Female Reproduction PPT - Northern Highlands Regional HS

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					       Human Sexuality and Family Life
       Unit 2 – Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System


Puberty in Females
•Pituitary gland release gonadotropic hormones – LH & FSH
•Activate the female gonads which begins producing the
female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone
•Secondary sex characteristics begin – this can include
budding of breasts, auxillary hair development, leading to
menarche around age 13 – usually anovulatory (not
ovulating)
•Other changes as well
KEY TERMS – Female Reproductive System

External terms
• Vulva – describes all external parts
• Labia Majora –outer folds of skin
• Labia Minora – inner folds - Both become
    sensitive during stimulation
•   Clitoris – located in front of urethra – many blood
    vessels & nerve endings
•   Urethra - connects to urethra -eliminates urine
•   Vagina – opening to uterus – birth canal
•   Perineum – field of tissue between vagina & anus
•   Mons Pubis – pad of tissue covering pubic bone –
    some sensitivity – covered w/ pubic hair
•   Hymen – membrane that sometimes covers
    vaginal opening
Internal structures
• Vagina –birth canal – about 3-4 inches deep –
    nerve endings concentrated near opening
•   Cervix – lower end of the uterus – located at top
    of canal
•   Uterus – reproductive organ, located top of
    vagina between bladder & rectum – about size
    of a fist – sheds lining monthly as a part of the
    menstrual cycle
•   Endometrium –lining of uterus – shed during
    cycle or supports fertilized egg during pregnancy
Internal structures – cont.


• Bartholin glands – located on sides of canal –
  release lubricant into canal
• Fallopian tubes – egg travels down tube toward
  uterus – fertilization can take place in lower 1/3
  of tube if sperm present
• Fimbriae – fingers of f. tube – move toward
  gonads as ovulation takes place – scoops up ova
• Ovaries – female gonads – house sex cell until
  mature in structure called “follicle”– females
  born with approx 1 million eggs – ovaries
  produce sex hormones
Hormones

• Estrogen- causes reproductive organs to
  mature into adult shape & size – growth of
  auxillary hair & strengthens bones
• w/ progesterone – regulates the menstrual
  cycle a & preparing uterus for pregnancy
• Ova – female sex cells – begin to mature
  around age 15 – released monthly during
  ovulation -
Menstrual Cycle

• Complex combination of hormonal &
  physical changes
• Involves FSH & LH
• Based on a 28 day cycle – can vary
• Factors that can affect MC include stress,
  diet, travel, exercise, WT gain/loss, illness
• Refer to MC chart for cycle
Problems of Female Repo. System
Problem     What it is?        Symptoms          Treatment

Cystitis    Inflammation of    Burning during    Antibiotics
Bladder     bladder; usually   urination;
infection   due to bacterial   strong smell;
            infection          fever or blood
                               in urine


Vaginitis   Vaginal            Irritation or     Over-the –
            infection by       itchin around     counter vaginal
            fungus,            vagina;           cream or
            bacteria, or       secretions of     antibiotic
            protozoa; may      unusual color
            be from STI        &/or
                               unpleasant odor
Problem What it is?                  Symptoms           Treatment
Amenorrhea Late puberty due to       No breast          Determined
(Delayed   anorexia, endocrine       development,       by doctor
puberty)   problems, excessive       &/or no
           wt. loss, &/or            Menstrual
           Over exercise             periods
Menstrual      Prostaglandins        Contractions of    Over-the-
Cramps         (hormone like         uterine muscle,    counter meds,
               substance) produced   abdominal pain,    warm baths,
               during menstruation   some               doctor
               causes cramps         nausea/vomit

Premenstrual   Mental & physical     Irritability,      doctor
Syndrome       changes related to    mood swings,
PMS            MC; not completely    depression,
               understood            abdominal
                                     bloating, breast
                                     tenderness
Problem           What it is?           Symptoms            Treatment

