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Trees SquirrelsNarrators of Nature in Your ... - KBS GK12 Project

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Trees SquirrelsNarrators of Nature in Your ... - KBS GK12 Project Powered By Docstoc
					Trees Squirrels: Narrators of Nature in Your Neighborhood
By: Kristi Backe, Michelle Rabkin, and Steve Sullivan

Engage:
   1. Ask students to generate a list of animals they have observed in the schoolyard, and
      record the list on the board.
   2. Focus the conversation on squirrels and ask students to share their observations of
      squirrel behavior in the schoolyard. What kinds of things have students seen squirrels
      doing? (If students had not listed squirrels in Step 1, prompt them by asking if they have
      observed squirrels in the schoolyard.)
   3. Take students outside to look at their schoolyard and imagine it from the perspective of
      a squirrel. Can students identify certain areas in the schoolyard where squirrels might
      spend more time? Less time? What kinds of places would make squirrels feel safe?
      What kinds of places would make them feel unsafe?
   4. Suggest to students that some scientists studying animal behaviors are interested in how
      animals behave in areas where they feel safe or threatened. One possible way to test
      this is to place food out for the animals in different locations and then analyze how
      much food the animals eat in each location.
   5. Have students describe what they would expect to observe if they put food out for the
      squirrels in the schoolyard in an area that seemed safe for the squirrels. How might this
      differ from what they would expect to observe if they put food out in a place that
      seemed unsafe to the squirrels? Where do students think the squirrels would eat
      more? If necessary, present an analogy of a person’s response to food in places that
      seem safe or dangerous. For example, have students imagine they have access to one
      bowl of candy on the kitchen table and one bowl of candy in the middle of a busy street.
      Would they eat the same amount of candy from each bowl?
   6. Inform students that scientists studying squirrels are addressing some of the same
      questions about squirrel behavior. In particular, some scientists have formed
      hypotheses about how the relative safety of a location for squirrels can impact how
      much food squirrels consume. These scientists are requesting help from citizen
      scientists around the United States who can submit data that helps the scientists to
      address their questions about squirrel behaviors on a larger scale.
   7. Introduce students to Project Squirrel, and pull up the website (projectsquirrel.org) if
      possible. If web access is not available, give students an overview of Project Squirrel and
      how the citizen science component works, including what kinds of data any citizen
      scientist can submit. Highlight the importance of citizen science to students by explaining
      that because scientists like those involved in Project Squirrel can’t be in every city
      gathering data throughout the year, they rely on citizen scientists to help gather
      information.
   8. Explain that just like the Project Squirrel scientists, students will use food consumption
      as a way to understand how squirrels feel about the schoolyard habitat and submit their
      data to Project Squirrel. Through their investigation, students will learn more about the
      behaviors of the squirrels in their schoolyard, which can provide clues about the
      interactions occurring between organisms in the area. These data may help scientists to
     understand why some neighborhoods have one species of squirrel, others have two, and
     some have none.

Explore:
  Part 1 (before foraging patches are placed in the schoolyard)
  1. Provide students with an overview of the investigation. (Students will select sites in the
     schoolyard that they think will be “safe” and “unsafe” for squirrels. Two foraging
     patches will be placed at each site, one at the base of a tree and one farther out from
     the tree (4m from the tree). Students will install one ear of corn at each foraging patch
     and allow foraging throughout the day. Students will then record how much the
     squirrels consume in each of the four locations.)
  2. Explain that because Project Squirrel scientists are interested in using data from multiple
     sites across the country, it is important for participants to follow standardized
     procedures. When everyone does things the same way, their data can be compared
     more effectively. Introduce these guidelines, provided by Project Squirrel:
         Consider the trees around the school. Select a tree in a quiet part of the yard
         where students hypothesize squirrels will feel comfortable. Identify this as the “Safe
         site.”
         Select a second tree in a busier place where students hypothesize squirrels will feel
         uncomfortable. Identify this as the “Unsafe site.”
         For each site, one foraging patch will be placed at the base of the tree and one
         foraging patch will be placed 4m from the base of the tree. Both foraging patches at
         each site (“safe” and “unsafe”) should be at least 4m from other trees, fences, walls,
         or buildings.
  3. Divide the students into four groups: Safe Site near tree; Safe Site 4m from tree; Unsafe
     Site near tree; Unsafe Site 4m from tree.
  4. Pass out a Data Collection Sheet and a cob of feed corn to each group. Have students
     use a balance to find the initial mass of the corn cob (to the nearest gram) and record
     this value on the Data Collection Sheet. Each corn cob should then be placed in a
     resealable bag labeled with the group’s name (e.g. “Safe Site near tree) and the day of
     data collection.
  5. Take students outside to locate their group’s patch location.
  6. Pass one Habitat Information Sheet to the two groups at the safe site and one Habitat
     Information Sheet to the two groups at the unsafe site, and have the students record
     the indicated information about patch locations. As necessary, assist students with the
     Habitat Information Sheet. (See Background Information for resources.)

