Georgia High School Graduation Test - McEachern High School by pptfiles

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									The Science Test
 In the Bohr model there
  were distinct energy
  levels where electrons
  could exist.
 1st energy level holds 2
  electrons
 2nd energy level holds 8
  electrons
 3rd energy level holds 8
  then 18 after 4th level gets   What element is this?
  2 electrons.                      Oxygen
   The atom is mostly
    empty space

   Two regions
    • Nucleus- protons
      and neutrons.
    • Electron cloud-
      region where you
      might find an
      electron.
              Charge   Mass     Location
protons         +1     1 amu     nucleus


neutrons    Neutral    1 amu     nucleus

electrons     -1       0       Outside
                               nucleus in
                               electron
                               cloud
The number of protons
 in an atom of a
 particular element is
 its atomic number.
Each element has a
 different atomic
 number.
Protons and neutrons are responsible for
 most of the atomic mass of an atom.
The number of protons and neutrons in
 an atom are the mass number of that
 atom.
   9                 Atomic Number


  F        Atomic Symbol


Fluorine              Element name
                      Atomic Mass
18.998

  2,7      Number of electrons per level
For any given element, all
  nuclei have the same
  number of protons, but
  the number of neutrons
  may vary.
These atoms of the same
  element with different
  atomic masses are
  called isotopes.
What is an electron?
a. Particle with a + charge
b. Particle with a – charge
c. Particle with no electrical charge
d. The basic building block of an element
An atom of neon (Ne) has 10 protons, 10
   neutrons, 10 electrons. What is the atomic
   mass of Ne?
a. 0amu         c. 20 amu
b. 10 amu       d. 30 amu
   A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of
    a solute and a solvent.
     A solute is the dissolved substance in a solution. There
      is less of it.
      salt in salt water
      sugar in soda
      carbon dioxide in soda
     A solvent is the dissolving medium. You have more of it.
      water in salt water
      water in sodas
   An electrolyte is a substance whose water
    solution conducts electricity.
      ionic compounds such as NaCl (sodium chloride
     acids and bases such as HCl (hydrochloric acid)
     and NaOH (sodium hydroxide)

   Non electrolytes are substances whose
    aqueous solutions do not contain ions and do
    not conduct an electrical current.
State     Movement      Proximity     Shape/Volume

Solid    Very little;   Tightly     Definite shape and
         slow           packed      volume

Liquid
         Free to        Close       No definite shape;
         move; faster   together    definite volume
Gas      Very fast      Very far    No definite shape;
                        apart       fills container
   Plasmas consist of freely
    moving charged particles,
    i.e., electrons and ions.
   Lightning creates a jagged
    column of plasma.
   When an electric current is
    passed through neon gas,
    it produces both plasma
    and light.
   Part of a comet's
    streaming tail is plasma
    from gas ionized by
    sunlight and other
    processes.
   The Sun is a ball of
    plasma.
Vinegar is a solution of two liquids: water &
  acetic acid. Most vinegar contains 95% water
  & 5% acetic acid. In vinegar, acetic acid is ___.
a. A solvent         c. an element
b. A mixture         d. solute
Salad dressing often contains vinegar & oil.
   Shaking a bottle of dressing combines the
   ingredients, but afterward the vinegar & soil
   separate. Which term describes the salad
   dressing?
a. Solution          c. heterogeneous mixture
b. Solute            d. homogeneous mixture
   Alpha decay- consists of two protons and two
    neutrons

   Beta decay-released electron

   Gamma decay- high-energy photon
   Alpha

   Beta

   Gamma
The time it takes for half of a radioactive element
 to decay is its half-life.
What type of nuclear reaction results in a single
  nucleus undergoing a decrease in mass
  number, a decrease in atomic number and the
  release of a helium nucleus?
a. Alpha decay
b. Beta decay
c. Gamma decay
d. Chemical reaction
How much would remain after one half-life if
   you started with 24 grams of the substance?
a. 24 grams           c. 12 grams
b. 48 grams           d. 124 grams

								
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