Ovarian Cyst      Failure of            Pain in lower       Mx by doctor;
                  follicle to           abdomen or          cysts often go
                  rupture &             pelvis for a        away on own
                  release an ova;       month or so         but may need
                  may also be                               surgery
                  growths from
                  cancer
Cervical Cancer   Abnormal division     Vaginal bleeding,   Surgery, radiation,
                  of cells in cervix;   discharge, pelvic   chemo
                  can be from STI       pain, may be no
                                        symptoms
Problem         What it is?         Symptoms         Treatment

Toxic Shock     Poisoning of the    Fever, chills,   Antibiotics &
Syndrome        body from           weakness, rash   immediate Mx
(TSS)           bacterial toxins;   on palms of      treatment
                usually related     hands
                to tampon use
Endometriosis   Growth of           Severe           MX – hormone
                tissue from         cramping and     therapy or
                uterine lining      pain in lower    surgery
                outside the         abdomin or
                uterus              pelvis region
               HEALTHY FRS
•Women should practice good-hygiene, self-
exams, regular MX visits
•Balanced diet & exercise
•Prevent STI’s –
•Prevent vaginal irritation=reddenss, itching, mild
pain around vaginal opening; prevent by reg.
bathing, loose cotton underclothes, not wearing
wet clothes for long periods of time, etc
•Relieving menstrual cramps
•Preventing infertility
---Annual pelvic exam


• 7 Ways to Stay Healthy
1. Exercise regularly & maintain balanced diet
2. Gently wash genital area w/ warm water &
     soap daily- do not use hygiene sprays/powders
3.   Wipe front to back after urination
4.   Change sanitary napkins every 4-6 hours
5.   Avoid wearing tight clothing that can cause
     discomfort
6.   Have annual pelvic exam
7.   Do monthly SBE
Breast Cancer
•   Mainly older women but can occur at any age
•   At risk if it runs in the family but not the only factor
•   Can be treated effectively if detected early
•   WAYS TO CHECK
     – Mammogram
     – Self-breast exam
     - Perform BSE during/after warm bath/shower; & at least 1 week after
       period
     - Stand in front of mirror, place 1 hand over head & use other to
       examine each breast separately
     - Use your thumb/index finger to gently squeeze each nipple looking for
       unusual discharge
     - Check each nipple for swelling, dimpling, scaliness
     - Use 3 fingers to feel each breast for unusual lumps or thickening under
       skin. Check under armpits & breast as well
EATING DISORDERS

• American Psychological Association uses following diagnostic criteria
  to identify:
Anorexia
    – 15% or more below desirable weight
    – Fear of weight gain
    – Altered body image
    – 3 or more missed menstrual periods; in young adolescents, no onset on
      menstruation
    Bulimia
    – Binge eating 2 or more times a week for 3 months
    – A lack of control over eating
    – Purging
    – Concern about body image
Characteristic Symptoms
• Anorexia
   –   Looks thin & keeps getting thinner
   –   Skips meals, cuts food into small pieces, moves food around plate
   –   Loss of menstrual period
   –   Wears layered clothing – loss of hair from head
   –   Growth of fine hair on face, arm
   –   Sensitive to cold

   Bulimia
   – Bathroom use immediately after eating
   – Inconspicuous eating
   – Excessive time/money spent food shopping
   – Menstrual irregularities
   – Excessive constipation
   – Swollen/infected glands, sore throat , bursting blood vessels in eyes, damaged
      teeth & gums
   – Dehydration
EATING DISORDER TREATMENTS

•   Anorexia
•   Can be complex & demanding
•   May include hospitalization to stabilize physical issues
•   Intravenous feedings
•   Drug treatments to treat depression, OCD, anxiety
•   Counseling – individual & family

• Bulimia includes family & nutritional counseling – hospitalization is
    not usually required

• Where to get help
     – Guidance
     – Bergen County Dept. of Health
     – Health Professionals

				
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posted:4/18/2013
language:English
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