  Note to teacher: You will place the foraging patches in the schoolyard in the locations
  selected by the students each morning on the four data collection days. The patches should
  be out in the schoolyard for a minimum of six hours and should not be left out overnight.
  You will also need to collect the corn and patches at the end of each day. (Students could
  be involved in setting up and/or collecting the foraging patches and corn, depending on the
  school schedule.) See the Foraging Patch Assembly Instructions for information on how to
  assemble the patches, how to attach an ear of corn to each patch at the beginning of the
  day, and how to collect each patch at the end of the (minimum) six hour period.
Part 2 (while foraging patches are in the schoolyard)
1. Explain that to collect more data about the squirrels in the schoolyard, students will
   observe the patches for a few moments and record the number of squirrels they
   observe in the school yard.
2. Go to the Project Squirrel website and introduce students to the two types of squirrels
   that make up the vast majority of tree squirrels in the United States, the gray squirrel
   and the fox squirrel. Introduce the major characteristics of each (belly color and tail
   markings) and make sure students can distinguish between species. (If it is not possible
   to pull up the website during class, print pictures of both species to show to students.)
3. Take students outside to observe the area around the foraging patches. Once outside,
   split the students into their four groups. Send the two groups who are monitoring the
   safe location and the two who are monitoring the unsafe location to observe the area
   around their sites for 1 to 5 minutes.
4. Have students count how many squirrels they see near their site during their
   observation. Using what they learned about the squirrel species, students should
   identify which squirrel species they are observing. This number of squirrels they see
   and the squirrel species should be recorded on the Data Collection Sheets.

Part 3 (after foraging patches are removed from the schoolyard; refer to Foraging Patch
Assembly Instructions for information on removing the foraging patches from the
schoolyard )
1. Divide students back into the four groups, and give each group the bag of corn collected
   from their foraging patch.
2. Introduce the terms “intact kernels,” “kernels with excised embryos,” and “small pieces
   of kernels.” Show pictures when appropriate. Explain that students will fill out the rest
   of the Data Collection Sheet, which should already have the foraging patch location,
   mass of corn cob before foraging, squirrel species observed and number of each species
   observed recorded.
3. Have students separate the corn into piles according to the categories listed on the
   Data Collection Sheet.
4. Have students weigh each pile and record the data on their Data Collection Sheet.
5. Have students calculate the mass of all of the corn kernel scraps left behind by the
   squirrels by adding the mass of kernels with excised embryos to the mass of small pieces
   of kernels (first data table).

Note to teacher: “Corn kernel scraps” refers only to remaining parts of corn kernels that
squirrels have eaten, not to whole kernels that squirrels have knocked off the cob.

