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					Common methods and instruments
for essential oral health indicators
                WP6
              DATA COLLECTION

 Construction of the questionnaire
 Data collection method
     •   Face to face
     •   Postal or telephone
     •   Health interview/Health examination survey
     •   Interviewers
POPULATION – SAMPLE, SIZE AND STRUCTURE

      •   Sample
      •   Unit for sampling
      •   Size
      •   Collection period
      •   Institutionalized populations
      •   Non response
Proposed data collection methods of
 indicators selected for WP6 (HSE)
      National survey
      Oral health survey
      Household survey
      Oral health care survey
      Oral clinical survey (WP7)
      Individual based survey
      Interview health surveys (various administrative levels)

      Household interviews
      Population based interview survey

      National studies

      National screening
      Simple questionnaires for dental visits
      Clinical questionnaires
• Interview
   – Personal interview
   – Telephone
     interview

  – Household
  – Individual

  – National
  – Regional
  – Local
From indicator to instruments
   Sources:

   STEPS/WHO Surveillance Manual 2005
   (STEPS/WHO Oral health programme 2005

   ICSII

   BIOMED

   WHO/EURO : Health Interview Surveys 1996

   OHIP

   GOAI

   Other recommended scientific publications
A1. Daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste

QA1.1   How often do you brush your teeth?
1.      Never
2.      A once a week
3.      A few times a week
4.      Once a day
5.      Two or more times a day

QA1.2. Do you use a toothpaste containing fluoride?
       Yes
       No
       Don’t know

QA1.3. Apart from fluoride in toothpaste or in the water supply,
       do you use fluoride in any other way, for example in tablets or   in a
  mouth rinse?
       Yes
       No
       Don’t know what it is
A2. Preventive care-seeking for pregnant women

QA2.1 Do you have children below one year?
      Yes
      No

Q A2.2 Did you visit a dental clinic during your last
       pregnancy?

QA2.3 For what reason did you visit the dental clinic
      during your last pregnancy?

       Check-up/ tooth cleaning,
       Routine visit
       Emergency
A 3.Mothers’ knowledge of fluoride toothpaste for child caries prevention


QA3.1 Do you have children of seven years or less?
                                          Yes
                                          No

Q A3.2
                                          Agree   Disagree   Don’t know
Brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste   O         O         O
will help prevent tooth decay

Drinking fluoridated water will help      O        O          O
prevent tooth decay

Using fluoride is a harmless way          O        O          O
of preventing tooth decay
Alternative questions for A3:

QA3.4 Do you use fluoride toothpaste for your child?
yes
no
don’t use toothpaste
don’t know


For test of mothers’ knowledge
QA3.5
How often should a child’s teeth be brushed?
How much toothpaste should be placed on the brush?
How much fluoride should the paste contain?
How much fluoride toothpaste should be placed on the brush?
A 4. Fluoridation exposure rates (WP8)

Copy of QA1.1

Apart from fluoride in toothpaste or in the water supply,
Do you use fluoride in any other way, for example in tablets or in a mouth rinse?

                 Yes
                 No
                 Don’t know what it is
B1. Daily intake of
 food and drink
    QB1.1
    How often do you eat something in between your regular meals?

         About three times a day or more…………1
         About twice a day………………… ……...2
         About once a day…………………… ……3
         Occasionally, not every day………………4
         Rarely or never eat between meals…......5


