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					China during the Period of Disunity

Siddhartha Gautama (b. 563 BC)
Prince – Kshtriya varna Vedic priests blessed baby Siddhartha Sheltered Siddhartha from pain and suffering At age of 29 – with a servant ventures to the outside world

Four Passing Sights
Old Man Sick Man Dead Man Holy Man -- Sannyasin

Rejects Society
Plans to discover the source of suffering Joins with Yogi and Sannyasin Joins with 5 ascetics All yoga proved unsuccessful Middle Way Sit and Meditate – underneath the Bodhi Tree Tempted by Mara

Enlightenment
Profound sense of understanding reality as it really is Described the experience as Waking Up. To Awake – Bodh; The awakened on – Buddha Compassionate Buddha – chose to teach the world the dharma

First Sermon
Four Noble Truths
   

To live is to suffer Suffering comes from desire To end suffering we must end desire Release from suffering by following the 8-fold path
Right understanding, intention, speech, action – Buddhist code of ethics

Noble Eight-Fold Path


Triple Refuge or Three Jewels
Essential beliefs of Buddhism – conversion Buddha Dharma (Truth – Teachings of Buddha) Sangha (Community of Monks – believers)

Titles of the Buddha
Buddha – meaning the awakened one Sakyamuni – Sage of the Sakya clan Tathagata – perfected one; thus come one; one who has thus come

Nirvana
Anatman – no essential self or soul Samsara –
 

Rebirth This realm of suffering

Rise in Influence
Contribution of material wealth Sangha becomes a powerful landholding institution Completes with secular authority

Parinirvana
Died in his 79th year. Meeting with Sangha; listed essential teachings Food Poisoning? What to do with the body of a Buddha? Stupa Relics Tradition of pilgrimage

Rise of Mahayana
100 BC – 100 AD Canonization monastic life as essential to achieving enlightenment All can achieve Enlightenment Mahayana – Greater Vehicle Hinayana – lesser vehicle

Theravada/Hinayana
Most widespread in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand Traces descent from the original sangha that followed the Buddha Vinaya (Monastic tradition) emphasized Vinaya Pitaka (Monastic Tradition Rules)

Vinaya
Prohibitions and detailed practices for life in a monastary Four Offenses – require immediate defrocking Thirteen Offenses – confession and probation Rules of Deportment – life of a mendicant

Mahayana
Literate tradition – sutras, tantras All people may become enlightened through skillful means and the Bodhisattvas. Shunyata

Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva Vow “Unlimited in number, all-seeing and allcaring, capable of extending boundless aid and succor to those who call upon them in sincere faith”

Skillful means
Dharma is only a means to an end – other skillful means might successfully be employed to reach Nirvana Influenced by Bhakti Yoga
 

Theistic Karma Pure Land, Zen, etc.

Sectarian


Vajrayana (Tantrism)
Diamond vehicle, or way of the lightening bolt Also known as tantrism – esoteric ritual manuals Developed in the 7th century AD in response to Buddhist scholastism Common folk increasingly turn to Saivism (cult of Shiva)

Shaivism
Sensual pleasure and spiritual bliss directly related Cultivation of sensual bliss through arts and sex

A World in Disarray
China divided into a number of states after the collapse of the Han; remains divided until 589 Xuan – a. Daoist Religion – Dark, profound, secret; b. Daoist Philosophy – metaphysics Xue – school of thought

Wang Bi (226-249) – Neo-Daoist
Syncretic: Daoist in metaphysics, Confucian in social and political philosophy Raised level of Chinese philosophy to the metaphysics; went beyond realm of names and forms to ultimate reality -- Benwu (original nonbeing)


Benwu transcends all distinctions and descriptions; pure being and original substance (ti);

Stresses one underlying and uniting principle to all phenomenon; commentary on Yi Jing argues that there is a general principle behind all objects Insisted on a united system based on one fundamental reality

China Divided
•Three Kingdoms (AD250)

•Sixteen Kingdoms and the Eastern Jin (AD400)
•Military power paramount •Use of stirrups •Nomadic tribesmen Northern Wei and the Six Dynasties

The Northern Wei (386-534)
Tuoba – nomadic tribal coalition that established the state Made use of Chinese for collecting taxes, keeping records, and running government Sinification – Chinese style capital; Chinese titles, ceremonies, and music; adopted Chinese legal codes Equal field system – applied to abandoned land only

Nine-rank system – method of recruiting officials through inherited rank Great families maintained their wealth and exerted influence Sinification alienated tribesmen; Rebellion of Six Garrisons (524) devastated the Northern Wei Legacies include Equal Field System and Buddhist artistic production

Buddhism in the North
Translating Buddhism into Chinese Kumarakiva (350-409) – central Asian monk; greatest monk translator Buddhist apologists show that Buddhism is compatible with Chinese culture


Downplayed anatman (non-self)

Open to charges of Antisocial behavior Suffered times of persecution

Daoism – The Religion
Traced to Celestial Masters of later Han Faith Healing – causes of illness in misdeeds of the patient or progenitors; identified which demon was responsible Longevity – use of spells, charms, breathing exercises, and sexuality

Daoism and Sexuality
Based on Yin/Yang principles




Women have unlimited Yin; Man’s yang essence limited Absorb yin and preserve yang leads to healthy long life

Sexual intercourse encouraged to absorb yin essence, but with delayed or no ejaculation to retain yang essence New Daoist Sexual texts
 

The Handbook of the Plain Girl The Art of the Bedchamber

The South
Lower Yangzi River experienced substantial increase in population and productivity Fujian becomes truly Chinese

Rice Culture
Wet-field rice cultivation Construction of paddy fields and careful irrigation; complicated system of terraces Raising seedlings and transplantation Labor Intensive – Labor supplemented from refugees from the North Produced more calories per acre than the north

“Free-wheeling market economy”
Nanjing not internally divided into walledoff wards Pottery, textiles, lacquer, bronze mirrors, paper produced and traded in the South Increased foreign trade Great Families in the South wield power and influence


Checks on power of great families

Buddhism in the South
Supported by great families and rulers Vimalakirti – wealthy Buddhist layman Opponents to Buddhism




Daoism continues Fan Zhen


				
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