6. Next, have students combine whole kernels left behind on the cob and whole kernels
   found loose on the foraging patch. Students should weigh this pile of all whole kernels
   left behind by squirrels and enter the mass onto the Data Collection Sheet.
7. Have students calculate how much corn was consumed by the squirrels using the initial
   mass of the cob and the information in the second data table. If necessary, assist
   students with the calculation. [“initial mass of corn before foraging (with kernels
   attached)” – “mass of cob with all kernels removed” - “total mass of all whole kernels
      left behind by squirrels” = amount of corn consumed] Note: The “kernels with excised
      embryos” and the “small pieces of kernels” are considered consumed by the squirrel,
      because the squirrel has removed the nutritious part of the kernel. (See Background
      Information)
   8. On at least three additional days, repeat the procedure by placing foraging patches in
      the schoolyard, observing the patches, bringing in the patches, and collecting data about
      the remaining corn. The foraging patch locations should not change. Students should fill
      out a new Data Collection Sheet each day.

Note to Teacher: Students will collect a range of data to manipulate in class. The teacher is
responsible for compiling all of this data and submitting it to Project Squirrel at
projectsquirrel.org. A Reporting Sheet is provided to aid the teacher in compiling the data,
which will make data entry more straightforward.

   Part 4 (after four days of data collection)
   1. Have each group find the average mass of corn kernel scraps and the average mass of
      corn consumed at their site over the four days of data collection. Use the Class Data
      Sheet to compile the data collected by all four groups. (Project the data sheet on the
      board if possible.)
   2. Pass out a Data Analysis Sheet and a Graph Sheet to each student. Have students
      create 2 bar graphs (in the space provided) that present the data collected by the class
      at each of the four locations. (Provide guidance as necessary. One graph should include
      the average mass of corn kernel scraps left behind in the foraging patch for each of the
      four locations, and the other graph should include the average mass of corn consumed
      for each of the four locations. These calculations have already been compiled on the
      Class Data Sheet. If desired, have students also graph the data collected for each day.)
   3. Have students analyze their graphs and the class data and respond to the questions on
      the Data Analysis Sheet.

   Note to teacher: To help students analyze data, you may wish to clarify that the two data
   calculations compiled on the Class Data Sheet are two possible ways of looking at how
   much corn the squirrels were interested in eating.
               Because squirrels don’t eat the whole corn kernel, they leave behind clues about
               how much they actually ate. Compare the corn kernel scraps left behind on the
               foraging patch to candy wrappers. If we put out a bowl of candy and look at the
               wrappers left behind, we can figure out approximately how much candy was
               eaten at a given location. When we measure the corn kernel scraps, we are
               doing the same thing with the squirrels.
               The corn consumed calculation tells us how much corn is actually missing from
               the foraging patch. The calculation takes the starting mass of the cob (including
               kernels) and subtracts all whole kernels of corn left behind in order to calculate
               how much is missing.
Explain
   1. As a class, discuss students’ conclusions about which location seemed most safe based
      on the data students collected. What factors can students identify that may have
      impacted the amount of food consumed by the squirrels? How does this compare with
     students’ initial ideas about features that might make a location seem safe or unsafe to
     squirrels?
  2. What conclusions can students draw about squirrels’ willingness to venture away from
     trees in search of food? How can they use the data to support their conclusions?
  3. Do the data from both graphs seem to suggest the same site as the most safe site? If
     not, what factors might be contributing to the differences? If so, what specific features
     of that site do students think are most important?

Elaborate:
  1. Place students in pairs or small groups. Explain that each pair of students will conclude
     where they think the ideal squirrel habitat is located in the schoolyard based on what
     they have learned from the data collection and analysis completed thus far.
  2. Give the students time to discuss their ideas in their pairs or small groups, and have
     each group present their ideas to the class. Students should be encouraged to use data
     from the four days of data collection to support their choices.
  3. To highlight the collaborative nature of science and the importance placed on
     questioning the ideas of others, encourage students to share their doubts about groups’
     claims. Are there any data or other possibilities that the group has overlooked?
  4. Remind students that the scientists at Project Squirrel are attempting to answer similar
     questions as they study the habitat preferences of squirrels throughout the country.
     The data that students collected will be submitted to Project Squirrel, and Project
     Squirrel scientists plan to use this data to see if trends emerge in the larger scale study
     regarding squirrel feeding habits.

