bulldoze their homes in a
what people can take.'                       week. Modderdam squatters, many vet
   "The authorities realized they were       erans of earlier bulldozings, decided to
pushing the people too far. The people       fight the decision. Large meetings took      versus those who would make some
were angry and stood together. The           place in the settlement. Appeals to          concessions to save the system. At the
authorities feared this."                    other camps were made to see that the        end of February, the squatters at Mod
   Just five days later the government       attack on Modderdam was a threat to          derdam were still occupying their
apologized for having mistakenly bull        all squatters. Two busloads of residents     dwellings.
dozed the school and rebuilt it on the       went to try to meet with the State             How enduring and widespread these
same site. This was June 9, 1976, seven      President and the Prime Minister at          victories will be in a system as pro
days before the Soweto uprising 1000         their church one Sunday. There were          foundly anti-human as that of South
miles away which set off months of           appeals to the press and to liberal          Africa depends of course on many
popular rebellion. Press accounts of the     community leaders and politicians. A         factors. Squatters organizing to defend
post-Soweto rebellion occasionally refer     controversy raged in the white press         their interests is one which now must
to participation by squatters in the         along the traditional lines of hardliners    be taken into account.               El

YOUNG                           -   CALMING WHITE FEARS
   UN Ambassador Andrew Young car            ing powers of capitalism, asserting that     even more optimistic about the future of
ried the new Carter policies to both the     "capitalism has the power to tame white      South Africa than most of the business
UN-sponsored conference in Maputo,           fears of one man one vote." He said that     men.
May 16-21 [see Special Reports] and to       if Blacks were given a bigger economic         Young met with the current president
South Africa on May 21 and 22.               stake it would not be long before            of the Soweto Students Representative
   In Johannesburg he addressed a            enough Blacks would vote to retain the       Council, Sechaba Montsitsi, and an
group of South African businessmen at        system. And he suggested that some           other member of the council at the
the invitation of Harry Oppenheimer,         African Marxist states would turn to         home of Harry Oppenheimer. He said
chairman of the giant Anglo-American         capitalism "because it works best."          he was moved by the meeting and that
Corporation. Speaking to the business           In commenting on these remarks the        the Council was pursuing change "in a
men he ardently proclaimed the reform-       Rand Daily Mail noted that Young was         non-violent, religious context ...I can
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        13
only say God bless them."                   to take up arms to get its freedom from
   Also at Oppenheimer's house he met       Britain, was to go around advising
with students and faculty from the          people against it." But the theme he
University of Witswatersrand.         He    continually pushed was non-violent boy
urged white students to stay in the         cott. He said that in the civil rights
country to work for change (noting a        movement they used to say that whites
recent survey that found that 65% of        would only listen to "votes and dollars.
the white students wanted to leave          Since we ddin't have the votes, we used
South Africa). He said he "respected        dollars."
Afrikaner stubornness... which in              The American embassy made two              The International Monetary Fund has
cludes a certain respect for Blacks."       attempts to persuade representatives of    recently granted an $85 million credit
                                            the Black Peoples Convention (BPC) to      loan to Zaire to help stabilize its ailing
   On May 22 he met with a group of         attend the meeting, but was rebuffed.      economy. Currently that nation owes $3
some 250 Blacks and Whites from all         The BPC issued a statement prior to        billion in foreign debts, including $500
over the country, invited by the US         Young's visit saying that they would not   million in commercial bank loans.
embassy, at the office of the US Infor      meet with Young until he met with             In November, 1976, Zaire was bailed
mation Service in Johannesburg.             South Africa's "true Black leaders...      out of international bankruptcy by the
   The only Bantustan leader invited        Our leaders are all either in jail,        world's principal commercial banks,
was Chief Gatsha Buthelezi, currently       banned, or outside South Africa            with Citibank acting as head of a
trying to establish his credibility as      people like Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki and     consortium to reschedule Zaire's debt
sufficiently militant for the black com     Sobukwe. If Black leaders are to be        by raising $250 million more in interna
munity and sufficiently moderate for        consulted, then it must be these           tional money markets.
the whites. As he embraced Young at         people."                                      The World Bank is scheduled to
the meeting he shouted out "Amandla"           A footnote to Young's southern Africa   convene a summer meeting of potential
(Power).                                    trip, dedicated to promoting a "new"       donor nations to solicit new develop
   At the meeting Young urged black         US policy, is the refusal in April of      ment funds for Zaire.
South Africans to use economic boycotts     Steve Biko, banned honorary president         In return for the IMF loan, Zaire has
to press for change. Like his prescrip      of the BPC, to accept a State Depart       promised to institute austerity meas
tion for Zimbabwe, this ignores the fifty   ment offer to visit the US because,        ures that will cut down the high rate of
years of non-violent black struggle and     according to BPC leaders, although the     inflation. But these measures may also
protest before the Sharpeville massa        US claimed to have changed its attitude    cut social services and deepen the
cre. Young did admit that "It would be      to South Africa, it had not yet demon      desperate situation of the rural and
quite hypocritical if the US, which had     strated this change.                  El   urban working population.

                                                                                          Vice President Walter Mondale sug
                                                                                       gested that the US removed a moral
                               7blemish                                                          as the result of his two-day
                                                                                       meeting with South African Prime Min
                                                                                       ister Vorster in Vienna on May 19 and
                                                                                       20. Mondale, stressing the link between
     4 >                                                                               the US experience with its civil rights
                                                                                       movement and its current southern
                                                                                       Africa policy, informed Vorster that the
                                                                                       Carter administration would press for
                                                                                       reforms in South Africa. This provided
                                                                                       some contrast to the Kissinger policy of
                                                                                       refraining from criticizing apartheid
                                                                                       while seeking settlements in Namibia
                                                                                       and Zimbabwe with South African
                                                                                          However, the new morally "clean"
                                                                                       policy is not being backed by any
                                                                                       measures that would put pressure on
                                                                                       the South African regime. A State
                                                                                       Department official said prior to the
                                                                                       meeting that, "We have a policy but we
                                                                                       have no program."
                                                                                          While southern Africa clearly has
                                                                                       high priority for Carter, the approach
                                                                                       favored is still one of reform by the
                                                                                       white rulers at the top, assisted by
                                                                                       selected Blacks, in opposition to the
                                                                                       radical programs of the African libera
                                                                                       tion movements.
                       Mondale and Vorster meet in Vienna.                                                  continued on page 19

   Perhaps because the struggle for liberation is so     intention of sharing political power on the basis of
difficult, people at all levels are constantly turning   one person one vote, with black men and women.
away from that struggle, seeking easy solutions,         Despite continuing US investment, so long pro
hoping to avoid the cost and pain of fundamental         claimed the lever whereby the US would induce
confrontation with the rulers of society and their       change in South Africa, repression escalates daily.
henchmen.                                                Even economically blacks find themselves worse off
                                                         every day, as unemployment mounts, driving the
   Much of the current optimism about the Carter         weakest, those without trade unions and bargaining
Administration's "new" Africa policy seems to flow       rights, out of their tenuously held jobs.
from such a desire to avoid confrontation with what
                                                            It is time to abandon the optimism and the good
are, after all, very powerful and threatening forces.
                                                         guys theory of history. Much hope has been placed in
It is far more pleasant to accept a job on the inside,   the honesty and sincerity of the Administration's
or to dream about reaching the ear of an old friend      Ambassador to the United Nations, Andrew Young.
now in power, than to continue the role of "outsider,"   He may well be a sincere man, who hates racism and
challenging the very basis of the society.               wants to see the end of black humiliation in South
   But even the most optimistic of Africa policy         Africa. But his vision is shaped by his belief in his
watchers should, by now, if they have any honesty,       own society. How else could he have been appointed
find the rosy glow growing dim. We have been             Ambassador of his country?
promised something new, but all that has changed is        Young said some remarkable things when he went
the rhetoric in Washington-in Africa everything is       to South Africa-remarkable because of the openness
still the same-except where victories have been won      with which he identified himself with the dominant
by the determined struggle of the people.                powers in the US. Addressing white businessmen in
                                                         Johannesburg he said "change can come through the
  A glance through the pages of this month's             market place. And it can be non-violent, productive,
magazine makes the point clearly. The western press      and humane. . . . When blacks became a part of the
heralds a "victory" against Vorster in the Namibian      free market system in the South (of the US), not only
settlement, masterminded by what some irreverent         did the system not explode, but blacks had very
wit has termed the gang of five (Britain, France,        much at stake in it. And when you've got a stake in a
West Germany, the US and Canada). Yet the                society you don't vote to change it, outlaw it, or
agreement with Vorster leaves unanswered many            overthrow it."
fundamental SWAPO demands, such as full UN
control of elections, and the withdrawal of South           He stressed that it was in areas of the world where
                                                         there was "a free market system" that most was
African troops before such elections. In fact the
settlement seems deliberately designed to undermine      being done to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, heal
SWAPO, at home and internationally, making it look       the sick, and "where there's very little said about
"unreasonable" and intransigent in the face of what      revolution and where there's no ideology at all of
                                                         change. And yet, in fact, in those free market
are constantly described as major concessions by the
                                                         countries more social change, more revolution is in
South Africans.
                                                         fact taking place." Young held out the hope to the
  Similarly, there has been no progress in the           Johannesburg businessmen that they had as a
implementing of the US commitment to support             potential market not just the 16 million black citizens
majority rule in Zimbabwe. Those who argued late in      in South Africa, but "you're talking essentially about
1976 that Smith was only going to Geneva, had only       the southern half of the continent that is a potential
agreed to Kissinger's plan, as a stalling device which   market for a system which could relate to it as
would enable him to strengthen his army, seem            brothers."
unfortunately to have been proven correct. Rho
                                                            Surely there could be no clearer explanation of the
desia's vicious onslaughts on Mozambique indicate no
                                                         considerations that still dominate Washington's policy
willingness on its part to surrender power.
                                                         in Africa. At stake are US $$$$ not African freedom
  In South Africa, one year after Soweto, the white      on independence. So long as that is true there should
regime has made it perfectly clear that it has no        be no more talk about a "new" US policy for Africa.

