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World War I Part 2

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					World War I
  Part 2
           US Involvement
• As war waged in Europe, the United
  States adopted a policy of neutrality
• This means that they “officially” remained
  neutral
• However, the US did have very strong ties
  to England and France
• Because of this, the US sold / traded
  supplies and weapons to the Allies
            US Involvement
• The US President
  was Woodrow Wilson
• He won reelection in
  1916 promising to
  stay out of the war
• However, events
  would occur that
  would change the US
  policy
            US Involvement
• On May 7, 1915
  German U-boat
  (submarine) sank the
  Lusitania
• The Lusitania was a
  passenger ship
• The attack killed
  1,198 people
• 128 were Americans
  The Sinking
of the Lusitania
           US Involvement
• The Germans charged that the ship was
  carrying supplies and weapons to the
  Allies
• Germany said that made the ship fair
  game
• The US denied the charges
• The US did not enter the war at this time,
  although it did raise anti-German
  sentiment
           US Involvement
• Rising pressure by the US forced
  Germany to suspend its attacks
• However, by 1917, Germany had once
  again declared unrestricted submarine
  warfare
• They stated that any foreign ship could be
  targeted
• Although President Wilson warned
  Germany, 3 more US ships were sunk
            US Involvement
• The final straw came
  in 1917, when British
  intelligence
  intercepted a
  message from
  Germany to Mexico
• It was sent by Arthur
  Zimmerman, the
  foreign minister for
  Germany
               US Involvement
• Zimmerman’s telegram
  offered an alliance to
  Mexico
• It said if Mexico attacked
  the US, they would get
  money and Texas, New
  Mexico, and Arizona
• The US made the
  telegram public, and
  citizens were outraged
• On April 2, 1917, the US
  declares war
US Involvement
           US Involvement
• World War I was the first war to be
  declared a Total War
• Countries devoted their entire resources to
  the war effort
• Governments took control of economies
• They told factories what to produce and
  how much
• As a result, goods became scarce
            US Involvement
• Governments would
  eventually turn to
  rationing – limiting
  people to small
  purchases
• Governments would
  also use propaganda
  to influence people
            US Involvement




• Sometimes, the propaganda was more bold
• “The first month of the German offensive in the
  West! 127,000 prisoners; 1,600 cannons; about
  200 tanks…”
US Involvement
Recruitment Posters
           US Involvement
• The US entry was important for the Allies
• Russia had signed a separate treaty with
  Germany to end their involvement
• Falling public support and internal unrest
  led to the Russian withdrawal
• In March, 1918, Germany mounted one
  last offensive against France
           US Involvement
• By May, 1918, Germany had reached the
  Marne again
• However, German troops and supplies
  were wearing out
• The 2nd Battle of the Marne saw the Allies
  with 140,000 fresh US troops and 350
  tanks break through the German lines
• 2 million more US troops arrived, and
  chased German troops back to Germany
           US Involvement
• Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire soon
  surrendered
• Austria-Hungary had their own revolution
• German soldiers began to mutiny, and
  Kaiser Wilhelm is forced from power
• On November 9, 1918, an armistice, or
  an agreement to stop fighting, was signed
• The war was almost officially over
The Somme American
 Cemetary, France




 116,516 Americans Died
  World War I Casualties

10,000,000
 9,000,000       Russia
 8,000,000       Germany
 7,000,000       Austria-Hungary
 6,000,000       France
 5,000,000
 4,000,000       Great Britain
 3,000,000       Italy
 2,000,000       Turkey
 1,000,000       US
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posted:4/17/2013
language:English
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