Evaluate:
  1. Assess students’ ability to analyze similar situations and provide thoughtful responses
     about what behavior they would expect from squirrels. For example:

                           Quiet alley with few humans but many other animals


                                      1
                                          x
                                           x


                                                       2
                                                           x
                                                           x




                                               3
                                                   x
                                                   x




                               Busy road with lots of car traffic

         o This is a map of a schoolyard. The numbered shapes represent trees. You place a
           corn foraging patch in each spot marked by an X on this map. Where would you
              expect squirrels to consume the most corn? Where would you expect squirrels
              to consume the least amount of corn? Support your answer.

Extend:
  1.   To more closely monitor foraging behavior at the four foraging sites, have one or two
       students observe each site once per hour and record and share their observations.
  2.   Set up an investigation similar to the schoolyard experiment to study the foraging
       behaviors of squirrels in other locations or to study the foraging behaviors of another
       species. If students are testing other squirrel foraging locations, they may wish to use
       the same foraging experiment parameters. However, if students are designing an
       experiment to measure how much other animals eat in a given location, they must
       research the eating behaviors of the animal. Students should consider what type of food
       to provide and how and where it should be presented (on the ground, above ground, on
       a platform, covered or uncovered, etc.). Compare conclusions with those from the
       original squirrel investigation.
Background Information

Message to Instructors
Thank you for your interest in Project Squirrel. Studying squirrels presents a range of fun and
educational opportunities, and Project Squirrel activities can involve people of all ages and add a
scientific purpose to backyard wildlife observation. These activities can also be used as real-life
applications of science skills and as a foundation for a range of reading, writing, math, and
geography exercises.

Participation in this project will help you understand your neighborhood squirrels more clearly,
and by contributing the data you collect, you will help to illuminate regional patterns of
biodiversity, demographics, and ecology. Love them or hate them, squirrels are excellent
organisms for documenting backyard wildlife, and it is our hope that this guide will encourage
citizen scientists everywhere to develop their skills in observing and enjoying the interactions
that are occurring in their neighborhoods while contributing to a focused, long-term data set
that is illuminating the relationships between humans and our environments.

We look forward to seeing your data sets over the coming seasons. Happy Squirreling!

Foraging Patch Basics
The exercises outlined in this lesson are based on the principle that when, where, and to what
extent an animal forages for food can tell us a lot about how that individual perceives its
environment. Imagine a scientist puts a bowl of your favorite candy on a table near your
bedroom door. How much might you eat? Now if the bowl is moved near your neighbor’s
bedroom, or the middle of the street, or under the kitchen sink, how much might you eat then?
The amount of food left in the bowl (the foraging patch) when you are done foraging gives us
insights into how you feel about different places. When the foraging patch is near your
bedroom, where you feel comfortable, you will usually forage more than when the patch is near
your neighbor’s bedroom or in the middle of the street where territorial conflicts, potential
predators (like cars), or other dangers make you uncomfortable.

Patch use theory is an important tool that helps us evaluate animal motivations and preferences.
Patch use theory predicts that a foraging animal will cease using a patch when the costs of
foraging are greater than the benefits. Costs may include the inability to watch for predators
while handling food or the difficulty of separating the most nutritious parts of a corn kernel
from the starchy parts. The relative costs and benefits may change with factors like the health
and reproductive status of an individual. For example, a starving individual is likely to take more
risks for food than one that has recently fed.

How Squirrels Forage on Corn
A corn kernel has two main parts, the endosperm (the starchy outside) and the embryo (the
oily inside). When a corn kernel is planted in the soil, the embryo grows into a corn plant, and
the endosperm feeds the plant until it forms leaves and begins to photosynthesize.