                                                                              JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA       15
                                            lawyer or any family member; thus no         Foundation, and were held in Johannes
                                            accurate list of political arrests exists.   burg, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth,
                                                                                         Durban, Bloemfontein and Pretoria.
                                              The State also continues to harass
                                            political prisoners, even while they are
                                            in jail. Nelson Mandela was recently
                                            charged with insubordination, and
                                            white South African poet Breyten Brey
                                            tenbach, convicted of terrorism last
                                            year, is now being charged with threat
                                            ening state security and attempted              "Concerned"     businessmen       have
                                            escape.                                      formed the Urban Foundation to
                                                                                         "improve the quality of life in the urban
                                                                                         areas." The initial fund raising goal of
                                                                                         the Foundation is $28,750,000. The
                                                                                         Foundation has already received large
                                                                                         contributions from Anglo-American
                                                                                         Corporation, De Beers, and the Oppen
                                                                                         heimer family, who have given a com
                                               South Africa is the subject of a draft    bined total of $5,750,000. Mobil Oil is
                                            of a book by a former British colonial       also reported to have made a large
                                            officer which was among papers stolen        grant.
         AFRICA is mounting, as is gov      from the country home of former Prime
         RESISTANCE       IN     SOUTH
         ernment repression. In an effort   Minister Harold Wilson. The book, by
         to prevent widespread protests     Gerald Sparrow, is known to name five
commemorating the Soweto uprising in        millionaires as the anonymous promot
June 1976, the police have sought out       ers of the Club of Ten, the South
known student and other leaders, and        African propaganda organization. Mr.
detained them. In late May Winnie           Sparrow was once the club's campaign            The Bolivan government is seeking to
Mandela, political activist in her own      manager. He is thought to have given         attract up to 150,000 white farmers
right, and wife of imprisoned African       the names of the club's bankers to the       from Southern Africa and Europe to
National Congress leader Nelson Man         Foreign Office.                              settle in that country. According to
dela, was banished from Johannesburg,          The manuscript had been sent to           some reports West Germany has
to an isolated township outside a town      Wilson in light of the former official's     offered to provide $150 million to help
called Brandfort, in the Orange Free        expressed concern over South African         settle white farmers in Latin America.
State-the most conservative of the          interference in British politics. A year     Bolivia has also reportedly approached
four provinces in South Africa. In          ago Wilson said that South Africa was        the World Bank, the Inter-American
addition to being banished Ms. Mandela      involved in attempts to discredit the        Development Bank and several private
is also banned-which means that noth        Liberal Party and its then leader,
                                            Jeremy Thorpe.                               organizations for financial aid for the
ing she says may be published, and that                                                  scheme. According to the plan, at least
she may never attend a gathering                                                         30,000 whites from Rhodesia, Namibia
which, by South African definition                                                       and South Africa would settle in
means any collection of more than two                                                    Bolivia. Only 15 per cent of Bolivia's
people. Immediately aftrer her banning                                                   population of 5.9 million is white, but
Ms. Mandela was arrested for breaking                                                    they dominate the government and
her ban. Her crime? Being visited at the                                                 economy.
same time by two of her sisters.
                                               The number of women to be trained
   Two prominent members of the Black       at the Army College in George is to be
                                            doubled, to about 300, beginning next
Peoples Convention (BPC) were recent        year. The women will be posted to units
ly banned, one of them was also banned      made up of national service conscripts.
to a remote rural settlement. Mxolise
                                            Besides the women, the Army College
Mvovo, who had taken on the role of         will train 45 officers, about 30 candidate      In an analysis of South Africa's cur
Acting President of BPC while Presi
                                            officers, about 160 commandos and            rent financial situation, the Financial
dent Hlaku Rachidi was in detention                                                      Mail predicts that new rail tariffs and
under the Terrorism Act has himself         about 150 permanent force members.
                                                                                         increased excise and sales taxes are
been banned. Dr. Mamphela Ramphele,                                                      likely to increase unemployment and
Executive Director of the BPC in the                                                     accelerate the slide in private sector
Eastern Cape, and head of a community                           0
                                                                                         spending. Noting that such levies repre
clinic near Kingwilliamstown has been                                                    sent the opposite of the stimulation
banished. She had attended the post
mortem of student leader Mapetla                                                         usually prescribed for an ailing eco
                                                                                         nomy, the analysis points out that in
Mohapi, who died while in security             "Terrorism in Commerce and Indus          this case, the government has no choice:
police custody in 1976, and was then        try" was the subject of six recent           while government spending rose by 8%
detained herself. Eventually released       conferences held in South Africa. For        last year (compared with a 2% rise in
she has now been banished.                  the fee of $40 delegates hear experts on     the private spetor) and while R1 of
                                            such subjects as riots, strikes, intimida    goods and services must be imported
  The arrests are endless; many people      tion, violence, sabotage, psychological      for every R4 spent in the country,
have just disappeared-law in South          terrorism and fire precautions. The          foreign earnings and investment have
Africa does not require that a detained     conferences were organized by the Na         been running at rates far lower than
person be allowed to contact either a       tional Development and Management            expected-owing in large measure to
the country's political problems. Thus,    with more than one million Africans           Pretoria as saying that at most only
there is nowhere to turn except inter      among that number. The government             about one-fourth of the money will go
nally to meet financial needs.             says that depending on which figures          for South African grain.
                                           are used, estimates range from 10.2%
   The analysis suggests that one posi     to 18.6 0 of the workforce.                                     0
tive step the government could take          The Pretoria University study notes
would be to cut back on its own            that in 1974, when the economy was
spending, which has included massive       running at near full capacity, unemploy               T'WENTY-TWO             ZIMBAB
capital outlays for projects intended to   ment was running at 9%, suggesting                    WEANS are known to have
make the country invulnerable to inter     that the problem is structural, rather                been sentenced to be hanged
national economic pressures, and In        than the result of the recession.                     this year, following the execu
creasing outlays for defense and inter                                                  tion of 64 persons last year. Altogether
nal security.                                 The Financial Mail says that unem         at least 150 Zimbabweans have been
                                           ployment in Soweto has become so             executed since the Smith regime de
                                           serious that numerous robberies have         clared independence.
                                           been reported by men describing them            Among other statistics indicating the
                                           selves as unemployed heads of families.      degree of repression in Zimbabwe:
                                              In Maritzburg, fewer than one-third       * As of December 1976, over 1,000
                                           of the African workforce is estimated to     persons were known to be in detention
  A farm labor wage survey has found       be employed.                                 for political activities. Nearly 850 were
that monthly farm wages last year                                                       known to be serving prison terms for
ranged from about $20 a month cash to
about $60 cash depending on the area.                                                   supporting the liberation struggle. The
                                                                                        International Defense and Aid Fund
Taking into account payments in the
form of food and other items, total                                                     estimates that total political prisoners
wages may have reached a high of                                                        numbers at least 3,000.
between $63 and $104 a month.                                                           * In the last four years 632 Africans
                                              Johan Adler, South Africa's Deputy        have been killed and 294 wounded
                                           Consul General in New York, recently         "while breaking the curfew or running
                                           said in a letter to Time magazine that       with and assisting terrorists," according
                   0                       "compulsory education for Black pri
                                                                                        to a statement by Prime Minister Ian
                                           mary school children has already been        Smith.
                                           introduced." The South African Finan         * The International Red Cross esti
   The Bantu Laws Amendment Bill           cial Mail was prompted to comment that       mates that at least 400,000 Zimbab
recently presented to Parliament doub      "South Africans haven't yet been told        weans have been forced into "protected
les to $170 the fine for pass offenses,    about this notable move away from race       villages."
leaving intact the provision for a three   discrimination."
month jail sentence. The bill comes at a
time when the government-sponsored
Viljoen commission has strongly urged
that the pass laws be depenalized.                                                         THE RED CROSS has revised the
                                                                                        1949 Geneva War Conventions to pro
                   0                               THE PEOPLE OF MOZAM                  vide that captured guerrilla fithers
                                                   BIQUE have donated more than         must be treated as prisoners of war and
                                                 I $100,000 to assist in the libera     not as terrorists. The organization ruled
                                                   tion struggle in Zimbabwe. The       the guerrillas will be required to "dis
  Bantu Administration Minister M.C.       funds came from voluntary donations          tinguish themselves from the civilian
Botha says an average of 160 Africans a    made to the Bank of Solidarity, set up       population" and to "carry their arms
day were arrested in the Witwater          last year.                                   openly" in combat, military maneuvers
strand area alone last year for offenses                                                preceding an attack, or while being
under the pass laws.                                                                    watched by the enemy.

                                             New flooding was reported in the
                                           Limpopo valley as torrential rains             ZAMBIA says it is holding an Ameri
   There were 71 public and 1,171 pri      raised rivers to dangerous levels.           can deserter from the Rhodesian army.
vate telephones in Soweto at the end of                                                 The government says the deserter flew
1976. The waiting list for private         Evacuation of residents and an airlift of
                                           supplies were under consideration.           into Zambia illegally in a Piper plane.
phones included 2,338-the population
of Soweto exceeds one million.

                                                                                          HENRY KISSINGER, former US
                                             The Financial Mail reports that the        Secretary of State, has been named
   New figures serve to further demon      $37,000 given by the US to assist            vice-chairman of the international advi
strate the severity of South Africa's      Mozambique flood relief efforts con          sory committee of Chase Manhattan
unemployment problem. A Pretoria           tained a proviso that at least part of the   Bank. The committee meets twice a
University study estimates that unem       sum be used to buy maize from South          year to advise the bank on economic and
ployment reached 1.3 million in 1976,      Africa. FM quotes a US official in           political matters.
                                                                                        JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        17
                                              The firm cites financial rather than       istrator to govern until a constituent
                                           political considerations for the move,        assembly is elected.
                                           which involves a merger with Allied           e Agreement to UN participation in the
                                           technologies of South Africa. ITT is          elections, in the form of a team ap
                                           selling Standard Telephone for a 36.3%        pointed by UN Secretary-General Kurt
                                           interest in Allied Technologies plus          Waldheim.
                                           $287,500 in cash.                             * A promise to release political prison
                                              Coming at a time when South Africa's       ers identified by a group of inter
                                           political and economic difficulties are       national jurists.
                                           mounting, however, the ITT deal has              A point at which SWAPO is likely to
New Clashes                                government and business circles wor           balk is South Africa's evident refusal to
On Soweto Anniversary                      ried about declining American confi           withdraw its officials and armed forces
    Pre-emptive detentions of student      dence in the country's future.                from the territory prior to an election.
leaders, rubber bullets, and other new        To counter such a trend, two South            OAU Foreign Ministers, meanwhile,
crowd control techniques failed to stop    African organizations hosted a seminar        meeting in Libreville, Gabon, have
 new violence during the recent com        for more than 300 US executives at an         voted to encourage Western efforts
 memoration of last June's Soweto          exclusive Rye, New York hotel last            towards a Namibia settlement, and
uprising.                                  month. In an opening address, South           have also called for increased material
    Over a dozen Africans were shot and    African Foreign Minister Roelof Botha         aid to SWAPO.
killed by police in townships surround     assured the guests that his government
ing Johannesburg and Uitenhage,            plans reforms to ease black tempers but       Guerrillas Hit Rhodesian
where scores were wounded and hun          will not agree to one man-one vote.
                                                                                         Railway, Power Station
dreds arrested.
    In Soweto itself, the June 16 com                                                       Zimbabwe People's Army guerrillas
 memorative rallies were accompanied       Angola Hard Hit                               last month blew up a railroad bridge on
 by calls for a strike, and Johannesburg   By Coup Attempt                               the line connecting Salisbury with Bula
 employers reported 15 to 50% absen                                                      wayo, the first such sabotage on that
 teeism among black workers. Student          The failed May 27 coup attempt in          stretch of the vital rail link with South
 demonstrations continued sporadically     Angola inflicted serious leadership           Africa.
 throughout the week, culminating in a     losses on the MPLA.                              The damage was repaired the follow
 massive action on Thursday, June 23, in      In the wake of the fighting at least six   ing day, but the attack served as a
 which roadblocks were mounted and         senior MPLA members were found                reminder that guerrilla forces have the
 students sparred with police all day.     dead. These included Finance Minister         capability to strike major targets within
 Three black youths were killed in the     Saydi Mingas.                                 100 miles of the capital.
 protest.                                     The late May attempt, mounted by              Guerrillas also launched a two
    Large-scale demonstrations were also   supporters of Nito Alves and Jose Van         pronged attack in northeastern Rho
 held in Uitenhage, located in the east    Dunem, also involved economic sabo            desia. Troops operating from Zambia
 ern Cape. Township residents there set    tage such as the hoarding of already          shelled the Rhodesian border resort
 fire to government-owned liquor stores    tight food supplies to be distributed         town of Kariba, wounding one civilian
 and schools, and threw rocks at police.   after the ouster of Neto's regime.            and damaging property in the shopping
 The Uitenhage demonstrations saw 6          Angolan officials claim to have un          district. A raiding party, meanwhile,
blacks fatally shot and 33 wounded.        earthed foreign backing for the plot, but     cut the power lines connecting the
    White South Africans were shaken       they have not specified which countries       Kariba hydroelectric plant with Salis
even before the Soweto anniversary         were involved. Some Portuguese citi           bury, blacking out residential areas for
when three black youths carrying auto      zens are among the arrested suspects,         several hours.
matic weapons skirmished with police in    according to authorities in Lisbon.              The Rhodesian government has ac
downtown Johannesburg and gunned                                                         cused Zambia of a "criminal act of
down two white auto mechanics before                                                     aggression" in sanctioning the rocket
two of them were captured. Police said     SWAPO Reviews                                 attack on Kariba. A Rhodesian military
the South African-born youths had been                                                   spokesman said the government was
trained in Luanda, Angola, and ahd         Namibia Compromise                            reconsidering its policy of limited
re-entered the country from Mozam             The five Western nations which have        response to attacks from Zambia, and
bique.                                     been pressing South Africa to negotiate       will "retaliate vigorously to further
                                           a peaceful withdrawal from neighboring        provocations."
                                           Namibia are awaiting a response from
ITT Sells                                  SWAPO, the Namibian independence              UN Considers
South African Holding                      movement.                                     Rhodesian Raids
                                              U.S. officials believe SWAPO will go
  The U.S.-based International Tele
phone and Telegraph Corporation has        along with a plan worked out in mid              The UN Security Council is consider
decided to sell its South African hold     June by British, French, West German,         ing Mozambican requests for recon
ing, Standard Telephone and Cables.        Canadian and American envoys during a         struction assistance as well as aid to
                                           Cape Town meeting with South African          bolster its defensive capabilities against
                                           Prime Minister John Vorster.                  future Rhodesian attacks.
                                              Sources close to SWAPO say the                Mozambique presented evidence of
 UPDATE is written by Africa News          group is almost certain to reject the         Rhodesian aggression against its terri
 Service, which also publishes a           proposals, despite some concessions by        tory to a special session of the Security
 weekly digest available to individuals    South Africa, which reportedly include:       Council. The meeting came in the wake
 for $28 per year. Address corre           * Abandonment of South Africa's plan          of Rhodesia's occupation of Mapai, in
 spondence, to P.O. Box 3851,              to hand power to a tribally-based ad          southwestern Mozambique. Botswana
 Durham, NC 27702.                         ministration of government-sanctioned         and Zambia also put forth charges of
                                           leaders, in favor of a temporary admin-       border violations by Rhodesian troops.
 continuedfrom page 14                            At his news conference Vorster reaf      SWAPO, which Mondale termed "unac
 A Warning                                     firmed his commitment to apartheid          ceptable." Vorster accepted the idea of
    Mondale did warn Vorster of diplo          saying, "In the final analysis, I'm pre     a United Nations "role" in the transition
 matic measures that the US could apply        pared to hang for what I am, but I'll be    to Namibian independence. But in his
 if changes are not made but these were        damned if I'll hang for what I am not."     news conference he suggested that this
 not specified. He noted that the US              Some agreement was reportedly            would involve only contact with a repre
 favors "full political participation by all   reached at the meeting on approaches        sentative of the Secretary General, thus
 people" in South Africa whereby "every        to Zimbabwe and Namibia. Vorster            seeking to prevent the UN Council for
 citizen should have the right to vote and     agreed to support the new British and       Namibia from        exercising interim
 every vote should be equally weighted."       US effort to promote an agreement on        authority. It was agreed that represen
                                               Zimbabwe, not subject to approval by        tatives of South Africa and five West
    He also stated that the South African
 government now knows "that we                 the Smith regime, which would lead to       ern powers would continue meetings on
 believe they're perpetuating an unjust        majority rule by the end of 1978. But       Namibia.
 system that we are sure contributes to        Vorster insisted and Mondale agreed
 increased Soviet influence and even           that "every effort should be made to          Despite the lack of teeth in the Carter
 racial war-but quite apart from that is       bring about a de-escalation of violence"    policies, the Rand Daily Mail reported
                                               in Zimbabwe. The liberation movements       that Vorster was "bitterly disappointed
 unjustified on its own grounds."
    Mondale and Vorster held separate          have opposed this type of language as       with the Mondale talks, saying there
 press conferences at the conclusion of        an effort to remove their military pres     had been no time to discuss Communist
 the talks which reflected their differing     sure against the Smith regime.              expansion in Africa."
 positions. Mondale told reporters: "We           On Namibia, Mondale asserted that          Following the Vienna talks, Vorster
 hope that South Africans will not rely        Vorster had agreed to free, nationwide      paid a call on president Houphouet
 on any illusions that the US will inter       elections for a constitution-writing        Boigny of the Ivory Coast. At a meeting
 vene to save South Africa from the            assembly. But South Africa has offered      in Houphouet's house on Lake Geneva
 policies it is pursuing, for we will not do   such elections previously on an ethni       they discussed plans to form an African
 so."                                          cally-based system and excluding            group to resist Communist expansion. E

