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Schilling _ Schwartz_ manuscript submitted for review

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 17

									Using Single Subject Design to Evaluate Alternative Treatments: Therapy Balls as a Case Study
Ilene S. Schwartz and Denise Schilling University of Washington ilene@u.washington.edu

Is interest in autism increasing?
An interesting indicator What is available on the internet -- for many people the first line of information gathering

Information overload
Google.com search results Dec 2002 Autism -- 868,000 hits Education and autism -- 232,000 hits Intervention and autism -- 89,100 hits Young children and autism -- 42,000 hits Effective intervention and autism -1,320 hits

Information overload
Google.com search results May 2005 Autism -- 8,580,000 hits Education and autism -- 2,390,000 hits Intervention and autism -- 563,000 hits Young children and autism -- 832,000 hits Effective intervention and autism -231,000 hits

What are alternative treatments?
In this crowd, almost anything that does not have a published report in JABA In more general audiences, interventions without an adequate evidence base

Examples
Diet (GFCG, Specific Carbohydrate) Biomedical (Growth hormone, chelation, secretin) RDI Swimming with dolphins Sensory Integrations The list goes on and on

Why should behavior analysts get involved?
Maybe some of them may work? Ethical responsibilities to the children and families with whom we work We have a technology that can be applied in this situation Because we are curious To be better scientists/therapists/teachers/parents

How do we proceed?
Team up with a provider using a procedure with little or no empirical data Insure, that the procedure will do no harm Identify dependent variables that are important to all parties Define the intervention and measure procedural fidelity

Schilling & Schwartz (2005)
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Alternative Seating for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Classroom Behavior Research Questions:

What effect does sitting on a therapy ball during class have on engagement and in-seat behavior? What do teachers think of this intervention?

Method
Participants, 4 boys with autism, approximately 4 years old For 2 students data was collected in integrated preschool classroom For 2 students data was collected in specialized program for children with autism All 4 students participated in both settings

Data Collection
10 second momentary time sample Event recording for one child’s challenging behavior Social-validity assessments

Bench
100

Ball

Bench

Ball

Percentage of intervals

80

60

40

engaged in-seat

20 Sam 0

Sessions
Figure 1.

Chair
100

Ball

Chair

Ball

Percentage of intervals

80

60 engaged 40 in-seat

20 Ryan 0

Sessions

Figure 2.

100

Carpet Square

Ball

Carpet Square

Ball

Percentage of intervals

80
Ball

60 engaged in-seat

40

20 David 0

Sessions

Figure 3.

Ball
100

Chair

Ball

Percentage of intervals

80

60 engaged in-seat

40

20 Luke 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Number of applied warnings followed by contingent effort

Sessions

Figure 4 .

In Summary
Applied Behavior Analysis is a discipline interested in addressing socially important problems Single-subject design can help practitioners evaluate their own practice Consumer input is essential to develop and implement sustainable programs


								
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