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英语构词法知识讲座

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英语构词法知识讲座 Powered By Docstoc
					不三: I can not bear you.
不四: You can not bear me ,but your
    mother can bear you.


唐僧:I can not get down from the tree.
悟空:You can get down from the
   sheep.

      小结:英语单词也有一词多义
Family:           Mother:
      father
      and
                            mind
      mother
      I
                            old
      love                  tears
      you                    heart
你跟妈妈关系好还是跟                   eyes
  爸爸关系近?                     right
答:跟妈妈。
    因为爸爸(father
  谐音farther)
                      Love:
• Wife:                        listening
•     washing
•     ironing                  oblige
•     faithful                 value
•     entertaining            excuse
• Husband:
•     housing
•     understanding
•     sharing         News:
•     buying                     north
•     and                     west   east
•     never                      south
•     demanding
我觉得学习英语找到合适的方法很重要,但不管是什么方法
 只要有用就是好方法,例如:结合汉语拼音.
     language= lan + gu + age
     suicide=   sui + ci + de
     guide=     gui + de
     cinema = ci +ne + ma
  增字母、减字母、换字母
例如:ring bring spring
   able cable table notable portable fable
   cool fool pool tool wool
   bound found hound
   mound pound round sound wound
   eight right light might night fight sight
   tight
   height weight
联想法:
  brought thought  bought hi + story
  atmosphere= at most here(只要把t变成p就行了)
  brought(只要你给b一个耳光它就变成d)结果是
  drought(干旱)
  later (只要把l和a换个位置就变成alter)

   以上说的这些仅供大家参考,最主要还要靠大家平时
 的日积月累。下面就介绍构词法(word-building)的一些
 知识.
                 趣谈词汇记忆
1:常见的名词后缀
  (1)表示“人和物”
   -an    American historian
   -ian   Italian    Canadian politician
   -ant   assistant accountant participant
   -ent   student president resident
   -ee    employee trainee
   -er    writer speaker waiter
   -or    actor conductor sailor
   -ess    waitress hostess actress
   -ist    socialist novelist scientist dentist
    (2)表示“性质、状态、动作、行为”的抽象
                           名词
•    -ability     suitability  probability
•    -ibility     possibility responsibility
•    -age        marriage      shortage carriage
•    -al         arrival refusal revival survival
•    -ance        acceptance importance distance ignorance
•    -ence        dependence existence difference conference
•    -dom        freedom wisdom seldom
•    -ery       slavery bravery discovery mastery robbery
•    -hood       childhood adulthood neighborhood
•    -ion       question construction election conduction
•    -ition     composition competition
•    -ation     modernization civilization alteration
•    -ism       pessimism optimism socialism Marxism
•    -ment       movement government encouragement
•    -ness      kindness      carelessness
•    -ship      friendship leadership relationship
•    -ure       exposure failure measure leisure pleasure
                 2:常见的动词后缀
    (1)表示“使(成为)” “使……化”
•   -ate   circulate decorate regulate alternate
•   -en    strengthen weaken broaden widen lighten
•   -ify     classify simplify    specify qualify certify
•   -ize    realize organize criticize recognize
•   -ish    astonish cherish establish finish punish
             polish vanish accomplish abolish
    3:常见形容词后缀
• (1)表示“具有……性质的”
•     -al national cultural    natural
•      -an   American republican
•     -ian   Italian Canadian Christian
•      -ant  pleasant resistant distant constant
•      -ent  different confident excellent
•      -ary  necessary imaginary customary
•      -ory  compulsory contradictory
•      -ate  considerate fortunate
•      -ese Chinese Taiwanese Cantonese
•      -ic   heroic poetic economic
•      -some troublesome handsome quarrelsome
(2)表示“充满或缺乏”                   • (3)表示“类似”

-free    duty-free care-free
                               -ish childish stylish greenish
         worry-free

-ful     hopeful useful        -like childlike businesslike
        wonderful helpful
                               -ly     brotherly friendly deadly
-less     hopeless   useless         deathly
         needless

-(i)ous dangerous various
       anxious serious

 -y      rainy cloudy dirty
        hairy trendy fishy
                               • (5)表示“方向”
(4)表示“主、被动意义
                               • -ward   downward
-able    comfortable lovable
                                         backward
        capable believable
                                         forward
        portable disable
                                         westward
                                         eastward
-ible   responsible sensible             upward
        visible

-ive    active positive
        negative passive
        decisive extensive
         expensive
                4: 常见的副词后缀

•   -ly        strongly successfully quickly
•              angrily slowly
•   -ward(s)   downwards eastwards
•    -wise     clockwise likewise otherwise
                 常见的前缀
• 1:表示“否定或逆转”
•   de- defeat defend define deform
•   dis- disappear disagree disorder disgust
•   in-  incorrect inactive incapable
•         inaccurate inconsiderate
•   il-   illegal illogical illiberal
•   im-   impossible immature
          imperfect impatient
•   ir-    irregular irrelevant irresponsible
•   mis- misuse mislead misunderstanding
•   non- non-stop nonsense non-violence
•   un- unhappy unlucky unpleasant
              2:表示“时间顺序”