    If trips, consultations, and promises         mankind has the capacity to bind up          On May 24, the full House approved a
  of large sums of money could bring              its wounds and to live together in        $3.2 billion military assistance authori
  majority rule to Rhodesia, American             peace and harmony.                        zation bill containing the $100 million
  and British diplomacy would have pro            But neither the Senators nor the          for Southern African countries after
 duced it long ago. But it has not, and        Representatives in the House were            narrowly turning back an attempt to
 the prospects for the long-touted,            prepared to authorize appropriations for     delete the special funds and to remove
 Kissinger-promoted peaceful transition        the Fund at the present time. To do so,      an expression of support by Congress
 to majority rule in Zimbabwe seem as          they felt, would be to draw a blank          for administration efforts to bring about
 dim now as when the Geneva talks              check which might or might not serve         a peacefully negotiated transition to
 ended in failure last December.               the political purposes intended. The         majority rule in Zimbabwe.
    Since assuming office in January, the      House International Relations Commit           In the debate preceding the 208-204
 Carter administration has demonstrated        tee therefore re-programmed the $100         vote on the deletion amendment, critics
 a tenacious resolve to push forward the       million intended for the Zimbabwe fund       charged that the funds would be used to
 initiative begun by Secretary Kissinger       to meet the security needs of black          subsidize the extension of Communism
 in April last year. Since the visits of       ruled southern African countries (ex         in Southern Africa. The House did add
 British Foreign Secretary David Owen          cluding Malawi and Zaire). The Senate        an amendment barring aid to Angola,
 and Prime Minister James Callaghan to         Foreign Relations Committee followed        Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia,
 Washington in February and March, the         suit but allocated the $100 million to      but the effect was weakened consider
 United States has shown that it is            Zaire, Zambia, Swaziland, Botswana          ably by the addition of wording which
 determined to take the lead in settling       and Lesotho. Tanzania, Mozambique           permits such aid if the President specif
 the Zimbabwe dispute by using its             and Angola were conspicuously absent,       ically waives the restriction and reports
 political "clout."                            indicating the Committee's basic reluc      to Congress how the funds will be used.
    Accordingly, Secretary of State            tance to cross swords with right-wing          In other areas, the bill would cut in
 Cyrus Vance announced to the Congress         Senators on southern Africa.                half the administration's request for $30
 in March that the Administration                 To serve the Administration's pur        million in aid to Zaire and prohibit the
 wanted $100 million for a Zimbabwe            pose of encouraging negotiations, both      use of the funds for military or paramili
 Development Fund that would ulti              foreign relations committees endorsed       tary operations.
mately cost US taxpayers a total of $520       the idea of an international development       The House measure was then sent to
million in the first five years of its         fund by adopting "sense of Congress"        the Senate, where debate on the Senate
existence.                                     language. The House version announced       version was expected to begin shortly.
   Backing this request, Assistant Sec         its intention to back a special fund for       While Congress was mildly rebuffing
retary of State William Schaufele              "economic justice and development"          the Administration, the Zimbabwean
painted a landscape of darkness and            after a firm agreement for majority rule    nationalists were forcefully rejecting
light for the Senate Subcommittees on          has been reached. The Senate version,       US co-sponsorship of any "settlement"
African Affairs and Foreign Assistance         on the other hand, declared the Senate's    conference. On April 19, Robert Mu
when he testified on April 28.                 intention to authorize $100 million for     gabe and Joshua Nkomo totally rejected
   The balance is delicately poised            the Zimbabwe Development Fund when          the idea as big power involvement, and
   between the forces of violence and          "progress" toward a settlement permits
                                                                                           again on May 6, after meeting with
   those seeking to demonstrate that           establishment of the Fund.                  Vance and Owen in London, Nkomo
                                                                                          JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA          19
ruled out US co-sponsorship. But                By mid-May, however, it had become           But neither the Smith government
neither Britain nor the United States        clear that a conference should be put off    nor the nationalist movements pro
has given up on an idea that clearly         until more spadework had been done           fessed to see much new in these frenetic
pleases Vorster and Smith.                   "behind the scenes." In a joint an           efforts to spare Zimbabweans and Rho
                                             nouncement on May 12 Vance and Owen          desians from the escalating trial of their
  Meanwhile, President Carter had            declared that the British and US would       armed strength.
appointed Vice President Mondale to          set up a special mission to make contact        Although the Zimbabwe Development
oversee the development of Africa            with the parties to visit the area,          Fund and the US co-sponsorship are
policy because Carter was too busy with      including Salisbury. At the same time        intended to offer whites reassurance
the Middle East to "master something         the outlines of a new Owen plan were         that the US will guarantee further sus
as complex as Africa." Mondale told          emerging: the British would establish a      tained economic growth built on the
reporters that the felt a conference         "presence" and a British parliamentary       foundations of existing structures, the
should go ahead even if Smith or one of      system in Rhodesia during the transi         Patriotic Front does not seem inclined
the black nationalist factions does not      tion. The white minority regime would        to make commitments that would bind
want to participate. He thus confirmed       resign and one-man, one-vote elections       future generations to a western plan to
a Bernard Nossiter story from London         would then be held. Independence             foster foreign investment, create a
in the Washington Post of April 22 that      would come in late 1978 and only             larger black middle class by job training
the Anglo-Americans were prepared "to        thereafter would there be a constitu         and make only modest increases in
shave off an extreme at either end."         tional conference.                           African land holdings.                  El

   While US corporations maintain pub        Financial Mail, one official of Heckett      that its withdrawal would raise the
licly that they are a force for change in    SA declined to discuss the fired workers     issue of job opportunities for Africans.
South Africa, their actions continue to      except by number, and another insisted          The committee planned a picket
speak louder than words.                     that Piet Pheko, one of the activists,       April 2 at Control Data's Selby-Dale
                                             was sacked because he refused to obey        plant, located in a black community.
 US Company Fires Union Organizers           orders.                                      The picket was organized as part of day
   Two African workers were fired                                                         long activities in a nearby center which
 recently in a South African scrap metals       The official was unable, however, to      were to culminate with a rally where
plant which is 50% owned by Heckett          cite the orders in question.                 Khotso Seatloho, a South African stu
Metals, a subsidiary of Harsco Corp. of         In the US, Heckett's parent company       dent leader, was scheduled to speak.
Pennsylvania, which operates the plant       told the FinancialMail that it formally         Prior to the planned event, the com
in partnership with the Pretoria re          recognizes the union and that its South      mittee met with black leaders, several
gime's state-owned Iron and Steel Cor        African subsidiary "is one of the most       of whom agreed to address the rally. At
poration (ISCOR). The workers were           compelling and moving forces for             Control Data's request, committee
dismissed in what appeared to be retali      change" in labor relations in South          representatives also met with company
ation for union activities. A third          Africa. Later, Heckett admitted that in      officials. These officials, after failing to
worker quit rather than comply with a        fact it does not recognize the union and     convince the representatives to halt the
company request for information about        that labor policies in its South African     demonstration, threatened that they
the activities of the unregistered Metal     operation are decided by ISCOR.              would take measures to counter the
and Allied Workers Union, which claims          "We are happy with our operations in      committee's activities.
the allegiance of about three-fourths of     South Africa," Heckett said. "Our only         The day before the planned action,
the plant's 80 African workers.              labor problems in South Africa are due       the committee was warned by a Control
   South Africa's repressive laws do not     to our inability to find and keep skilled    Data official that reports from the plant
 give trade unions with African members      labor in sufficient quantities.              indicated that workers were upset and
 any legal status, and such black trade                                                   that violence was likely. Also at the last
 unions are deprived of all recognition in   Control Data Promises Trouble                minute, all but two black speakers
 bargaining processes. Strikes by Afri          In a related incident, Control Data       withdrew from the rally. It was
 can workers are all but outlawed, but       Corp. effectively thwarted an effort by      reported privately to the committee
 the unions themselves are not illegal.      the Minnesota Committee on Southern          that company spokesmen had met with
 As general militancy has risen in the       Africa to launch a protest in St. Paul       some of its workers, and with black
 community, more and more Africans           against the company's South African          leaders to express disapproval of the
 have been organizing "unofficial" trade     involvement. Control Data sells com          planned protest, and had pointed out
 unions, and attempting to achieve a         puters to several key South African          that Control Data provided many jobs
 position where employers have to rec        industries, and to the SA government,        to local residents which might be lost if
 ognize their existence, even if the law     for a variety of uses, including military,   foreign sales were curtailed! Fearing a
 does not. The Metal and Allied Workers      nuclear and other applications.              serious confrontation, the Committee
Union has been one of the most active of       The Minnesota Committee selected           canceled the picket.
these unions, and it has met with            Control Data in part because of the            The committee says it was not dis
consistent hostility from most employ        company's repeated statements of com         couraged from further action by the
ers, South African, American or              mitment to socially responsible corpo        company's activities. Members picketed
British.                                     rate action and in part because the          the company's annual meeting on May 4
   Questioned about the situation by a       company employs only 19 Africans in          and the group is discussing additional
Johannesburg business journal, the           South Africa, precluding the possibility     moves.                                    [5


by Carol Collins
   Carol Collins was in Mozambique in
March, when President Machel met
with 6000 students, teachers and other
educational workers, and outlined to
them important new educational policy
decisions. These decisions were the
outcome of long discussions within
Mozambique's political party FRE
LIMO, within the Ministry of Educa
tion, and with Mozambicans at all
levels. Here she reports for Southern
Africa on that meeting.

   A speech by Samora, as everyone
calls the President, is a big event, and
as we waited outside the sports stadium
for the speech to begin, an electric
current of excitement ran among the
elementary and secondary school stu
dents, many without shoes, all neatly
waiting in double rows. Student "re
sponsavels," rather than teachers, kept
classes in order. Only we of the univer
sity contingent were so disorderly as to
require the police to gently place us in
lines so that cars and trucks could get