    QB1.2
    Yesterday, did you eat any of the foods listed below? Even if you ate only
    a very little of the food, you should circle 1 for Yes
´                                                                Yes   No
          Bread……………………………………………..………….1…….2
          Sugar-coated cereal…………………………… ………...1…….2
          Fresh fruit (apples, oranges)…………………… …….….1…….2
          Pastries such as cakes, pies, doughnuts……………..…1…….2
          Soft drinks, cola drinks, soda flow (excluding diet cola) 1…….2
          Nuts, cheese………………………………………………..1…….2
          Jam or honey……………………………………………….1…….2
          Dried fruits such as raisins, figs or prunes………………1…….2
          Chewing gum containing sugar………………………… 1…….2
          Candy……………………………………………………..…1…….2
                            Fruit
                                       Days                 __
QB1.3                                  Servings             __
In a typical week, on how              Don’t know           __
Many days do you eat or     Biscuits, cakes, cream cakes?
                                       Days                 __
Drink the following?                   Servings             __
                                       Don’t know           __
                            Sweet pies, buns
How many servings do                   Days                 __
                                       Servings             __
You Eat or drink on one                Don’t know           __
of those days?              Lemonade, Coca cola or
                            other soft drinks
                                       Days                 __
                                       Servings             __
                                       Don’t know           __
                            Jam or honey
                                       Days                 __
                                       Servings             __
                                       Don’t know           __
                            Chewing gum containing sugar
                                       Days                 __
                                       Servings             __
                                       Don’t know           __
                            Sweet/candy
                                       Days                 __
                                       Servings             __
                                       Don’t know           __
QB1.4
How often do you eat or drink any of the following foods,
even in small quantities?

Fresh fruit……………several times   every day several times   once a several times seldom/
                   a day                      a week      a week   a month     never

Biscuits, cakes,
cream cakes                                                              

Sweet pies, buns                                                         

Lemonade, Coca Cola
or other soft drinks                                                     

Jam or honey                                                             

Chewing gum containing                                                   
sugar

Sweets/candy                                                             
B2. Tobacco usage prevalence
QB2.1
1) Do you smoke any tobacco products?
                            Yes    __
                            No     __

2) If yes:
Do you smoke tobacco daily?
                             Yes     __
                             No      __
3) When did you start smoking
                             Age in years __
                             Don’t remember ____

4) How many of the following do you smoke each day?
                              Manufactures cigarettes      __
                              Hand rolled cigarettes __
                              Pipe full of tobacco   __
                              Cigars/cheroots/cigarillos   __
                              Other           __
                              Other (specify) __
QB2.2

Do you smoke?
                     - Yes, daily
                     - Yes, occasionally (go to question 3)
                     - No (go to question 4)
2.   How many cigarettes do you usually smoke on average each day?
                     - Does not smoke cigarettes
                     - Fewer than 20
                     - 20 or more (heavy smoker)
3.   Compared with two years ago would you say you now have reduced smoking?
                     - Yes (end)
                     - No (end)
4.   Have you ever smoked?
                     - Yes, daily
                     - Yes, occasionally
                     - No (end)
5.   How long ago did you stop smoking?
                     - Less than two years ago
                     - Two years ago or more
BQ2.3

How often do you use any of the following types of tobacco?
                         several times every day several times   once a   several times seldom/ never
                             a day                a week         a week    a month



I smoke cigarettes                                                                     

I smoke cigars                                                                         

I smoke pipe                                                                           

I have chewing tobacco                                                                 

I have snuff                                                                           

Other                                                                                  
B3
Geographic access to oral health care

QB3.1
Is it possible for you to reach a dental clinic within 30 minutes?

        Yes
        No
        Don’t know


Would it be possible for you to have an appointment with a
dental professional when needed?

        yes
        No
        Don’t know
B4 Acess to primary oral care services
QB4.1
If you needed dental care, do you know a dentist’s office or clinic you would go to?
                            Yes
                            No
                            Don’t know
                            No answer


QB4.2
Do you see a particular dentist when you go to the office/clinic?
                           Yes
                           No

QB4.3
Which of the following best describes the place you go for dental care?
                          Dentist’s office or private clinic
                          Hospital clinic or a clinic in a university dental school
                          Clinic run by the government
                          Dental clinic in school
                          Other (specify)
B5 Dental contact within 12 months
QB5.1
        How long is it since you have last seen a dentist?

                      Less than 6 months                        1
                      6 – 12 months                             2
                      More than 1 year, but less than 2 years   3
                      2 years or more, but less than 5 years    4
                      5 years or more                           5
                      Never received dental care                6
QB5.2
How long ago did you receive your last dental care?
                Less than six month               1
                Six months to one year            2
                More than 1 year up to 2 years    3
                More than 2 years up to 5 years   4
                More than 5 years                 5
                Never received dental care        6
QB5.3
When did you last visit a dental professional
about your teeth, dentures or gums?