                                                               endosperm

                                                             embryo
Background Information


Because the oily embryo has many nutrients, it is preferred by squirrels over the endosperm.
Squirrels often eat only the embryo from the middle of a corn kernel, leaving the endosperm
behind. In this lesson, when a squirrel leaves an endosperm behind, it is referred to as a kernel
with an excised (removed) embryo. Much in the same way that candy wrappers could be used
to determine how much candy a person ate, kernels with excised (removed) embryos can be
used to measure how much a squirrel ate.

                excised embryo                                      excised embryo


Sometimes, squirrels will eat very quickly and leave a pile of broken corn kernel scraps behind
instead of leaving a kernel with the embryo neatly cut out. In this lesson, students record
information about the amount of corn consumed by squirrels and the scraps left behind by
squirrels.

If squirrels do not forage from your patches, this is important data and should be reported.
Since all data are useful data, please report the amount eaten by squirrels, even if it is 0 grams.

The Foraging Patches
The foraging patch assembly instructions included with this lesson are for creating simple,
disposable patches. Instructions for creating more durable wood patches are available at
projectsquirrel.org.

The patches are baited with ears of dried feed corn. These ears may be missing kernels and
may be different weights from one another. However, provided that the squirrels do not
consume every kernel of corn from any of the corn cobs, differences in initial corn cob mass are
not significant. The squirrels still have food available to them and have chosen to stop eating.
(As an analogy, a person might only eat two hamburgers whether someone offers the person
five hamburgers or ten hamburgers.) In this lesson, students will weigh each cob before their
foraging patches are put outside, as they will use this information to calculate how much food is
missing after the squirrels have foraged.

Data Gathering and Entry
Scientists at Project Squirrel will be comparing data from hundreds of sites each year. The data
collected by your students will be used to make comparisons with data from across the
country. To ensure accurate comparisons, the Project Squirrel data submission page (on
projectsquirrel.org) will ask for habitat information about the sites that students have chosen.

It may be useful to get to know the trees on your school’s property. Columbia University, the
University of Maryland, and the Smithsonian Institution have developed a useful mobile tree
identification application called Leafsnap, but you can also just keep an eye on the trees
throughout the year to see what kind of propagules (seeds, nuts, downy fluff, etc.) they
produce. The kind and amount of propagule can have a significant influence on squirrel
Background Information

populations. For example, squirrels love acorns and walnuts but don’t do as well on maple
samaras, and they get almost no nutrition from cottonwood catkins.

Acknowledgements
Project Squirrel has been working with citizen scientists for more than a decade to learn about
tree squirrels. The project was initiated in 1997 and has become a joint venture between the
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), the members of the Brown Lab at UIC, the Chicago
Academy of Sciences and its Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, and all of the citizen scientists
from all ages and walks of life, throughout the United States and in many other countries, who
have contributed to Project Squirrel.
                               Habitat Information Sheet

Investigator Names:

Hypothesized Habitat Type: (circle one)                  Safe      Unsafe

Approximate diameter of tree at breast height (DBH): _________________cm DBH

To calculate the diameter at breast height:
       Use a flexible measuring tape (or a piece of string that you later measure) to find the
       circumference of the tree (in cm) at approximately chest height, which will vary slightly
       depending on the height of the person making the measurements.
       Divide the circumference by π (approximately 3.14).

Kinds of trees within 20m of foraging site:
      Nut bearing (trees like walnut, oak, or hickory)

       Seed bearing (trees like maple, elm, or locust)

       Fruit bearing (trees like crabapple, gingko, or hawthorn)

       Cone bearing (trees like pine, fir, or spruce)

       Tiny seed bearing (trees like cottonwood, willow, or ash)

Check off any of the following that are within 10m of the foraging patch:
       Building
       Fence
       Garbage cans or recycling bins
       Other trees
       Bird feeders
Note: If any of the features listed above are within 4m of the foraging patch location, please
select a new location.
                                Habitat Information Sheet

If the following are present, indicate how busy you think they are during the day:
                             Not           Usually       Sometimes      Regularly      Very Busy
                             Present       Quiet         Busy           Busy

       Street
       Alley
       Sidewalk
       Playground
       Sports Field


Note: If any of the features listed above are within 4m of the foraging patch location, please
select a new location.