   The stadium was packed when we
 entered, with bright banners posted
 everywhere saluting the president,
 FRELIMO and the alliance of workers
 and peasants which FRELIMO is work
 ing to consolidate. When the President                Mozambican students make bricks for new classroom building.
 entered the stadium, the response of
the students and others was immediate,
deafening and overwhelmingly warm.          made about designing policies that              Thus Samora's outline of policy was not
There is a closeness which Samora has       would best deal with the legacy of              only for bureaucrats, educated people
with Mozambicans which strikes one         underdevelopment and illiteracy inher            or other policy-makers, but for students
immediately. His eyes sparkle with the     ited from Portuguese colonialism.                and teachers, for parents of students,
response, and for the next four hours,         President Machel interspersed his            for workers and peasants listening to
as he outlined FRELIMO's analysis of       careful analysis with incisive caricatures       the speech on radio at their places of
its educational experiences, obstacles,    of individualistic, elitist and exploitative     work. FRELIMO is committed to these
strategies for overcoming these prob       attitudes and behavior among students,           people being and becoming the policy
lems and invited educational workers to    parents and teachers. His vivid illustra         makers.
participate fully in this new phase of     tions of such vestiges of colonial men          The Colonial Heritage
struggle on the educational front, his     tality remained with many of us for
energy, humor and warmth never             days afterwards, as often, to our em               The meeting, as Minister of Educa
                                           barrassment, we identified such behav           tion Grace Simbine noted in opening,
                                           ior in ourselves.                               represented the first time since inde
  Two sets of issues had to be con                                                         pendence that FRELIMO, the Ministry
fronted. First there was the fundamen      Informing the People                            of Education and educational workers
tal question of what role education can       In a country where most people are           could exchange experiences and analyze
and should play in building a socialist    still illiterate, as a result of colonialism,   ways of improving educational work in
society. Secondly, choices had to be       such an analysis cannot be conveyed to          order to create the "new mentality" and
                                           the majority of people by writing.              the "new person" that would be capable
                                           FRELIMO is committed to the task of             of transforming Mozambican economic
                                           explaining its policies fully to all            and social realities.
Carol Collins is a member of the Chicago   Mozambicans so that they understand                In reviewing FRELIMO's educational
Committee for African Liberation, and      the basis for each policy decision and          experiences during the war of liberation,
has spent the last year in East Africa.    will support them on an informed basis.         Samora recalled the colonial policy of
                                                                                           JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        21
maintaining the majority of Mozam            bicans were in FRELIMO primary               They thought only of what they as
bicans in profound ignorance and super       schools and 500 in secondary schools,        individuals wanted. Samora also re
stitution by excluding them from             while 70 Mozambicans were studying in        called, with a smile, how some of these
schools on racial grounds and failing to     foreign universities.                        same students, remembering that some
train Mozambican teachers. By 1950,                                                       of their schoolmates were officers in the
after 400 years of Portuguese colonial                                                    Portuguese army, wanted FRELIMO to
ism, not one black Mozambican was            The Struggle Against Elitist Attitudes       create such ranks in its army, and train
studying at a secondary school in               These accomplishments did not come        them as officers, and thus guarantee
Mozambique. Elitism and racism per           easily. Many Mozambican students,            them a privileged position in the army.
meated the practice and functioning of       steeped in colonial and capitalist values,      Even now, Samora noted, a few
the few schools there were, restricting      saw education as an opportunity for          Mozambicans still have such colonial
black Mozambicans to educational and         individual advancement at the expense        attitudes. Although the Portuguese lost
work opportunities related to manual         of others. They defined the elitist notion   on the battlefield, he said, they are
labor, which was socially looked down        that educated people were special and        trying to make our heads their new
on.                                          deserved special privileges, special         base of operations, a much more diffi
                                             opportunities; that they should not be       cult enemy to fight and face, since we
   Samora described how colonial educa       asked to risk their lives in the struggle    still have inferiority complexes in rela
tion took Mozambicans out of their own       as they would be indispensable after         tion to foreign culture.
realities and taught them to ridicule        independence. These students, a few
their own people and culture, to become      directly in service to the Portuguese
"depersonalized" and to strive towards       military, tried to create indiscipline and   New Plans for Students
becoming "assimilated" to Portuguese         confusion in FRELIMO schools until              A central problem facing the new
culture. The Catholic church sought to       they were firmly dealt with. As Samora       government has been the shortage of
teach resignation and submission to          noted, they didn't want what the people      trained teachers. In the two years since
foreign oppression and exploitation, not     wanted and had sacrificed so much for.       FRELIMO came to power, the school
values that stressed people's abilities to
control and change the conditions of
their own lives for their own benefit.
   Schools were essentially undemo
cratic institutions whose function was to         "The bourgeoisie works to spread the idea that freedom is absolute, that a
limit teachers, students and workers to        'free' system is that in which each person can do what he/she pleases. . . This
individual objectives, to prevent their        idea incorporates in itself the principle that individual interest takes
working for common objectives. Mission         precedence over collective interest, that interests of the minority take
schools also became centers for the            precedence over interests of the majority.
economic exploitation of students, who            "The use of this concept by the bourgeoisie is a clear attempt to justify its
over the years were obligated to pick          acts of exploitation and oppression of the working masses...
millions of tons of nuts and rice which           "It was in the name of freedom that imperialism unleashed wars of
they never got to taste, but which went        aggression and occupation against our nations. The massacres of Vietnam were
to the church missions.                        practiced in the name of the defense of the so-called 'free world.'
                                                  "It was in the name of freedom that imperialism introduced puppet groups in
 Liberation and Education                      Mozambique to try to prevent FRELIMO acceding to power. The movement of
                                               colonists who carried out the September 7 massacre called itself Free
    During the war years FRELIMO               Mozambique Movement ...
 defined education as decisive in liberat         "It is in the name of western freedom that Smith carried out the Nyazonia
 ing Mozambicans politically and scien         massacre and daily hangs youths who demand true liberty. It is with weapons
 tifically. As Samora said, ". . . years       of the so-called free world that Vorster's police kill students in the streets of
 ago we had the same questions . . . we        Soweto.
 need to organize education, but what             "We say there is no absolute freedom, no abstract liberty.
 kind of education? Education for whom?           "Freedom is a concept linked to the dynamics of class struggle. When two
 in Service to whom? What does going to        classes have antagonistic interests the freedom of one class means the
 school mean?" FRELIMO came to sup             oppression of the other. When there is freedom for the exploiter, there is
 port the concept and reality of educa         oppression of the people. When there is freedom for the people, the exploiters
 tion which was at the service of the          will be repressed. Therefore the bourgeois concept of liberty is false...
 whole Mozambican people and which                "In speaking of freedom/liberty, we ask: freedom for whom? freedom to do
 didn't just serve to educate a special        what? freedom to serve whom?...
few to achieve individual objectives. As          "We say clearly: In the People's Republic of Mozambique, there is no
part of that commitment bush schools           freedom to oppress, to exploit; there is no freedom to have such privileges at
and literacy classes were set up wher          the cost of the blood of the workers; there is no freedom for reactionaries Who
ever FRELIMO went, using those with
                                               sabotage our struggle. In the People's Republic of Mozambique, it is the
a few years education to teach those           working people who are free. The people are free to discuss their problems, to
with less.                                     decide about the future of their lives. This is the freedom we give...
    Education reinforced common unity             "Naturally it is possible for one to serve the people in many ways and we
among the people as it stressed "it's not
                                               respect the manner in which each person would want to do that. Our politics is
what you want. It's not what I want.
It's what we want, the people want,            to reconcile the interests of the collectivity with the capacities of each person.
which is important." Describing how            But we don't permit individual interests to take precedence over interests of
                                               the working masses...
Mozambicans often had to write their              "Therefore, the vocation of each should always be subordinated to the
lessons in the dirt with sticks, go to
school under bombardment and not eat           objective necessities of the People."
for 2-3 days at a time, Samora said "this                                                      President Samora Machel
is our tradition of education." By the                                                         March 1977
end of the war in 1974, 30,000 Mozam

                                                                                                       Secondly, all schools will now work to
                                                                                                   establish close working relationships
                                                                                                   with an active production unit, whether
                                                                             1f             r      factory or collective farm or a state
                                                                                                   enterprise. The students will work
                                                                                                   within the factories or farms both in
                                                                                                   production and in such tasks as teaching
                                                                                                   literacy or primary school classes for
                                                                                  le               workers. The workers will teach the
                                                                                                   students skills in carpentry, animal
                                                                                                   husbandry, etc.
                                                                                                      Samor anticipated attempts by Portu
                                                                                                   guese colonialists and others to dis
                                                                                                   credit the Mozambican revolution by
                                                                                                   claiming that the FRELIMO govern
                                                                                                   ment allows "no liberty or choice" in
                                                                                                   Mozambique. In a long analysis of the
                                                                                                   concept of freedom, he stressed that
                                                                                                   liberty is never absolute, that protect
                                                                              1            .ing         the rights of a minority has often
                                                                                                   served to justify continuing the exploi
                                                                                                   tation by a few of the many.

                                                                                                   An Appeal to Students
                                                                                                      In one of the most moving and tough
                                                                                                   parts of the speech, Samora asked the
                                                                                                   audience, "Think what you'd be like if
                                                                                                   you were born in Chile. How would you
                                                                                                   feel if you were born just a few
                                                                                                   kilometers from here, in Bulawayo,
                                                                                                   where everyday youth are being assas
                                                                                       -           sinated, killed. The youth of Soweto,
                                                                              R. Minter            students of Chile, of Zimbabwe-why
     Work and classes are integrated for these students in Ribaue, Mozambi que.                    do they struggle? They struggle, even
                                                                                                   though their leaders are assassinated,
population of Mozambique has doubled.        Need to Connect                                       because they want schools. What kind
800 new teachers completed training in       Schools and Communities                               of schools? Their own schools! .   .   . They
1976 and another 1500 are expected to                                                              are imprisoned, killed, because they
                                                Samora's speech also assess ed other               want schools that help the people,
do so in 1977.                              problems FRELIMO and the govern-                       schools like ours. At our schools, bour
   But education, like most other sectors   ment had encountered in e ducation,                    geois tendencies continue . . . it is
of Mozambican social and economic           apart from the continuing ellitism of                 against these tendencies that the stu
development structures, continues to        some teachers and students who still                  dents of Bulawayo and Chile are fight
face a shortage of trained personnel.       sought personal advancement tlrather                  ing. But here, we want to maintain
When contracts signed by Portuguese         than advancement of the peoiple as a                  bourgeois tendencies. Students come to
nationals at independence expire this       whole. Educational institutions have at               study solely as a means of self-dignity,
June, the situation will be critical. To    times confused administrative and po-                 social distance, to be isolated. They
meet this situation, the government has     litical responsibilities, respon ading to             want diplomas as a certificate for
decided to suspend the last two years of    political problems with bur eaucratic                 exploiting the people. Some, if they
secondary school and utilize the 600        measures. They have failed to develop                 could, would walk around with it on
affected students in a variety of essen     sufficient links between schools and the              their chest, saying 'this is how much I'm
tial tasks. Samora said, "Cadre are in      people, the communities of which                      worth.' People with diplomas often
school. The more advanced classes           schools are a part. Thus, pe ople still               think everyone is below them. This
should teach the less advanced classes.     didn't think of the schools as th eir own.            committee [pointing to members of the
The less advanced classes should go         Yet the people in FRELIMO's view are                  Political Committee sitting to either
teach the illiterate. It is that way that   essential to carrying out the re volution-            side]-there's no such price on them!"
we grow. We will advance in successive      ary task of creating a new a nd non
waves, like ants."                                                            nts
                                            exploitative society, and paren have                     In concluding the speech, Samora
                                            to actively participate in the furnctioning           appealed to teachers, students and
   Some of these 10th and 11th year         of the schools.                                       parents to understand the meaning and
students will go into the armed forces         To find solutions for these p roblems,             the need for transforming Mozambican
or the factories. Some will shift to        Samora announced several maj or policy                society, and to actively support the
training courses for specific tasks. The    directives.                                           policies developed by the government.
Preparatory Course for University              From now on, private er nployers                   Noting that schools were the fruit of the
Entrance will take some quickly toward      cannot go directly to the sc hools to                 blood of the Mozambican people, he
university level courses. Others will       recruit. All students will be p laced in              urged all to become actively engaged in
work in the planning sections of minis      jobs through governmental str uctures.                the struggle to change educational insti
tries and will be trained for work in       Thus available people will be se nt to fill           tutions into genuine centers of educa
agricultural development. Many will         priority needs in accord with national                tion for all the Mozambican people that
train as teachers to fill both secondary    planning rather than just goin g to the               would work to create a society free of
and primary school needs.                   best paying job they can find.                        exploitation.                          El
                                                                                                  JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA             23
   By mid-May, President Mobutu Sese
Seko was proudly proclaiming that,
with Moroccan and Egyptian military
aid, his army was mopping up the last
of the "Katangese invaders" that have
been challenging his authority since
early March. Western news reports
dutifully monitored Kinshasa radio and
press briefings which portrayed the
fighting in Shaba province (ex-Katanga)
as practically over.
   But a few reports have punctured this
portrait of Mobutu's uniformly success
ful strength. Although Agence France
Presse was hard put for information to
counter Mobutu's press releases, it did
report that when Mobutu visited the
"retaken" town of Kasaji in mid-May,
only 26 lepers, who had been unable to
flee into the countryside, remained in
the town. Zairois Armed Forces Com
mander-In-Chief Eluki said that the
presence of pro-government troops in
Kasaji, not far east of the border town
of Dilolo, proved that the two-month
old war in the copper-rich province was
"virtually over." But the absence of the                                                                               Afrique Asie
bulk of the population in the towns          General Mbumba, Commander of the National Front for the Liberation of the Congo
being occupied by joint Moroccan             forces.
Zairois forces could presage a more
protracted guerrilla-type war in the         themselves, until April 8. During that      Mobutu's soldiers had become seriously
Shaba countryside.                           time there was no ground fighting, but      demoralized, the missionary reported.
European Missionaries Speak                  the Monday after Easter, the Zairois air    Political Education Begun
   As the Zairois troops pushed toward       force began bombing the town regu
                                             larly. By April 12, the bombing had            She said that the rebels had dis
Shaba's western border with Angola,
several groups of European mission           become so intense that most of the          tributed railroad car-loads of fresh food
                                             town's residents had fled to the coun       to the town's population and that they
aries, who spent several weeks living in                                                 held numerous meetings with the
Shaba towns under rebel control, fled to     tryside. The sick in the hospital where
                                             Sister Camilla worked also had to be        town's people to explain their objec
Angola. By early May they had made
                                             evacuated. "They dropped their bombs        tives. "Some of the nurses at the
their way to the Angolan capital and                                                     hospital asked an officer of the Front if
had given their first accounts of the        on the camp where the railroad workers
situation.                                   lived," she said. "We were very fright      they could continue to go to church,"
   Augusta Conchiglia of the Paris-based     ened." Although Radio Kinshasa had          Sister Camilla said. "He told them that
bi-weekly, Afrique-Asie, interviewed         announced the retaking of Mutshatsha        they were there for enough other
                                             in mid-April, she said that it hadn't yet   reasons than to eliminate religion. 'Each
three missionaries in Luanda before                                                      is free,' he had said."
their return to Europe. All agreed that      been taken. By then she had decided to
no Cuban or other foreign troops had         leave for Angola.                              Jorge Raymond, a British missionary
                                                                                         and chief of a Protestant mission in
accompanied the rebels and that the
fighting force was essentially native to                                                 Kasaji corroborated Sister Camilla's
the province. Sister Camilla Carzaniga,         Sister Camilla said the rebels, mem      report. He said that since his mission
a Franciscan nun from Milan, Italy, who      bers of the National Front for the          had been established in Kasaji in 1956,
had lived for three years in Mutshatsha,     Liberation of the Congo, knew the area      the economic situation in Kasaji had
Zaire, one of the towns recently             well. She said that soldiers of Mobutu's    worsened continually. When the rebels
                                             "elite" Zairois regiment, known as the      entered Kasaji, Raymond said, they
occupied by the rebels, said that "the
population received   them   very   well.    Kamanyola, pillaged many of the houses      told him, "we have come to liberate our
Many among them        had   parents or      in the towns they occupied. She had         country."
cousins   in Mutshatsha."    When   they     encountered one Zairois soldier who fled       "They spoke a great deal about social
entered the town on March 25 "they           from fighting at Malonga between            ism," Raymond said. "Everyone must
sang," she added. "It was a festival."       Dilolo and Mutshatsha. "They [the           be equal, they said." Raymond also
                                             rebels] are very strong," the soldier       reported that there were no foreign
Mobutu Bombs Civilians                       told Sister Camilla. "We hardly had the     troops among them. "The first Cuban
  Sister Camilla lived peacefully with       time to put cartridges in our rifles and    that I saw was at Luso in Moxico
the Congolese, as the rebels referred to     they already had shot several times."       province in Angola," he remarked.       Ii