__________
B6 Reasons for last visit to dentist
QB6.1

      What was the reason of your last visit to the dentist?

             Consultation / advise                                      1
             Something was wrong / pain or troubles with teeth or gum   2
             It was part of follow-up treatment                         3
             Routine check-up / treatment                               4
             Don’t know / don’t remember                                5
QB6.2

What was the reason you made your most recent visit to a dentist?

Something was wrong                                                 1
I thought it was time for an examination or cleaning                2
The dentist reminded me it was time for an
 examination or cleaning                                            3
 It was part of a series or course of treatment                     4
QB6.3


What was the reason for the last visit to the dentist?

                Check-up                       ___
                Routine treatment              ___
                Emergency treatment            ___
B7 Reasons for not visiting the dentist the last 2 years
QB7.1

What was the main reason you did not visit a dentist
in the last two years?

        Cannot afford cost                                  1
        Don’t want to spend money on dental care            2
       Afraid or don’t like dentists or dental hygienists   3
       Poor experience with previous dental care            4
       Too busy                                             5
        Nothing wrong                                       6
       Dental problem not serious enough                    7
        Expected dental problems to go away                 8
       Dental office too far away                           9
       Have no teeth or have false teeth                    10
       Physical problems prevent me from going              11
       The dentist would not give me an appointment         12
       Other                                                13
       Don’t know                                           14
        No answer                                           15
B11 Removable denture prevalence
QB11.1

Do you have removable dentures?
                                    Yes    No
            A partial denture?      1     2
            A full upper denture?   1     2
            A full lower denture?   1     2
QB11.2
Do you have any false teeth or dentures which you can remove?
                         Yes             1
                         No              2
                         Don’t know      3
                         No answer       4

                        A partial denture?
                        Yes              1
                        No               2

                        A full upper denture?
                        Yes              1
                        No               2

                        A full lower denture?
                        Yes              1
                        No               2

How many years ago did you get your last
false teeth / dentures?                         _____Years ago
D1 Oral Disadvantage due to Functional Limitation
QD1.1
1. Have you had difficulty chewing any foods because of problems with your teeth, mouth or
   dentures?

2. Have you had trouble pronouncing any words because of problems with your
   teeth, mouth or dentures?

3. Have you noticed a tooth which doesn’t look right?

4. Have you felt that your appearance has been affected because of problems with your
   teeth, mouth or dentures?

5. Have you felt that your breath has been stale because of problems with your teeth, mouth
   or dentures?

6. Have you felt that your sense of taste has worsened because of problems with your teeth,
   mouth or dentures?

7. Have you had food catching in your teeth or dentures?

8. Have you felt that your digestion has worsened because of problems with your teeth,
   mouth or dentures?

9.   Have you felt that your dentures have not been fitting properly?
QD1.2

                                     Never Hardly ever Occasionally Fairly often   Very often



Have you had trouble pronouncing
any words because of problems                                                       
with your teeth mouth or dentures?



Have you felt that your sense of
taste has worsened because of                                                       
problems with your teeth, mouth
or dentures?
QD1.3

                                      very often / fairly often / sometimes / no / don’t know

Because of the state of your teeth,
have you experienced any of the                                           
following problems during the past
3 months?


Difficulty in chewing/biting foods                                        



Difficulty with speech/ trouble                                           
pronouncing words
QD1.4


Are you able to chew hard things,
such as hard bread or apples?                     Yes / No
______________________________________________________________________
QD1.5

                                      Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often


How often during the past 12 months                                                    
have you experienced difficulties
with eating and chewing food due
to mouth and teeth problems?
D2 Physical Pain due to Oral Health Status
QD2.1
10. Have you had painful aching in your mouth?

