AP Biology Exam Review Survey of the Kingdoms Taxonomy-based on phylogeny (evolutionary relationships) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Philip Cried Out For Good Spaghetti Carolus Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature: Genus species (scientific name) Systematics: study of relationships Viruses No scientific names because not living, unable to be classified Lytic or lysogenic life cycle In lysogenic cycle, latency = provirus (if host cell not bacteria) or prophage (if host cell is bacteria) Can be retrovirus Viroids (naked RNA) and prions (naked protein): simpler than viruses but just as infectious Bacteria, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Monera Prokaryotes: no nuclei, no organelles Unicellular Single “naked” chromosome Plasmids (small circular DNA) in some Flagella made of flagellin (debate of 9+2 arrangement) Non-flagellated bacteria: tumble, spin, glide Obtaining energy Photoautotroph/Chemoautotroph vs. Heterotroph Obligate aerobes vs. facultative anaerobe vs. obligate anaerobe Unique characteristics of archaebacteria Cell walls lack peptidoglycan. Ribosomes more similar to eukaryotes than eubacteria. Plasma membrane made of lipids different than most other organisms. Extreme habitats: methanogens, extrene halophiles, thermoacidophiles Classifying eubacteria Mode of nutrition Ability to make endospores (resistant bodies with DNA/RNA and durable wall) Motility Shape: cocci, bacilli, spirilla Gram stain technique: G+ (peptidoglycan), G- (lipopolysaccharide) Common groups of bacteria Cyanobacteria: phycobilin pigments, heterocyst cells that produce nitrogen-fixing enzyme Chemosynthetic bacteria: autotrophs nitrifying bacteria (nitrite nitrate) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: heterotrophs; mutualistic relationship with plants; live in nodules of bean plants Spirochetes: coiled bacteria, internal flagella (within cell wall layers) Protists Most likely convergent evolution producing similar characteristics within protists Evolved through endosymbiosis Eukaryotes Algae: all with chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments Protozoa: heterotrophs Fungus-like: saprobic, filaments, sporebearing bodies Algae Euglenophyta: no cellulose cell wall (pellicle protein strips), 3 flagella, heterotrophic without light, eyespot for phototaxis Dinoflagellata: 2 flagella, some bioluminescent (red tide), produce nerve toxin that concentrate in filter feeders Chrysophyta: golden algae Bacillariophyta: diatoms, tests (shells) made of silica Algae Chlorophyta: green algae, cellulose cell walls, variation in sexual reproduction (isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous), some multicellular or colonial, ancestors of plants Phaeophyta: brown algae, multicellular, flagellated sperm (seaweeds, kelps) Rhodophyta: red algae, red accessory pigments phycobilins, multicellular, nonflagellated gametes Protozoa Foraminifera: tests (shells) of calcium carbonate, marine sediments with forams indicates underlying deposits of petroleum Rhizopods: amoebas, move with pseudopods Zoomastigophora: zooflagellates, cause diseases (Trypanosoma) Sporozoa: animal parasite, uses more than one host to complete life cycle (Plasmodium) Ciliophora: paramecium, most with cilia Fungus-like protistan molds Cellular slime mold: Acrasiomycota, amoebas feed on bacteria, when not enough food aggregates into slug Plasmodial slime mold: Myxomycota, grows as single mass, grows stalks up when environment dries out to release spores Oomycota: water molds Fungus Hyphae: filaments Mycelium: mass of hyphae Septate (cross walls) vs. aseptate (no cross walls, aka coenocytic) Chitin cell walls Parasites or saprobes Haustoria: parasitic hyphae that penetrates the host Temporary fungal 2N stage Plasmogamy: fusing cellas fromt wo different fungal strains dikaryon Karyogamy: fusing of two nuclei Meiosis immediately retores 1N state Asexual fungal reproduction Fragmentation: breaking apart hyphae Budding: small part of hyphae pinched off Asexual spores: sporangiospores (borne on sac-like sporangia) and conidia (formed at tips of hyphae) Fungal groups Zygomycota: bread mold Ascomycota: yeasts, mildews, truffles Basidiomycota: mushrooms Deuteromycota: imperfect fungus, Penicillium Lichens: fungus and algae “liking” it together Mycorrhizae: mutualistic relationships of fungus and plant roots Plant characteristics Except for Bryophytes (mosses), 2N dominant Cuticle Vascular systems (reduces water dependency) of xylem and phloem Flagellated sperm needing water sperm in pollen grains Unprotected gametophytes ovary protecting gametophytes Seasonal adaptation: deciduous vs. evergreen Bryophytes Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Male gametangium: antheridium has sperm Female gametangium: archegonium has egg Lack vascular tissue Small and close to water Tracheophytes (vascular plants) Lycophyta: wood trees of Carboniferous period, epiphytes, club shaped spore cones caleld strobili Sphenophyta: horsetails Pterophyta: ferns, sporangia clusters called sori Seeded plants Microsporangia: produce microspores (male spores) pollen grains (tube cells, 2 sperm) Macrosporangia: produces female spores 1 megaspore (egg), 2 polar bodies all contained in ovule Coniferophyta - gymnosperms Pine trees Juniper trees Redwood trees Anthophyta - angiosperms Flowers Carpel/pistil: female parts of stigma, style, ovary Stamen: male parts of anther, filament Petals: modified leaves to attract pollinators Sepals: modified leaves to protect flower Angiosperm advancements Pollinators required Ovules inside ovary Ovary develops into fruit with seeds (mature ovule). Angiosperm fertilization Pollen on stigma, developing pollen tube that extends to the micropyle (opening of ovule). Sperm + egg zygote embryo Sperm + 2 polar bodies endosperm “double fertilization” Animal characteristics Multicellular Heterotrophic 2N dominant Motile at some point of its life cycle Embryonic development stage where 2 or 3 tissue layers form Tissue complexity: eumetazoan (most animals with 2-3 tissue layers – ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) vs. parazoa (true tissues but no organs) Body symmetry: radial vs. bilateral Cephalization Variations that shaped the animal kingdom Gastrovascular cavity: guts, 2 openings designate digestive tract Coelom: in embryonic stage, cavity called coelom can develop from mesoderm (acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate) Segmentation: same and repeated or modified with specialized functions Variations that shaped the animal kingdom Protostome vs. deuterostome: early embryonic cell divisions (cleavage) Deuterostome Straight cleavage Anus first Coelom develops from outpouch of archenteron walls Protosome Angled cleavage Mouth first Coelom develops from tissues at the sides of internal cavity (archenteron) Animals - invertebrates Porifera: sponges, filter feeders, osculum, amoebocytes, spicules Cnidaria: jellifish, hydrozoans, sea anemones, corals, medusa vs. polyp body shape Platyhelminthes: flatworms, flukes, tapeworms, proglottids (secondarily developed “segments”), acoelomate Animals - invertebrates Nematoda: roundworms, pseudocoelomate, complete digestive tract, mouth and anus! Rotifera: multicellular, pseudocoelomate, complete digestive tract, filter feeders Mollusca: snails, bivalves, octopuses, squids; body made of foot, mantle (secretes shell), radula Annelids: segmented worms, leeches, earthworms Animals - invertebrates Arthropoda: spider, insects, crustaceans, jointed appendages, chitin exoskeleton, metamorphosis vs. nymph life cycle Echinodermata: sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, deuterostomes, complete digestive tract Animals – chordata Notochord: dorsal, flexible rod for support backbone Dorsal hollow nerve cord: basis of central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) Pharyngeal gill slits: channels across pharynx to the outside body gills or disappears Muscular tail: extends beyond digestive tract develops or disappears Animals - vertebrates Agnatha: jawless fish Chondricthyes: cartilaginous fish Osteichthyes: bony fish Amphibians: frogs, salamanders Reptiles: crocs, alligators, turtles Aves: birds Mammals: primates, dogs, cats, etc.
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