by Mike Shuster                             MPLA's Poder Popular government. He           an all-black government, not necessarily
                                            was made Minister of Internal Adminis         progressive, with himself at the top.
   The May 27 attempted coup in Angola      tration, with special charge of oversee       These same sources, who were close to
that sought to overthrow the govern         ing the formation of these CPBs.              several Cuban commanders who had
ment of Agostinho Neto is known to                                                        fought during the war, told me the
                                               It appears now that Alves was using
have claimed the lives of at least a half                                                 Cubans were aware of the impending
                                            his position as Minister to create a base
dozen of MPLA's top leaders before it                                                     split and opposed Alves.
was suppressed. It was the result of a      for the expansion of his own personal
                                            power. Throughout last summer, as he            Press dispatches about the recent
division within MPLA that had widened
since the end of the Angolan war in         felt his power base grow, he was openly      coup attempt have speculated on wheth
early 1976, and had involved conflict       critical of the policies of Neto and Lucio   er it was supported by external forces.
between Nito Alves, leader of the group     Lara, the secretary of the Political          Several reports say that Alves accused
involved in the coup attempt and other      Bureau of MPLA and a man generally
                                            credited with its organization.              the MPLA government of being "anti
MPLA leaders.                                                                            Soviet." When Alves supporters took
                                               The first move to diminish Alves'         over the Angolan radio station they
    During my stay in Angola from April     growing strength came at the end of          were also said to have exhorted people
 to September 1976, the politics of Nito    October when MPLA's Central Commit           to demonstrate in downtown Luanda to
 Alves, then Minister for Internal Ad       tee abolished his Ministry. A week           "bar the road to the alliance of right
 ministration was a constant topic of       before the coup attempt, MPLA re             wing and Maoist forces conspiring
 discussion and debate within many          moved Alves from its ranks altogether,       against the revolution's victories."
 Luanda homes and workplaces as well        the move that led directly to the coup.      After the attempt had been crushed,
 as throughout the countryside. Even        Sources in Luanda told me that Alves         Neto reiterated on national radio that
 then, divisions were beginning to          did have support within the military.        Angola reminaed committed to non
 appear between the "Netoistas" and the     Although Luanda is reported calm,            alignment and its own independence.
 "Nitoistas." The struggle that eventu      there have been unconfirmed reports of       No one, including the Soviet Union and
 ally brought the MPLA government           fighting in other areas of the country.      Cuba, would dictate the country's poli
 dangerously close to chaos is one of the      For an outsider, Alves' brand of          cies, he said.
 most complex and important in Angola       criticism was hard to untangle. His             MPLA communiques have hinted at
 today.                                     rhetoric in support of "class struggle"      the possibility of Western support for
    A guerrilla commander who is only 28    had gained favor with Lisbon leftists        the coup, but so far have not revealed
 or 29 years old, Alves had fought in       who, uneasy with the presence of Cuban       any specifics. I do know for certain that
 MPLA's First Military Region during        troops, saw him representing the "left       the US State Department was inter
 the war against the Portuguese. That       wing of MPLA.                                ested in Alves as early as last spring.
 was the dense, swampy Dembos Forest           Yet within the concrete Angolan con       Other journalists who traveled to
 area, northeast of Luanda, which had       text-a country badly divided by war,         Angola while I was there and who had
 been totally cut off from other MPLA       and an economy paralyzed and virtually       visited the State Department reported
 units for several years in the 1960s.      abandoned by its skilled labor force-I       that information on Alves was one of its
 Many legends of the heroic struggles of    came to feel that his views represented      primary interests. Some reports stated
the guerrillas who continued fighting       a real threat to MPLA's still precarious     that supporters of Alves who had
there grew throughout the country.          power. His advocacy of "class struggle"      attacked Luanda's Sao Paulo prison to
    After the Portuguese coup of April      against the "petit bourgeois element"        free him and another coup leader, Jose
25, 1974, Alves emerged as one of the       translated into the elimination of skilled   van Dunen, also sought to free British
more legendary guerrilla fighters.          whites and mulattos from prominent           and American mercenaries held there
When the movement in support of             and responsible positions. It challenged     since their trial last summer. If true,
Poder Popular-People's Power- de            the position of Neto and Lara who have       this could mean that those who organ
veloped in the shantytowns of Luanda,       continued to argue for national unity-a      ized the attempt may have agreed to
Alves was one of its earliest backers,      politics of anti-racism, anti-tribalism,     free the mercenaries in exchange for
eventually becoming identified with the     and anti-regionalism. When Alves' sup        support for their efforts.
movement for the formation of "Com          porters took over the national radio            What has happened to Alves is uncer
missoes Populares de Bairros," the local    station on May 27 they appealed to "you      tain. Some reports say he has fled the
Neighborhood Committees that are de         who have always felt humiliated be           country, others that he was killed, still
signed to become the backbone of            cause of the simple color of your skin"      others that his fate is unknown. It is
                                            to demonstrate against the government.       known that at least six high ranking
                                               Privately, sources in Luanda who          members of MPLA including Saydi
Mike Shuster, an Editor of Seven Days       spoke frankly with me about the Neto         Mingas, the Finance Minister, several
and member of the Southern Africa           Nito split, expressed anxiety about          commanders of the army, and other
collective, was in Angola from April to     Alves' personal ambitions. They felt he      government members, were killed.
September, 1976.                            wanted to overthrow Neto and establish       Several dozen more are missing.        El
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        25
   "We cannot fail to call attention at      there, it was also initiating discussions      The Ministry also announced in late
every moment to the necessity of giving      aimed at establishing an "African army      April that three Zaire airplanes violated
 importance to the defense of country,"      of intervention," at the meeting of         Angolan air space, bombarding three
 said Lucio Lara, secretary of the politi    Francophone African states in Dakar,        villages in the eastern province of
 cal bureau of MPLA in late April. His       Senegal. "Intervention against whom?"       Moxico, directly southwest of the area
 sentiments have been echoed through         Lara asked. "They speak of commun           of Shaba province where fighting con
 out Angola in the past two months, in       ism, they speak of a new NATO. What         tinues. "The desire of the Kinshasa
 response to the increasingly tense situa    would a new NATO do in Africa? It           government to internationalize the con
tion in the neighboring Shaba province       would intervene against revolutionary       flict," the Ministry stated, "is notorious.
 of Zaire. The Angolans were particu         African countries."                         With these provocations, it is seeking to
 larly disturbed by the French airlift of       When France began its airlift,           draw the People's Republic of Angola
Morroccan troops to Zaire, in early          Angolan President Agostinho Neto sent       into the conflict in order to find a
 April.                                      telegrams of protest to the OAU, King       pretext for new aggressions and to gain
                                             Hassan of Morocco, President Sadat of       new military aid to repress the people
 French Role
                                             Egypt, and to Mobutu in Kinshasa.           who have revolted against an invalid
   Speaking to a wide spectrum of                                                        regime." Further bombing raids were
Angolans, ranging from workers at the        Zaire Attacks Continue
                                                                                         reported in eastern Moxico in early
Port of Luanda to young people attend          On April 13, in a communique which
ing a seminar for members of MPLA's         received no coverage in the western
youth movement, Lara constantly reit        press, the Angolan Defense Ministry
erated the theme of vigilance and           revealed that Zaire had fired on an          Health Campaign Begins
defense. He took considerable pains to      Angolan merchant marine ship in                 While Angola is girding itself against
expose France's motives in their Afri       Angolan coastal waters near the mouth        the possibility of attack from the out
can ventures. "We shouldn't forget," he     of the Congo River. The boat, the            side it is also moving to protect itself
told the port workers, "that it was         communique stated, was returning to          from another serious internal enemy
France that was one of the countries        Luanda on April 10 when it was               disease. On April 7, the Ministry of
that most worked to destroy MPLA on         attacked about 20 kilometers west of         Health launched a massive campaign to
the eve of independence, always with        Zaire's port of Matadi by coastal artil      vaccinate children against polio, the
its eyes on Cabinda's oil." Lara also       lery. No one was killed, but several         particular day coinciding with World
gave some indication of the perspective     were injured and property was dam            Health Day. By all reports the initial
in which MPLA viewed France's quick         aged. "New provocations against any          stages of the campaign have been a
recognition of the MPLA government at       type of national ship," the Ministry         great success.
the point when the outcome of the           warned, "will not be tolerated."                According to Angolan sources, over
Angolan war had become clear. "We              Several days later the Defense Minis      1.5 million children under the age of ten
mustn't forget as well that, at the         try announced that a group of 50 armed       received the first dose of anti-polio
moment we came to power, and to the         invaders from Zaire had attacked three       vaccine on the first three days of the
shock of its partners in the European       Cabinda villages north of the town of        campaign. Over 40,000 volunteers par
Common Market, France immediately           Landana. The group carried North             ticipated in the organization of the
and opportunistically was the first of      American and European weapons and            program.
these 'nine' to recognize Angola," he       tried to convince the villagers that its        Angola hopes to extend the vaccina
said.                                       members were part of the Angolan             tion campaign against smallpox, mea
   Lara charged that while France was       army. "The undefended peasants were          sles, tetanus, diptheria, whooping
flying troops to Shaba on the pretext of    shot," the Ministry stated. Thirty-one       cough and yellow fever by the end of
Cuban, Soviet and Angolan involvement       were killed and several more wounded.        the year.                              [l


   Meetings between representatives of      African Prime Minister Vorster has           There have been two meetings in Cape
five major Western powers and South         yielded to pressure from the US, Bri         Town-one in early April and another
African government officials have           tain, France, West Germany, and              at the end of the month. The Western
stirred a rash of reports and rumors        Canada-all members of the United             representatives also held "informal"
regarding a breakthrough in settling        Nations Security Council-and that a          talks with Turnhalle delegates in Wind
the issue of Namibian independence.         number of concessions either have been       hoek, although they had originally re
   None of the governments is saying        made or are close to being made by the       fused to meet with them in order to
very much, although there have been         South African regime now illegally oc        avoid giving the conference a Western
numerous leaks, mainly from sources         cupying the International Territory of       stamp of approval.
close to the South African sponsored        Namibia.                                       US Vice-President Walter Mondale,
Turnhalle conference in Windhoek,                                                        who has taken charge of the Carter
Namibia's capital city. The thrust of       Western Diplomacy                            administration's Africa policy, met with
Western press accounts is that South         Nothing has yet been made final.            Prime Minister Vorster in Vienna on
May 19. Namibia was one of the topics
of discussion. According to Mondale,
Vorster agreed to free nationwide elec
tions in Namibia to establish a constitu
tion-writing assembly, not a new con
cession. But there had been serious
differences on who should administer
the territory during transition.
   According to Mondale, Vorster was
still insisting that the transitional gov
ernment should be drawn from "political
ethnic groups relatively friendly to
   As reported by David Martin of the
London Observer, writing from Ma
puto, the "understanding" on Namibia
between the Western powers and South
Africa appears to include the acceptance
of the principle of some United Nations
involvement in nationwide elections in
Namibia "held under universal suffrage
without literacy qualifications."