•   ex- ex-president ex-wife ex-husband
•   fore- foretell forehead foresee forecast
•   mid- middle midfield midnight midterm
•   post- post-war postgraduate postpone
•   pre- prepare prepay premature predict
•   re- recall repair rebuild rewrite
          reconstruct
             3:表示“方向或位置”
ex-    export exclude expel exert
in-    invade include indicate indoor infect
im-    import immigrate imitate impact impair
        impel
inter- international interactive interchange
sub- subway subsequent substandard subtitle
tele- telephone telescope telecommunication
trans- transparent transport transplant translate
4:表示“程度、大小或差别”
 macro-   macroeconomics
 micro-    microscope Microsoft micro-oven
 mini-     minibus miniskirt minimum
 over-    overwork overuse overhear
 super-   supermarket superpower superb
          superstar
 under-   underdeveloped underestimate
           underline undermine
 vice-    vice-president vice-principal
                      5:表示“数量”
   bi-      bicycle bimonthly bilingual bilateral
   kilo-    kilometer kilogram kilohertz kilowatt
   mono-    monolingual monologue monopoly
   multi-    multiple multimedia multifunctional
             multinational
   semi-    semifinal semiconductor semiconscious
   tri-      triangle tricycle triple trilateral
   uni-      unicycle unique universal uniform
             unilateral
       6:变换词类的前缀

be-   befriend   belittle behead
en-   enable endanger enjoy
      enlarge endear encourage
      enrich ensure    enforce
em-   embrace employ embitter
      embody embezzle
               了解一些常见的词根
1: audi =hear
   audience auditorium audible audition
2: ced (cess)=go
   precede proceed process successor
   successive recede exceed excess
3: cept =take
   except exception exceptional accept
   acceptance acceptable
   intercept reception deception concept
   conception receptive
4: circ =ring
   circle encircle semicircle circular circulate
   circulation circumstance
5: clud (clus) =close,shut
   exclude exclusive include inclusive
   conclude conclusion seclude secluded
  (decide ,decisive , decision)
6: cord =heart
   record recorder concord concordant accord
   accordant discord discordant

7: cred =believe, trust
   credit credible discredit incredible
   credulous incredulous

8: cur (curs, cour) =run
   occur occurrence current currency course
  concur recurrent recur
9: dict (dic) =say
   contradict dictate predict prediction indicate indication
   dictionary

10: duc (duct) =lead
    educate introduce introduction conduct product
    reduce reduction deduce

11: fer =bring, carry
    conference confer differ different offer prefer
    preferable transfer defer

12: fus = pour
    refuse refusal confuse confusion transfuse transfusion

13: ject =throw
    project inject reject rejection
   interject subject subjective object    objective
   abject adjective eject
14: log =speak
    dialogue dialog apology apologize monologue logic
15: medi = middle
    immediate immediately medium multimedia
    intermediate medieval Mediterranean medicine
16: memor = memory
    memory memorize memo memorable
     memorial commemorate remember misremember
17: mini =small, little
    minimum minimize diminish minus minor miniskirt minority
18: miss (mit) =send
    missile dismiss emit promise compromise commit submit
19: mot =move
     motion motive motivate promote promotion demote remote
20: pel =push, drive
     propel expel repel repulsion repulsive dispel compel impel
21: pend (pens) =hang
    depend dependent independent suspend
    suspense suspension append depend dependable
22: port =carry
    portable porter import export transport
     transportation report support supportive sport
23: pos =put
    expose compose composition composer propose
    proposal oppose opposite dispose disposal pose position
    purpose deposit
24: rupt =break
    rupture interrupt interruption  disrupt bankrupt corrupt
    erupt eruption
25: sent (sens) =feel
    sense sensation sentimental consent consensus resent
    sensible    sensitive nonsense  assent sentence
26: sist = stand
     resist resistant consist consistent assist assistant
    exist existent insist insistent  persist persistent
 27: spect (spec) =look
      spectacle prospect inspect expect respect suspect
      suspicious spectator special specify specific speculate
 28: tain (ten, tin) =hold
       contain obtain sustain maintain continue continual
       continuous attain mountain fountain Britain curtain
      certain
29: tend (tens, tent) = stretch
      extend extension extensive (extended family) extent
      (~ reading) attend attendant attention attentive
      content contest contestant (participant) tend tent
     tension tense pretend intend intensive (~ reading)
30: tract =draw
      tractor attract attractive contract abstract ( concrete )
     extract subtract distract distraction distracted
     distracting
31:    ven =come
      invent invention prevent prevention
      conventional event eventual

32:   vert (vers) = turn
      advertise anniversary divert diverse
      diversify diversity revert reverse introvert
      extrovert convert versatile controversial
      invert avert
33: vis (vid) =see
    vision visible visit   advise
    advisable revise supervise visa
    evident evidence provide video



          Thank you for being
         with me !

				
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posted:4/18/2013
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