# Georgia High School Graduation Test - McEachern High School by pptfiles

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```									The Science Test
 In the Bohr model there
were distinct energy
levels where electrons
could exist.
 1st energy level holds 2
electrons
 2nd energy level holds 8
electrons
 3rd energy level holds 8
then 18 after 4th level gets   What element is this?
2 electrons.                      Oxygen
   The atom is mostly
empty space

   Two regions
• Nucleus- protons
and neutrons.
• Electron cloud-
region where you
might find an
electron.
Charge   Mass     Location
protons         +1     1 amu     nucleus

neutrons    Neutral    1 amu     nucleus

electrons     -1       0       Outside
nucleus in
electron
cloud
The number of protons
in an atom of a
particular element is
its atomic number.
Each element has a
different atomic
number.
Protons and neutrons are responsible for
most of the atomic mass of an atom.
The number of protons and neutrons in
an atom are the mass number of that
atom.
9                 Atomic Number

F        Atomic Symbol

Fluorine              Element name
Atomic Mass
18.998

2,7      Number of electrons per level
For any given element, all
nuclei have the same
number of protons, but
the number of neutrons
may vary.
These atoms of the same
element with different
atomic masses are
called isotopes.
What is an electron?
a. Particle with a + charge
b. Particle with a – charge
c. Particle with no electrical charge
d. The basic building block of an element
An atom of neon (Ne) has 10 protons, 10
neutrons, 10 electrons. What is the atomic
mass of Ne?
a. 0amu         c. 20 amu
b. 10 amu       d. 30 amu
   A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of
a solute and a solvent.
 A solute is the dissolved substance in a solution. There
is less of it.
salt in salt water
sugar in soda
carbon dioxide in soda
 A solvent is the dissolving medium. You have more of it.
water in salt water
water in sodas
   An electrolyte is a substance whose water
solution conducts electricity.
  ionic compounds such as NaCl (sodium chloride
 acids and bases such as HCl (hydrochloric acid)
and NaOH (sodium hydroxide)

   Non electrolytes are substances whose
aqueous solutions do not contain ions and do
not conduct an electrical current.
State     Movement      Proximity     Shape/Volume

Solid    Very little;   Tightly     Definite shape and
slow           packed      volume

Liquid
Free to        Close       No definite shape;
move; faster   together    definite volume
Gas      Very fast      Very far    No definite shape;
apart       fills container
   Plasmas consist of freely
moving charged particles,
i.e., electrons and ions.
   Lightning creates a jagged
column of plasma.
   When an electric current is
passed through neon gas,
it produces both plasma
and light.
   Part of a comet's
streaming tail is plasma
from gas ionized by
sunlight and other
processes.
   The Sun is a ball of
plasma.
Vinegar is a solution of two liquids: water &
acetic acid. Most vinegar contains 95% water
& 5% acetic acid. In vinegar, acetic acid is ___.
a. A solvent         c. an element
b. A mixture         d. solute
Salad dressing often contains vinegar & oil.
Shaking a bottle of dressing combines the
ingredients, but afterward the vinegar & soil
separate. Which term describes the salad
dressing?
a. Solution          c. heterogeneous mixture
b. Solute            d. homogeneous mixture
   Alpha decay- consists of two protons and two
neutrons

   Beta decay-released electron

   Gamma decay- high-energy photon
   Alpha

   Beta

   Gamma
The time it takes for half of a radioactive element
to decay is its half-life.
What type of nuclear reaction results in a single
nucleus undergoing a decrease in mass
number, a decrease in atomic number and the
release of a helium nucleus?
a. Alpha decay
b. Beta decay
c. Gamma decay
d. Chemical reaction
How much would remain after one half-life if
you started with 24 grams of the substance?
a. 24 grams           c. 12 grams
b. 48 grams           d. 124 grams

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