Election Conditions
   United Nations Security Council
Resolution 385 of January 1976 de           Prime Minister Vorster (rear) with head of the U.S. delegation, Don McHenry (right
mands "United Nations supervision and       front) and West German Ambassador Eick at opening of first round of talks on
control" of elections, a position the US    Namibia in April.
government and the others have
claimed to support. But Vorster has            David Martin also reported in the          Free Elections Impossible
resisted UN control of elections, and it    Observer that South Africa apparently
appears that the West is now acceding                                                       Although South Africa has main
                                            intends to establish a central adminis       tained that "all people and parties
to a modified UN presence in Namibia,       trative authority to govern Namibia
a far cry from the original concept,                                                      would be free to participate in the
                                            before independence.                         elections," Free elections in Namibia
which envisioned the UN as involved in
the construction of an electoral system                                                  would be virtually impossible under the
and the close supervision of voting to         According to the Rand Daily Mail, the     understanding apparently reached with
ensure a fair and honest result. South                                                   Western diplomats.
                                            composition of such a caretaker admini          South Africa has a history of harrass
Africa apparently is insisting that the     stration has not been determined, but it     ment, deception, and outright repres
UN presence be restricted to an ob          may include a multiracial advisory coun
server, rather than a supervisory role.                                                  sion in earlier tribal "elections." Pre
                                            cil that may, in turn, include Turnhalle     toria's police, military, intelligence, and
And the Rand Daily Mail said recently:      delegates. "South Africa would with
"It may be that the Western powers                                                       the all-pervading administration in
                                            draw from Namibia in stages," Martin         Windhoek are intact. The Western
themselves will offer to exercise super     noted, "in consultation with those
visory functions on the UN's behalf."                                                    powers, who have a potential three
                                            mainly involved." It was also reported       nation veto, are likely to use their
   "Control" is the key word. Carefully     in the South Africa press that the West
                                            was willing to adopt "a softer line on the   power to dilute the degree of control
and deliberately introduced by the UN
as the lawful authority of the Interna                                                   accorded to the U.N. in any future
                                            UN demand for an immediate South             Namibian election.
tional Territory of Namibia, in fact the    African withdrawal from the territory."
demand for UN control has been obdur                                                        In preparation for the election, South
                                            The Sunday Times reported, "The              Africa also has promised to release
ately ignored by Western governments,       West's position amounts to a request to      Namibian political prisoners and de
although Resolution 385 was passed          South Africa that it continue its man
with their formal concurrence.                                                           tainees. But Pretoria repeatedly has
                                            date until elections are held."              stated that it holds neither political
                                                                                         prisoners nor detainees. All incarcer
                                                                                         ated South Africans and Namibians, the
                                                                                         administration claims, are "criminals,"
TERRORISM TRIALS                                                                         so it is unclear what action the commit
                                                                                         ment entails.
                                                                                            The elections so assiduously pro
    On May 3 a summary trial com               A second Terrorism Act trial is also      moted would apparently be for a con
 menced in Windhoek Supreme Court.           underway in Windhoek Supreme Court.         stituent assembly empowered to draft a
 Ruben Itengula, Michael Shikongo, and      Mr. Benjamin Chrispus Uulenga is yet         constitution. The South West Africa
 Lazarus Carl Guiteb have been charged      another Namibian facing penalty under        People's Organization is not mentioned
 with armed activities under terms of       the illegal South African legislation.       in the "understanding." However,
 South Africa's Terrorism Act.              Demonstrators ringed the court en            SWAPO's information secretary de
   In a demonstration by SWAPO mem          trance, singing and bearing placards         clared that his organization would not
bers, Namibians sang and carried signs      saying, "You can try revolutionaries,        participate under the envisioned care
reading: "South Africa has no right to      but the revolution will continue until its   taker administration. The SWAPO mis
try the Namibian people. You will not       victory is achieved," and "The Turn          sion to the UN issued a statement on
exterminate SWAPO," and "You are on         halle is a corpse, so when is the            May 6 reaffirming the organization's
trial, not SWAPO."                          funeral?"                              0     pledge to accept elections, but also
                                                                                         JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA          27
restated the conditions under which it
would participate in such elections.
   "We know we will win," the May 6
                                              FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
statement said. SWAPO also under
scored the fundamental issues in Nami
bia. "South Africa has no legal or moral
                                              EXPLOIT URANIUM
right to dictate her own conditions to           Namibia is one of the world's major        resources is becoming clearer by the
the international community regarding         sources of uranium ore. The Rossing           day.
elections in Namibia, "the statement          uranium mine, not far from the coastal           South Africa's exploitative aims in
said. "It is the duty and responsibility of   town of Swakopmund, is now in produc          Namibia are becoming equally clear.
the United Nations to decide on the           tion. It is said to be the largest open-pit   Water for the Rossing project, for
modalities and timetable for the elec         uranium mine in the world. The mining         example, is being brought to the mine
toral process."                               prospects in Namibia are enormous.            from an underground lake in such
   The SWAPO statement concluded:             The entire west-central region of Nami        quantities- necessary for Rossing's op
"In the meantime, the struggle con            bia, where the Rossing project is lo          eration-that conservationists fear that
tinues. We expect the Security Council        cated on the edge of the Namib desert,        Namibia's valuable water reserves may
to meet in the near future to take up         appears to be carpeted with the strate        disappear within a few years. And there
the question of Namibia. We are also          gic ore. Multi-national corporations,         is the added danger of radioactive
consulting about the convocation of a         many of them South African, are pro           wastes. The concept of a balanced
 Special Session of the General Assem         ceeding with large-scale exploration          agricultural and industrial society,
bly to review the critical situation in       projects. They are being lured into           which is supported by the South West
Namibia."                                El   Namibia by the five-fold rise in the          Africa People's Organization, is thus
                                              price of uranium over the past four           doubly imperiled.
                                              years, by the global trend toward
                                              nuclear power and weapons, and by the            Plans are underway to bring water
                                              international business community's esti       down to the uranium-producing areas
                                              mation that Namibia's political future        from the Cunene River dam complex, on
                                              will be held securely within the West         the border with Angola, through the
                                              ern capitalist fold.                          use of a series of canals. But as the
                                                 Johannesburg's Financial Mail has          London Spectator noted recently, these
                                              reported that at least four areas in          canals would "virtually wipe out one of
                                              Namibia contain large deposits of urani       the three finest game reserves in Africa
                                              um. A South African company, General          [the Etosha Pan]." The irrigation of
                                              Mining, is scheduled to begin develop         African farmlands in the north from the
                                              ing the territory's second mine. An           Cunene scheme has been one of the
                                              other potential uranium source lies           boasts of Pretoria's South West Africa
                                              within the Damara 'homeland.' The             administration. But the Windhoek Ad
                                              pressures for quick containment of the        vertiser has reported that the South
South African soldiers guard the mis          Namibian people's thrust for complete         African Minister of Water Affairs
sion school from which 126 pupils re          independence are thus accentuated by          has said that there would be no
cently fled to join SWAPO. The school         the vast wealth of the country, and the       such irrigation, because of prohibitive
is in the Ovambo Bantustan.                   real extent of Namibia's rich natural         costs.                                11

   The recent SWAPO national confer           tion with SWAPO. The 17,000-member            bility throughout-the country. The in
ence demonstrated once again that the         Association for the Preservation of the       ternal section of SWAPO also reaf
liberation movement is Namibia's chief        Tjamuaha/Maherero Royal House held            firmed the overall leadership of Presi
and most rapidly growing political            a press conference, at which SWAPO            dent Sam Nujoma and other officers in
organization. Held in Katutura town           Vice-Chairman Daniel Tjongarero said          exile, stating once again the integral
ship outside Windhoek in late March,          that similar statements of allegiance         nature of the party within and outside
the conference enlarged the national          could be expected in the future. The          the boundaries of Namibia.
executive committee to include repre          Tjamuaha/Maherero group represents a
sentatives from political groups that         large portion of the Herero tribe, and it        SWAPO spent considerable time on
have recently joined SWAPO. Six such          stands in opposition to Turnhalle "eth        its new political program, a chief ele
organizations, all located in the central     nic" delegate, Herero Chief Clemens           ment of which is aimed at changing
and southern areas of the territory,          Kapuuo, the man widely expected to be         Namibia's     "two    economies":    one
have joined forces with SWAPO within          the first president of South West             wealthy and white-owned and based on
the past five months. They are the            Africa/Namibia under the South Afri           the exploitative extraction of the coun
Witboois, the Hoachanas, the Vaalgras,        can-nurtured scheme.                          try's natural resources, and the other
the Democratic Organization of Nami                                                         a poor, black, subsistence economy in
bia, the Namibian African Peoples               The SWAPO congress also widened             which the African people "were forced
Democratic Organization and the Reho          the scope of its executive by creating        to live in bantustans" and made to seek
both Volksparty.                              new executive posts and by strengthen         jobs in the white-controlled mines and
   Shortly after the Katutura congress,       ing regional councils to decentralize the     ranches and in fishing and other
yet another group announced its affilia       party and build authority and responsi-       industries.                           0


  The latest round in the Western                                                         The scenario for Dr. Owen's trip, and
search for a Rhodesia settlement in                                                    particularly his meeting with Smith in
volved yet another safari through                                                      South Africa, under the watchful gaze
southern Africa. The new British For                                                   of Vorster, makes clear once more the
eign Secretary, David Owen, embarked                                                   central role which the South African
on a Kissinger-like 8-nation shuttle, in                                               regime plays in the Rhodesian drama.
an attempt to gain acceptance for, or at                                               Smith has described Vorster as the
least interest in, yet another set of                                                  "honest Broker"; one might quibble
Anglo-American proposals for Rho                                                       with the words, but not with the fact
desia.                                                                                 that much of the orchestration is indeed
                                                                                       in Vorster's hands. President Kaunda's
   The new plan is still vague, but                                                    recent statement that Vorster had dis
appears to combine a greater British                                                   couraged Smith from resigning, on sev
involvement with some juggling and                                                     eral occasions, appears to indicate that
reordering of the old Kissinger propos                                                 Pretoria has privately continued to give
als. Since the parties could not agree on                                              the Rhodesians significant support, de
an interim government to draw up a                                                     spite diplomatic gestures of disap
constitution at Geneva, the new idea is                                                proval, aimed at placating the interna
that perhaps they could agree on a                                                     tional community.
constitution which would give rise to an
interim government. As a first step, the                                                  Directly following Owen's visit,
British are tentatively planning to open         David Owen - A New Shuttle            Smith's Rhodesian Front gave him
                                                                                       "carte blanche" to agree to any settle
a liason office in Salisbury. From this
base they will be able to begin a round                                                ment plan he sees fit to push. The
                                              only representatives of the Patriotic    endorsement came in the course of a
of consultations about a constitutional       Front, who should be involved in
conference.                                                                            special party congress which had been
                                              talks with the British. (Owen specif     called following the rebellion of 12
                                              ically rejected the demand at the        Rhodesian Front congress members
   The Conference itself, to be held in       conclusion of his South African
June or July, would shape a constitu                                                   who refused to accept the principle of
                                              safari).                                 any modifications of Rhodesian apar
tion guaranteeing a transfer of power to    -that a settlement be reached which
the black majority in 1978 as well as                                                  theid. Smith clearly has things back
                                              definitely and unequivocally transfers   under control as evidenced by the two
assurances of financial aid to the white      power to the people of Zimbabwe.
population. Owen himself would chair                                                   resolutions which more than two-thirds
                                            -that Britain guarantee the implemen       of the 800 delegates backed. The first
the conference.                               tation of whatever agreement is
   At the end of his trip, Dr. Owen had                                                gives Smith the authorization to "nego
                                              reached at a Constitutional con          tiate a settlement in the best interests
to acknowledge that there had been no         ference.
commitment to a new conference from                                                    of Rhodesia" and urges him, in these
                                            Patriotic Front leader Robert Mugabe       negotiations, to "strive" to abide by the
any of the parties concerned. Un            clarified the Front's position in an
daunted, one of his aides predicted: "I                                                principles and policies of the party. The
                                            interview with Reuters: "We cannot set     second resolution assured the party's
think we are going to make it. I think      about drawing up a constitution unless
we shall get a conference. But there                                                   acceptance of "the need for a settle
                                            Britain maintains the stand that they      ment," calling on Smith to "insure that
could be a number of hiccups."              are going to grant independence imme       the rights of all communities are mean
Cool Reception                              diately.... We are not going to engage     ingfully guaranteed."
   Among the "hiccups" are the re           ourselves in a useless exercise."
sponses of the front line nations, and                                                 'Internal Solution' Not Dead Yet
                                            A Friendly Smith                              Smith meanwhile, continued to press
the Zimbabwean nationalist groups to
the Owen initiative. The Patriotic Front       On the other hand, Ian Smith seems      forward with his "internal solution
made its position on the Owen initiative    to have swallowed the Owen initiative      based on the old Kissinger plan," argu
clear at a press conference in Dar es       without a cough, much less a hiccup.       ing that "there was no certainty that
Salaam: it cited four conditions which         Smith and Dr. Owen appear to have       the Owen proposals would succeed."
had to be agreed upon before the Front      gotten on swimmingly in South Africa.         There are indications that the next
would join in any new negotiations:         Dr. Owen enthused over Smith's             step in the internal solution charade will
-that the Geneva Conference was now         "friendly and intelligent" approach to     be a "referendum" to choose an appro
  a dead issue, and that a fresh start      the problem and, as a result of their       priate black leader to negotiate with
  had to be made in resolving the           chat, Owen added Salisbury to his           Smith. Smith seems to think that the
  Zimbabwean constitutional problem.        itinerary.                                  winner in such a referendum would be
-that it is only the forces presently          The scenario for Dr. Owen's trip, and    Bishop Muzorewa. The Bishop seemed
  engaged in armed struggle, that is        particularly his meeting with Smith in      not unwilling to play the role designed
                                                                                       JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA         29
for him by Smith. At a news conference       adequate amount of legitimacy. Muzo                                        dismissed by Nkomo as little more than
he asserted that if it brought majority      rewa sees the referendum as an elec                                        a joke.
rule to his country, he was "prepared to     tion, a means for deciding on a leader
talk to any body, including the devil."      for Zimbabwe, to whom the white                                             Front Line States
More substantially, he has continued         minority regime would hand over                                               Among the front line presidents,
ever more rigorously to call for a           power. The election would be super                                         there appeared to be some wavering in
referendum!                                  vised by the British. This notion was                                      the unity with which they have sup
                                             included in the five point list of                                         ported the Patriotic Front. Kenneth
                                             demands he presented to Owen during a                                      Kaunda of Zambia rejected Muzorewa's
 Muzorewa Stance                             swing through Western Europe and the                                       proposals outright but Botswana Minis
   While Smith and the Bishop are thus       US, a swing which included talks with                                      ter Archie Mogwe, in a speech to his
 in agreement over the need and desira       Cyrus Vance as well as Owen. Dr.                                           country's National Assembly in early
 bility of a referendum, there continue to   Owen stated, during his southern Africa                                    April, asserted that no nationalist group
 be disparaties in their concept of the      tour, that he was "more attracted to an                                    was "irrelevant" to the struggle. Dis
 nature of this referendum. Smith sees       election than a referendum."                                               cussions at the Maputo conference in
 the referendum as a means for choosing         The Patriotic Front reacted strongly                                    May indicate, however, that in general
 a black negotiating partner, who would      against Muzorewa's referendum election                                     the Patriotic Front has consolidated its
 be invested by the referendum with an       idea, and the idea of a referendum was                                     support internationally.               0