11. Have you had a sore jaw?

12. Have you had headaches because of problems with your teeth,
   mouth or dentures?

13. Have you had sensitive teeth, for example, due to hot or cold foods or
   drinks?

14. Have you had toothache?

15. Have you had painful gums?

16. Have you found it uncomfortable to eat any foods because of
   problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

17. Have you had sore spots in your mouth?

18. Have you had uncomfortable dentures?
QD2.2

                                             Never Hardly ever Occasionally Fairly often   Very often




Have you had painful aching in your                                             

mouth?


Have you found it uncomfortable to eat                                          

any foods because of problems with
your teeth, mouth or dentures
QD2.3


                                     Never   Seldom Some / Often / Always
                                                    times
In the past three months how often
did you use medication to relieve                               
pain or discomfort from around
 your mouth?

In the past three months how
 often were your teeth or                                       
 gums sensitive to hot,
 cold or sweets?
QD2.4


                                Yes / No / don’t know / No answer


During the past 12 months
did your teeth or mouth                                 
cause any pain or discomfort?
QD2.5
      In the past twelve months, have you had any of the following problems?
       A broken or chipped tooth                                               Yes / No
       Gums that hurt or bleed                                                 Yes / No
       Gums that frequently bled when you brushed or flossed                   Yes / No
       Teeth that hurt when you ate or drank hot or cold liquids or foods      Yes / No
       Sores on your tongue or on the inside of your mouth or cheeks           Yes / No
       Teeth that ached or throbbed                                            Yes / No
       A bad taste in your mouth or bad breath                                 Yes / No
       Teeth that hurt when you ate or drank sweet things                      Yes / No

Has the pain or discomfort caused you to miss                                  Yes / No
classes or school days during the past year?

                                       A lot / Some / Not much / None / Don’t know
How much pain or discomfort
from dental problems did you have                                          
during the last twelve months?

During the past twelve months,         Yes         No      don’t know No answer
did your teeth or gums cause                                                
you any pain or discomfort?
QD2.6


                         Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often
How often have you
Experienced toothache/                                                      

painful gums/sore
spots in the past
12 months?
D3 Psychological Discomfort due to Oral Health Status

QD3.1

19.   Have you been worried by dental problems?
20.   Have you been self conscious about your teeth, mouth or dentures?
21.   Have dental problems made you miserable?
22.   Have you felt uncomfortable about the appearance of your teeth, mouth or dentures?
23.   Have you felt tense because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
24.   Has your speech been unclear because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
25.   Have people misunderstood
QD3.2

                                 Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often

Have you been self-conscious
because of your teeth, mouth                                                      
or dentures?

Have you felt tense because of
problems with your teeth                                                          
mouth or dentures?
QD3.3 GOHAI
                                  Never / Seldom / Sometimes / Often /   Always
I
In the past three months how often
were you able to eat anything
without feeling discomfort?                                              


In the past three months how
often were you pleased or
happy with the looks of your                                             
teeth, gums or dentures?

In the past three months how
often were you worried or concerned                                      
about the problems with your teeth,
gums or dentures?

In the past three months how often
did you feel Nervous or
 self-conscious                                                          
because of problems with
your teeth, gums or dentures?
QD3.4
                                      Very often / fairly often / sometimes / no / don’t know

Because of the state of your teeth,
have you experienced any of                                                           

the following problems during
 the past 3 months?                                                                   


Embarrassed about appearance of teeth                                                 


Felt tense because of problems                                                        
with teeth or mouth

Avoid smiling because of teeth                                                        


Sleep is often interrupted                                                            
QD3.5
                                 Very much / Quite a bit / They look OK / Not much / Not at all

How often do you have trouble
sleeping because of pain                                                         
or discomfort from dental
problems?

How often do you avoid
laughing or smiling because                                                      
of unattractive teeth or gums?

How often do you avoid
conversation because of                                                          
unattractive teeth or gums
or bad breath?