How many of the following do you think are within one block of the schoolyard in
one day?
                      None       1-2        3-4        5+
       Cats
       Dogs
       Hawks
       Coyotes


How often do you see squirrels obtaining food from the following sources near your
school?
                                 Never        Seldom        Often       Always
       Bird feeders
       Human Handouts
       Garbage
       Trees and other plants


What other animals do you see in your school yard?
                                    Corn Data Collection Sheet

Investigator Names:

Hypothesized Habitat Type: (circle one)                              Safe       Unsafe
Foraging Patch Location: (circle one)
                                                           Near Tree            4m from Tree

Date: ________________________________________                            Day # _____ of data collection

Time patch opened: ___________ a.m./p.m. Time patch closed: ___________ a.m./p.m.

Squirrel species observed in the schoolyard today:

         Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis            Number_________________

         Fox Squirrel Sciurus niger                    Number_________________

         Other ____________________ Number_________________

Initial mass of corn cob (before foraging): ____________g

Has feeding occurred today? (circle one) Yes / No
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
If yes, use the corn cob and all corn kernels (whole or in pieces) collected from the cardboard
foraging patch to continue:

1. Set the corn cob to the side. Do not remove any kernels from the cob at this time.

2. Split the remaining corn into three piles:

    whole kernels                        kernels with excised embryos                  small pieces of kernels

3. Kernels with excised embryos and small pieces of kernels are the scraps of kernels that
   were nibbled on by squirrels. Find the masses of these two piles, and use them to calculate
   the total mass of corn kernel scraps left behind on the foraging patch:




                                                                                 Total mass of corn
     Mass of kernels with                                                        kernel scraps left
     excised embryos (not on              Mass of small pieces of                behind on foraging
     the cob):                            kernels (not on the cob):              patch:

                                g
                                        +                             g
                                                                                =                         g
                             Corn Data Collection Sheet

4. The squirrels may also have left behind kernels that are still whole, either attached to the
   cob or loose on the foraging patch. Remove the whole kernels from the cob and combine
   them with the pile of whole kernels that were loose on the foraging patch (already set aside
   during step 2).

5. Find the mass of this new pile that is made up of all of the whole corn kernels left behind by
   squirrels, either loose on the foraging patch or removed from the cob by you. Then, find
   the mass of the cob with all of the kernels removed.




                Total mass of all whole corn
                kernels left behind by           Total mass of the cob (with all
                squirrels:                       kernels removed):


                                        g                                 g



Use the data collected to determine the mass of all corn that was consumed by squirrels:




                                 Mass of corn consumed by squirrels: ___________g
                                        Class Data Sheet



Location: safe; near tree                          Location: safe; 4 m from tree
Total corn consumed:   Total corn kernel scraps:   Total corn consumed:   Total corn kernel scraps:

Day 1:           g     Day 1:             g        Day 1:           g     Day 1:             g

Day 2:           g     Day 2:             g        Day 2:           g     Day 2:             g

Day 3:           g     Day 3:             g        Day 3:           g     Day 3:             g

Day 4:           g     Day 4:             g        Day 4:           g     Day 4:             g

Average:          g    Average:            g       Average:          g    Average:            g



Location: unsafe; near tree                        Location: unsafe; 4 m from tree
Total corn consumed:   Total corn kernel scraps:   Total corn consumed:   Total corn kernel scraps:

Day 1:           g     Day 1:             g        Day 1:           g     Day 1:             g

Day 2:           g     Day 2:             g        Day 2:           g     Day 2:             g

Day 3:           g     Day 3:             g        Day 3:           g     Day 3:             g

Day 4:           g     Day 4:             g        Day 4:           g     Day 4:             g

Average:          g    Average:            g       Average:          g    Average:            g
     Data Analysis Sheet                          Name: ____________________

1. Use the graphs you created to compare squirrel feeding behavior in the safe
   location and the unsafe location.
          In which location was more corn consumed? In which location did the squirrels leave
          behind more scraps? Explain.