    Evidence of the continuing erosion of    The country's largest fruit growing                                        The Military Solution
the Rhodesian economy came in the            company, Hippo Valley Estates, was                                             Reports from the battlefront boded
form of reports of a serious manpower        forced to dump its 16,000 ton citrus                                        no better for the regime; according to
shortage, and a decline in capital invest    export crop because rail transport could                                    even their own figures, Rhodesian
ment. 1976 was the first year since 1965     not be assured.                                                             forces suffered their highest ever
that there was a net outflow of Euro           Capital inflow was further reduced by                                     monthly losses during March, with 29
peans from Rhodesia, despite the impo        a drastic drop in the number of arriving                                    men admitted dead.
sition, in mid-1976, of severe restric       tourists. The total for this year is                                           In an attempt to control the guer
tioins on the amount of money would-be       expected to be the lowest since before                                      rillas' major sources of support, the
emigrants could take out of the country.     1965.                                                                       regime announced an operation to move
And indications for 1977 boded no              But one area of the economy had                                           some 250,000 Zimbabweans from rural
better; in January 1977, only 440 Euro       adjusted well: the car rental business.                                     tribal lands to "protected villages." The
peans entered the country, compared          A Salisbury car rental firm has just                                       first leg of this operation involved some
with 1,040 in January 1976.                  become the first agency to add a                                            17,000 people in the Honde Valley, area
                                             mine-proof Land Rover to its fleet of                                      of Eastern Rhodesia, near the border
   This emigration has hit the skilled       autos for hire!                                                            with Mozambique. The spokesman at
labor pool particularly hard. Last year,
                                                                                                                        security forces headquarters conceded
Rhodesian Nickel, the country's major
nickel producer, admitted that it was                                                                                   that some people were "reluctant to
more concerned about the shortage of                                                                                    move" and "had to be persuaded."
                                                                                                                            "We have not had to resort to press
skilled manpower than any other diffi
eulty. In his annual report, the com                                                                                    ganging or forcible move. If somebody
pany's chairman said it was unlikely                                                                                    is being a bit reluctant to move, it is a
that the group would succeed in recruit                                                                                 case of driving up to them and standing
ing qualified and experienced men to fill                          REWARDS                                              over them and saying, "Right, grab that
senior technical vacancies until the              Government will pay substantial rewards to anyone whovolnteen
                                                                                                                        sewing machine and put it on the truck.
country could once again offer a secure      secret inforocition which toads to the death or capture of terroristsOr    Do it because you're moving whether
                                             their supportrs and the capture of their weapon.
future.                                                                                                                 you like it or not."
                                                  The names of anyone giving information will remain secret.                The regime also widened its two year
                                                  The amountsof the rewards offered by Goverset         ane             old "psychological action," program.
Capital Shortage                                                                                                        The program has many facets, including
                                             Five thousanddollars for a seai, tleaori        e.
   Further, reports from South Africa                                                                                   airdrops of leaflets showing dead guer
                                             Two thousand five hundred dollar, for a ta eh
document a drop in capital inflow, the                                                   r        group Mader,
                                                                                                                        rillas with their names and places of
result, among South African investors,       One thousand
                                                        dollars for a terroris.
                                                                                                                        origin. Lately, given the wholesale
of uncertainty about Rhodesia's future.      One thousand dollars for each terroris vdhisi                              exodus of students, emphasis has been
Manufacturing production fell 9% in the      One thousand dotars for each trrorist heavy weapon of war.                 placed on working among school chil
first half of 1976. The uncertainty of the   Five hundred dollars fo each terrorist maddne gra.                         dren. A truckload of government
political situation has also affected one    Three hundreddollars for each tereoals lght pertol ereape.                 soldiers, fully and frighteningly armed,
of the regimes major exports: tobacco.       Three hugdred dollar, for each full box of terrorist ammuitalon.           drives into a school and supervises an
Buyers, no longer confident in the                                                                                      essay competition on the "terrorists."
                                             Three hundred dollars for each full box of terroristgreades.
Regime's ability to guarantee delivery,                                                                                 The winner is awarded first prize of a
                                             Three hundred dollars for each full box of terroristaid-porsel oasi
have canceled orders in such numbers                                                                                    pencil and a notebook. The essay writ
that the government was forced to                    rewards not be payable a dvi sersvant is eogaged
                                                 These     will          to             who                             ing is followed by a lecture on the evils
                                             on duties concerned with anti-terrorist acivioties or to a member of the
grant tobacco farmers a subsidy              Security Forces. unless he obtained the infornmsrioa while he was oil      of "terrorism" complete with photos of
amounting to $20 million. Acute trans        duty.
                                                                                                                        badly mutilated, dead guerrillas, and
port problems, brought on by the clo              By order of the Goveramcnt Rhodesia.
                                                                           of                                           photos of dead cattle, allegedly shot by
sure of routes through Mozambique, has                                                                                  the guerrillas as a punishment for lack
caused severe losses for key exporters.                                           Prterie, Satsby.
                                                            Printedby theGoverneent                                     of cooperation.                         0
                                              Western policy. Its one original idea is        Was the initial phase of Soviet and
                                              its provocative thesis that: "The main          Cuban intervention (between March
                                              purpose of the Russian and Cuban                October 1975) a reaction to American
                                              intervention was to undermine China's           intervention in Angola; or was the
                                              influence in Africa rather than to help         Russian-Cubans' massive intervention
                                              the MPLA win for its own sake, or even          only a response to SA's military
                                              to weaken western influence." While             intervention as they claim; or were
                                              Peking and a handful of western Marx            the Russians primarily responsible for
                                              ist-Leninist sects might rally to this          starting the 'war of intervention,' as
                                              argument the evidence to support it is          the Chinese have insisted; or was it
                                                                                              mainly due to the Sino-Soviet conflict
                                              thin, speculative, and specious.                in the Third World; or was Angola
                                                  The study of revolutionary move             another stage in Russia's strategy to
WHAT                                          ments should be framed in both the
                                              national and international contexts
                                                                                              thrust into southern Africa, as has
                                                                                              been claimed by Kissinger and Vor
HAPPENED                                      simultaneously. Their origins have to be
                                              discussed in the framework of the
                                              problems and hopes that inspire them.
                                                                                              ster? When, in fact did SA military
                                                                                             forces first become actively engaged
                                                                                             in Angola?
IN ANGOLA?                                    Revolutions are not export or import
                                              items. They cannot be stage-managed
                                              from afar nor can they be entirely
                                                                                                A second group of questions is
                                                                                             raised by the issue of who the 'legal
                                                                                             government' was in the country after
After Angola: The War Over                    self-sufficient in an age of advanced          the Portuguese left. Was it the Peo
Southern Africa, Colin Legum and              weapons, Great Powers, and imperialist         ple's Republic of Angola, proclaimed
Tony Hodges. New York: Afri                   domination. It is unusual to find a            by Dr. Agostinho Neto's MPLA? Or
                                              revolutionary crisis without some for          the Social Democratic Republic of
cana Pubishing Company. 85 pp.                eign intervention, but it is also unusual      Holden and Savimbi? If there was a
1976.                                         when the foreign intervention by itself        legitimate authority, can one properly
                                              completely explains the dynamics of the        speak of a civil war, which the
by Daniel Schechter                                                                          Russians dispute? Or was it 'a war of
    This small book is the combined               The Western press treated Angola           intervention ?
 product of a distinguished specialist in      entirely as an extension of global rival      Legum deals with these questions by
 the Africanist Establishment, and a well      ries. The war was like a sports event       individually discussing the role of each
 trained researcher of the intelligence        without a life of its own; each team        foreign power along with the barest
 agency school of political analysis. In 85    wore the uniforms of its sponsors and       outlines of the situation in the country
 tightly detailed pages, it gives us two       nothing more. One rarely found the          as independence neared. There are two
 essays by Mr. Legum, the noted corre          MPLA mentioned without the prefix,          problems with this approach. First, it
 spondent for the London Observer, who         "Soviet-backed." Likewise their adver       makes no serious attempt to integrate
 sets out to untangle the complex web of       saries, whether Holden Roberto's            the levels of analysis. This creates a
 foreign intervention in the Angola war.       FNLA or Jonas Savimbi's UNITA, were         certain difficulty in remembering what
 He is joined in this exercise by the          always identified as "pro-Western."         the Americans were doing when the
 lesser known Mr. Hodges. The book is a       There was never a parity of ideological      Russian arms were arriving, or where
 monograph-offshoot of the expensive           identifiers however. The MPLA was           the Cubans were when the first South
 publication Africa Contemporary Rec           labelled "marxist" but the others were      Africans crossed the border. The lack of
 ord which keeps tabs on the continent         never "pro-capitalist" or "imperialist      a clear chronology leads to an uneven
 for those institutions, corporations, and    backed." Journalists seldom attempted        ness in the narrative.
 government agencies that can afford the      to penetrate the meaning of these labels
 service.                                      in the day-to-day affairs of ordinary         Secondly, the text jumps too quickly
    By self-admission this slim volume is     Angolans. Rarely were the people             over the political struggles underway in
 a "preliminary study" which seeks to         themselves interviewed or the extent of      Angola in the period from the Portu
 offer "an objective description." Its        their popular participation gauged. The      guese coup on April 24, 1974 through
 purpose is not detached analysis but an      quantity of military clashes were re         the break up of the transitional govern
 activist commitment; its stated goal is      ported regularly; the quality of political   ment in mid-1975.
 to influence western decision makers.        struggles hardly at all.                        So who intervened first? Colin Legum
And it is important to understand at the          Colin Legum's work comes to us in        argues that the Russians and the
outset that Legum is completely com           this spirit; an ostensibly 'objective'       Cubans intervened to undercut Chinese
 mitted to the survival of fundamental        work which does not recognize its own        influence. The Chinese withdrew at the
Western interests. In short what we           anti-revolutionary bias; which takes         request of the OAU, while the Russians
have here is a brief intended for Mr.         seriously the dangers of superpower,         and Cubans torpedoed the prospects for
Vance and his ilk rather than an intel        i.e., Soviet domination, but ignores the     peace, eventually winning the war.
lectual project aimed at clarifying the       reality of imperialist penetration; which    They could do that only because the
past.                                         treats all the Angolan movements with        United States did not act like a super
    Selective in its sources, skewed in its   a surface neutrality but is prepared to      power. Meanwhile South Africa's inter
argumentation and biased in its conclu        believe and repeat the worst about the       vention was a military failure indicating
sions, Legum's book combines a subtle         MPLA. It is a book that makes careful        recklessness on its part and the inade
anti-communism with a pseudo scientific       political distinctions to support its        quacy of the nationalist movement it
tone. It seeks to avoid ideological           thesis but ignores compelling evidence       was trying to support. Legum does not
issues, and deflects our attention away       that contradicts it. Finally, its own        find evidence of US-South African col
from the culpability and criminality of       narrative is internally inconsistent, im     lusion significant.
                                              plying more than it proves.                     If you are having trouble digesting
Daniel Schechter is a Boston news                Legum proceeds with his analyses by       this theory, it may be because some of
casterand long-time follower of African       posing and answering a number of             it is simply indigestible. Let's back up,
developments.                                 important questions:                         and look at these points in slow motion.
                                                                                           JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA        31
  1. "The Russians and Cubans inter         Cuba . . ." The Times also quoted two        ideology. The FNLA and the UNITA
vened to undercut Chinese influence."       Soviet sources to debunk the Admini          behaved as if they were contesting for
But how influential were the Chinese,       stration inspired theory. "We did not        power; the MPLA as if it was conduct
and what political threat did they pose?    twist their arms, we didn't even have to     ing a revolution. Even Tony Hodge's
Before the war, despite their rhetoric of   twist their arms, the Cubans wanted to       truncated account shows how the vio
even handedness and neutrality, they        go in," said one Soviet official. An         lence which eventually led to warfare
were supplying military advisors to the     other-who had been to Cuba-said              between the movements was triggered
Zaire and FNLA armies, a relationship       simply: "They are more radical than we       by the FNLA's attacks on MPLA politi
unlikely to win them. many friends          are.                                         cal programs in Luanda. As he reports,
among progressives in Africa who are                                                     the very first serious clash began when
                                               4. The Americans and South Afri           the MPLA organized organs of grass
aware of both Mobutu and Roberto's          cans. Legum is critical of the American
CIA tinged past.                                                                         roots and democratically controlled
                                            intervention, but largely it seems           "popular power" and proclaimed a week
  If the Russians were to counter the       because it failed. He has no sense of the
Chinese as their primary goal we would                                                   of activities. The FNLA condemned
                                            way United States policy helped created      these because "power.should only be
have expected them to pump arms into        the crisis in the first place-and that is
Angola even earlier. Tony Hodges tells                                                   exercised by the liberation movements"
                                            because he has no analysis of American       and because "independence does not
us that the FNLA received 450 tons of       imperialism and its strategy of neo
Chinese arms in 1974. Yet it wasn't                                                      mean anarchy." The FNLA soon moved
                                            colonialism. "The fact is that the United    its CIA-backed and Chinese equipped
until March 1975, according to Legum,       States has been intervening in Angola
that the first big Russian arms ship                                                     army into Luanda and a series of violent
                                            and Zaire since 1960," writes Africanist     clashes began.
ments arrived for the MPLA. The             Immanuel Wallerstein, "continuously,
American Angolan expert John Marcum                                                         It is only by not overlooking and
                                            flagrantly, and never on the side of the     submerging the ideological differences
says of those arms in an article in the     progressive forces. Angola might have
April 1976 Foreign Affairs: that they                                                    between the movements that one can
                                            been independent ten years ago, and
were not an "unreasonable response" to      under an MPLA government were it             recognize that the internal conflict with
Roberto's own "escalation" (with both                                                    in Angola mirrored the line-up of exter
                                            not for US support of the Portuguese,
Chinese and American weapons). Mar                                                       nal forces. The MPLA's victory was not
                                            of Holden Roberto, of Mobutu, and            just a function of military success or
cum also reports that the Soviets had       anyone who threatened the structures
actually cut their aid to the MPLA to                                                    external support, but a vindication of a
                                            of dominance in Southern Africa."            political outlook and popular mobiliza
the same extent as they had FNLA and
UNITA.                                         Legum is eqully mild in his dis           tion. In the final analysis, it was the
                                            approval of the South African invasion       passions, sacrifices and consciousness of
   2. Legum relies on "western intelli      which he brands as reckless and coun         the Angolans themselves that shaped
gence guesstimates," for his estimate on    ter-productive. He finds it hard to          their    own history. Unfortunately
the costs of Soviet involvement. He         accept that the United States govern         writers who explain revolutions as the
uncritically accepts Henry Kissinger's       ment, in John Marcum's words "con           interplay of interventions and elites
claim of $200 million as the amount the      nived at the South African intervention     cannot understand that.                 El
Soviets spent. And all this, Legum          and sought to cooperate with it,"
insists, was to discredit the Chinese!      despite clear inplication in various
                                            statements by John Vorster that the
   3. Why were the Russians and             two countries were in collusion from the
Cubans involved? The most direct and        very beginning.
least fashionable answer is that the           As for the date of the South African        OF SPECIAL NOTE . . . Robert
MPLA asked for their help. Both coun        invasion, all analysts are agreed that it      Van Lierop reports that the
tries have been backing Agostinho           began in full strength on October 23,          Mozambique Film Project, which
Neto's movement since its formation          1975. But a South African build up had        aimed to raise $40,000 for a new
although the extent of their aid varied     preceded that. With the help of its            hospital in Mozambique through
over time. (In the same period, the US      allies, it is reasonable to assume that        showing of the film 0 Povo Organi
                                            MPLA's intelligence sources were good,         zado had raised $39,109 by May 5.
aligned itself with Portugal.) The
Soviets certainly had a long-standing       and that they knew that the South              Project participants hope to be able
policy to justify their involvement.        Africans were coming. Is it any wonder         to hand over the full amount to
   As for the Cubans, Legum is way off      that they prepared for it? So much for         Carlos Lobo, Ambassador of the
base again. He implies that it was the      Legum's big discovery that there were          People's Republic of Mozambique to
Soviets who enlisted the voluntary          some Cubans engaged in battle a few            the U.N., on June 25, the second
                                            weeks before Pretoria launched its             anniversary of Mozambique's inde
cooperation of the Cubans, although he
is not sure when this happened. He          blitzkrieg. It is still uncontestable that     pendence and the 15th anniversary
                                            the major Cuban assistance followed            of the founding of FRELIMO.
totally ignores Cuba's long standing
                                            rather than preceded the South African            Please contact the Project if you
policy of support for guerrilla struggles
throughout the world, its activist anti     invasion.                                      can help-either by making a dona
imperialist orientation, and its close         Legum's second set of questions deals       tion or by setting up a showing of
relationship with the MPLA.                 with the legitimacy of the MPLA. This          the film. Tax exempt donations
   There is considerable evidence that      question is somewhat moot today since          may be made to CAHD-Episcopal
the Cubans "enlisted" Soviet support        the People's Republic of Angola has            Church, 815 2nd Ave., New York,
for their autonomously developed poli       been universally recognized as the coun        NY 10007. Make checks payable to
cy. On February 4, 1975, the New York       try's only government. But the histori         Mozambique Health Project. For
Times reported that Henry Kissinger         cal issue of who was responsible for the       information regarding film show
indicated that he believed that the         breakdown of the transitional govern           ings, write to Mozambique Film
Cubans acted on their own initiative in     ment remains a point of considerable           Project, 240 East 23rd St., New
Angola, but that the United States          controversy in certain circles. That           York, NY 10010. Telephone: (212)
publicly held the Soviets responsible       government was an uneasy coalition of          867-8400, ext. 341.
because "The United States had virtu        unequal forces. They were forces that
ally no leverage with respect to            differed fundamentally on political