How much do you like                                                             
the way your teeth look?
QD3.6

                                Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often



How often have you felt tense
because of teeth, mouth                                                          

or denture problems in the
past 12 months?
D4 Psychological Disability due to Appearance of Teeth or
Dentures

QD4.1
24. Has your speech been unclear because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
25. Have people misunderstood some of your words because of problems with your teeth, mouth or
    dentures?
26. Have you felt that there has been less flavour in your food because of problems with your teeth,
    mouth or dentures?
27. Have you been unable to brush your teeth properly because of problems with your teeth, mouth
    or dentures?
28. Have you had to avoid eating some foods because of problems with your teeth, mouth or
    dentures?
29. Has your diet been unsatisfactory because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
30. Have you been unable to eat with your dentures because of problems with them?
31. Have you avoided smiling because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
32. Have you had to interrupt meals because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
33. Has your sleep been interrupted because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
34. Have you been upset because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
35. Have you found it difficult to relax because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
36. Have you felt depressed because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
37. Has your concentration been affected because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
38. Have you been a bit embarrassed because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
QD4.2
                          Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often

Has your diet been
unsatisfactory because of
problems with your teeth,
mouth or dentures?                                                         

Have you had to interrupt
meals because of
problems with your                                                         
teeth, mouth or dentures?

Have you found it
difficult to relax because
of problems with                                                           
your teeth, mouth
or dentures?

Have you been a bit                                                        
embarrassed because of
problems with your teeth,
mouth or dentures?
QD4.3

                                    very often / fairly often / sometimes / no / don’t know



Because of the state of your teeth,
have you experienced any of                                                          

the following problems during the
past 3 months?                                                                       


Days taken off work                                                                  


Difficulty doing usual activities                                                    
QD4.4

Do other students make jokes about the way your teeth look?                       Yes / No



_________________________________________________________________
QD4.5


                        Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often

How often have you felt
embarrassed because
of the appearance of
your teeth or                                                            
dentures in the past
12 months?
D5 Social disability due to oral health status
QD5.1. Have you avoided going out because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

40. Have you been less tolerant of your spouse or family because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

41. Have you had trouble getting on with other people because of problems with
    your teeth, mouth or dentures?

42. Have you been a bit irritable with other people because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

43. Have you had difficulty doing your usual jobs because of problems with
    your teeth, mouth or dentures?

44. Have you felt that your general health has worsened because of problems with your
    teeth, mouth or dentures?

45. Have you suffered any financial loss because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

46. Have you been unable to enjoy other people’s company as much because of
    problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?

47. Have you felt that life in general was less satisfying because of problems with your teeth,
    mouth or dentures?

48. Have you been totally unable to function because of problems with your teeth, mouth or
    Dentures?

49. Have you been unable to work to your full capacity because of problems
    with your teeth, mouth or dentures?
QD5.2

                                 Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often

Have you been a bit irritable
with other people because of
problems with your teeth,                                                         
mouth or dentures?

Have you had difficulty doing
your usual jobs because of
problems with your teeth,                                                         
mouth or dentures?

Have you felt that life
in general was less satisfying                                                    
because of problems with
your teeth, mouth or dentures?

Have you been totally unable
to function because of problems                                                   
with your teeth, mouth or
dentures?
QD5.3

                                 Never / Seldom / Sometimes / Often / Always

In the past three months how
often did you did you limit                                         

contacts with people because
of the condition of your teeth
or denture?

In the past three months how
often did you feel uncomfortable
eating in front of people                                           

because of problems with your
teeth or dentures?
QD5.4

                                        Yes / No / don’t know / No answer

During the past twelve months,
has the pain or discomfort of
dental problems caused you                                             
to limit any of your usual
activities?

                                        Yes / No

Have you ever avoided meeting
people because of the way                         
your teeth or gums looked?

                   Among the nicest   Better than average   Average   Below average   Among the worst


Compared to your
classmates and                                                                     

friends how do you
think your teeth look?
QD5.5

                                      very often / fairly often / sometimes / no / don’t know



Because of the state of your teeth,
have you experienced any of the
following problems during the                                                     
past 3 months?

Less tolerant of spouse or
people who are close to you                                                       


Reduced participation                                                             
in social activities
QD5.6
                                 Never / Hardly ever / Occasionally / Fairly often / Very often



How often did you have difficulties
carrying out major work / schoolwork
because of problems with mouth or                                                 
teeth in the last 12 months?

				
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