World War One by yurtgc548


									World War One
  The Road to War
       The Zimmermann Note
► ArthurZimmermann was the German
 Foreign Minister. The telegram was written
 on January 19, 1917 but was not sent to
 Mexico until February 24. British intelligence
 agents obtained a copy and gave it to the
 United States, which publicly released the
 telegram on March 1:
The Zimmermann Note
           What Started WWI?
► During   19th century, Britain and Germany emerged
  as pre-eminent European powers.
► In the early-20th century, Europe began to split
  into alliances, either backing Britain or Germany.
► Central Powers
► Triple Entente
► These two main alliances began armaments races.
► 28 June 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
  Austria-Hungary is assassinated by a Serbian
► Alliances draw most of Europe into the war.
  Central Powers/Triple Alliance
► Austro-Hungarian   Empire
   Became allies with German Empire in 1879
   Invaded Serbia 28 July 1914
► German   Empire
   Joined war 1 August 1914
► Ottoman   Empire
   Took action against Russia 29 October 1914
► Kingdom   of Bulgaria
   Invaded Serbia with German & A-H forces, Oct.
           Allies/Triple Entente
► Russia
   Declared war on Germany 1 August 1914
► France
   Entered war 3 August 1914
► Great   Britain
   Declared war on Germany 4 August 1914
► United   States
   Declared war on Germany 6 April 1917
► War  began in 1914, US declared war in 1917.
► As a “neutral” nation at first, US was involved.
► Relation with Britain v Germany
► Wilson re-elected under slogan “He Kept Us Out of
► Defense Legislation
   June 1916 – National Defense Act passed to increase
    size of Army.
   August 1916 – Congress passes bill increasing naval
     Causes of American Entry
► Immediate   Causes
   Germany’s submarine warfare attacked military
    as well as neutral vessels off British coast.
   The Zimmermann note – British intercept a
    German message to Mexico promising the
    return of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona for
    entry into the war.
   Russian Revolution – Tsarist rule overthrown in
    March 1917; US can join to “fight for
    democracy” without explaining ties with Russia.
     Causes of American Entry
► Background   Causes
   Easier for Americans to identify with British.
    Common language, law, literature, etc.
   British propaganda controlled which war news
    reached America.
   Germany’s militarism alarmed Americans.
       Getting Ready for War
► Committee   on Public Information (CPI)
    ►Established  by Wilson to organize public opinion
    ►Journalist and reformer George Creel, chairman,
     creates effective war promotion agency
    ►100 million pieces of literature promoting the war
    ►Posters, slides, newspapers, movies
    ►Anti-German campaign
    ►War sold as a crusade; “war to end war” and “a war
     to make the world safe for democracy”
        Getting Ready for War
► Selective   Service Act
   Passed in May 1917, it required all men of
    stipulated age to register for the military.
   Men were able to buy their way out of service.
   2.8 million men called for service
   12% fail to show up
   Problems of training, education, etc.
        Getting Ready for War
    Industries Board created to control
► War
 manufacture of war material.

► WarShipping Board created to supply
 Europe with a chain of supplies and troops.
        Getting Ready for War
► Liberty   Bonds

   Provided the bulk of war financing.

   Sold to American public

   Wilson’s administration used the new Federal
    Reserve Banks to make borrowing easier.
                Important Dates
►   28 June 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated
►   28 July 1914 – War begins
►   7 May 1915 – German U-boat sinks Lusitania
►   1916 – US passes NDA, military and naval spending
    increases dramatically
►   1 February 1917 – Germany declares “unrestricted
    submarine warfare”
►   1 March 1917 – Zimmermann note
►   6 April 1917 – US declares war on Germany
►   Early 1918 – AEF first sees action
►   11 November 1918 – Armistice signed
►   June 1919 – Treaty of Versailles signed in Paris

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