                                                                                              sponsors included several state repre
                                                                                              sentatives and labor officials.

                                                                                              BRIEFS . . . A Congressional briefing
                                                                                              on Zaire, sponsored by the Coalition for
                                                                                              a New Foreign and Military Policy and
                                                                                              the Washington Office on Africa, was
                                                                                              held April 29. .   .   . A demonstration by
                                                                                              several hundred people on April 10
                                                                                              helped convince most longshoremen on
                                                                                              the San Francisco waterfront not to
                                                                                              unload a ship carrying South African
                                                                                              asbestos. The demonstration was called
                                                                                              by the Boycott South African Cargo
                                                                                              Committee, a coalition of 20 Bay area
                                                                                              groups. .   .   . The Detroit Solidarity
                                                                                              Committee Against Apartheid, organ
                                                                                              ized by the Revolutionary Socialist
                                                                                      -,      League, staged an April 30 picket of
                                                                                              Manufacturers National Bank, which
                                                                                              sells Krugerrands. The group has called
                                                                                              on bank customers to protest the policy
                                                                                              and to boycott the bank until it is
                                                                             Workers World    changed ...        Groups around the
                      May Day March Against Racism in Boston.

                           -                  Bryn Mawr, and the
                                                                          rniversity of
                                                                                              country planned to mark African Lib
                                                                                              eration Day with demonstrations and
                                                                                              other events. Among the scheduled
                                                                                              actions was a march and rally May 28 in
                                              COLLEGE SELLS STOCIK . . . Trus-                New York, sponsored by Blacks in
                                                                                              Solidarity with South African Libera
                                              tees of Hampshire College in Massachu-         tion. The theme was to be "South Africa
                                              setts have sold $215,000 w
                                              directly controlled by the coltheofollock
                                                                          olege follow-
                                                                                             and black America: same struggle,
                                                                                             same fight." . . . Christian Concern in
                                              ing a demand by studer nts that the            Southern Africa, a British church
                                              school divest itself busines holdings in
                                              companies doing of any                         research group, has published a report
                                                                          s in South         alleging that ICI's South African sub
                                                The trustees' action cat                     sidiaries are providing tear gas for
 PROTESTING HYPOCRISY .                                                    me after an       security forces, relying heavily on Afri
                                         A    extensive campaign by stuidents which          can migrant labor, and refusing to give
 decision by Stanford Universi ty trus-       culminated in a four-day tal eover of the      adequate information about wages and
 tees to abstain on a shareholder resolu-     college's administrative ce
                                                                           enter. About      conditions to black employees.
 tion calling on Ford Motor Co. to            two-thirds of the college 's staff and
 withdraw from South Africa pro mpted a       faculty signed a petition su pporting the
 take-over of a university buildin g which    students' position on the st ock sale.         CANADIAN            CONVENTION           ON
 ended May 9 with the arrest of 294                                                          SOUTHERN AFRICA.             .   . The South
 persons. The action was repea ted the                                                       ern Africa Action Coalition held a con
 following day, but participant s voted       BANK CAMPAIGN IN PR OGRESS...                  ference in Vancouver May 13-15 to
 170 to 130 to withdraw rather than to        A nationwide campaign to end US bank           discuss recent events and develop a
 face additional arrests. A spoke swoman      loans to South Africa is underway.             coordinated plan of activities. Among
 for the Stanford Committee for Respon-       Sponsored by a number of )rganizations         the speakers were liberation movement
 sible Investment Policy, which organ-        including trade unions, chu rch and com-       representatives and John Gaetsewe,
 ized the protest, cited the miajority's      munity groups, and the Air ierican Com-        exiled secretary general of the banned
 feeling that it would be more u seful to     mittee on Africa, a call has been issued       South African Congress of Trade
 engage in other forms of action rather       urging individuals and org$ anizations to      Unions.
than to continue the confrontati on. The      withdraw funds from bankis known to                                    0

trustees maintained that they hold "a         have South African connect ions.               TANZANIA             COMMEMORATES
deep aversion to the practice ofapar-           It recently has come to i ight that the      SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE... Sev
theid."                                       First National Bank of i Atlanta, not          eral hundred Tanzanians joined with
    A smaller protest at the Univeersity of   previously known as a lenuder to South         representatives of the South African
California at Berkeley, whose ttrustees       Africa, is a partnerin a $2 nillion loan.      liberation movements and Soweto stu
have voted consistently in fa     avor of                                                    dents to recall the Sharpeville massacre
corporate management positioris, also         MAY DAY PROTEST..            More than         and to express solidarity with liberation
produced some arrests. About 3 per-
                                  100         1,000 people participated ina May Day          efforts. Ndugu Nungu, a member of
sons, including the chancellor, a ttended     march in Boston to prote st apartheid          Tanzania's CCM Central Committee,
a rally called to oppose South African        and US involvement in S outh Africa.           called on South Africans to abandon
investments.                                  One theme of the day w as "Jobs at             their differences and to form a common
   At McAllister College in Mininesota,       Home, not Wars Abroad ," and one               front in the liberation struggle. "The
trustees agreed to vote the school's          target was the First Natioinal Bank of         people who can fight are there. And the
share in favor of anti-apartheid resolu-      Boston, which is a partner in a major          supply of arms is not a problem at the
tions.                                        loan to South Africa. Or ganizers in-          moment. What is mostly needed now is
   Other schools where the iss hassue         cluded Youth Against War and Fascism           your determination which cannot come
been raised this year include H 'arvard,      and the African National C ongress, and        without yourselves being united."
                                                                                             JUNE-JULY 1977/SOUTHERN AFRICA            33
Name                                           SUBSCRIPTION RATES:
                                               Individuals (Domestic and Foreign)    $8.00 per year
                                               Institutions (Domestic and Foreign)   $18.00 per year
                                               Introductory 7 month offer            $4.00
   ONew         ORenewal                       Airmail:
                                                  Africa, Asia, Europe               $20.50
Change of Address_____________
                                                  South & Central America            $17.50
(enclose label)__________   _______            3 month trial                         $1.00

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