2. Use the graphs you created to compare squirrel feeding behavior near a tree and
   4m from a tree.
         In each location (safe; unsafe), where was more corn consumed, near the tree or 4m
         from the tree? What differences do you notice in the amount of scraps the squirrels left
         behind near the tree and 4m from the tree?




3. Based on the data collected, are your hypotheses about the relative safety of each
   location supported or refuted? Explain.




4.     Are there any interesting data that were surprising? Explain.
         How do the “corn consumed” data compare to the “corn kernel scraps” data? Do the graphs
         look similar?
Graph Sheet                                                                     Name: __________________________
  Corn Kernel Scraps Left Behind by
                                                                                Corn Consumed by Squirrels
              Squirrels




  NEAR            FAR           NEAR            FAR                          NEAR            FAR          NEAR            FAR
          SAFE                       UNSAFE                                         SAFE                       UNSAFE


Using the data from the Class Data Sheet, create a bar graph showing the average amounts of corn scraps left behind by squirrels
and a bar graph showing the average amounts of corn consumed by squirrels from each of the four foraging patches. Be sure to
label the y axis for each graph.
Data Reporting Sheet – SAFE Location

                                      Day 1                           Day 2                           Day 3                           Day 4
                               SAFE          SAFE             SAFE           SAFE             SAFE           SAFE             SAFE           SAFE
                               Near         4m from           Near          4m from           Near          4m from           Near          4m from
                               Tree          Tree             Tree           Tree             Tree           Tree             Tree           Tree
Date:

Time patch opened:                  a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.
                                    p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.
Time patch closed:                  a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.            a.m.
                                    p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.            p.m.
For the following three rows, please provide an estimate of the number of squirrels in the schoolyard each day, based on the most common number of each
species seen and recorded during students’ observations. These three rows will not appear in the Data Reporting Sheet for the unsafe location, as the
numbers you record here are an estimate of the number of squirrels seen by students from any location in the schoolyard.
# of gray squirrels
observed:
# of fox squirrels
observed:
# of other squirrels
observed (note
species):
Did feeding occur?
                            Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No       Yes or No

Initial mass of cob
                                        g               g               g               g               g               g               g                 g
(before foraging):
Mass of kernels with
                                        g               g               g               g               g               g               g                 g
excised embryos:
Mass of small pieces
                                        g               g               g               g               g               g               g                 g
of kernels:
Total mass of whole
kernels left behind                     g               g               g               g               g               g               g                 g
(loose or on cob):
Use students’ completed Data Collection Sheets to compile information from each group before submitting the data to Project
Squirrel.
Data Reporting Sheet – UNSAFE Location

                             Day 1                      Day 2                      Day 3                      Day 4
                       UNSAFE UNSAFE              UNSAFE UNSAFE              UNSAFE UNSAFE              UNSAFE UNSAFE
                        Near     4m from           Near     4m from           Near     4m from           Near     4m from
                        Tree       Tree            Tree       Tree            Tree       Tree            Tree       Tree
Date:

Time patch opened:            a.m.         a.m.          a.m.         a.m.         a.m.         a.m.          a.m.            a.m.
                              p.m.         p.m.          p.m.         p.m.         p.m.         p.m.          p.m.            p.m.
Time patch closed:            a.m.         a.m.          a.m.         a.m.         a.m.         a.m.          a.m.            a.m.
                              p.m.         p.m.          p.m.         p.m.         p.m.         p.m.          p.m.            p.m.
Did feeding occur?
                       Yes or No     Yes or No    Yes or No     Yes or No    Yes or No    Yes or No     Yes or No    Yes or No

Initial mass of cob
                                 g            g             g            g            g             g            g              g
(before foraging):
Mass of kernels with
                                 g            g             g            g            g             g            g              g
excised embryos:
Mass of small pieces
                                 g            g             g            g            g             g            g              g
of kernels:
Total mass of all
whole kernels left
                                 g            g             g            g            g             g            g              g
behind (loose or on
cob):




Use students’ completed Data Collection Sheets to compile information from each group before submitting the data to Project
Squirrel.

				
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