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Chapter 11 Test Review Match the Scientists • 1. Mendel A. recombination • 2. Morgan helps make map • 3. Sturtevant B. alleles segregate • C. some genes linked Match the Scientists • 1. Mendel B. alleles segregate • 2. Morgan C. genes linked 3. Sturtevant A. recombination • helps make map 4. What is fertilization? • Process of sexual reproduction • Joining egg + sperm • Joining egg and pollen What is true-breeding and hybrid? • 5. True-breeding = E. offspring are identical to parents • 6. Hybrid = D. offspring are of parents of different traits 7. Genes are____: • F. the location on a chromosome for a trait PUNNETT PRACTICE • p.3 Dihybrid Cross • What are the parental genotypes? • Heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse • Homozygous running, homozygous black mouse PUNNETT PRACTICE • p.3 Dihybrid Cross • What are the parental genotypes? • Heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse RrBb • Homozygous running, homozygous black mouse RRBB PUNNETT PRACTICE • Dihybrid Cross • How many boxes to you need for a dihybrid cross? • ANSWER: • 16 PUNNETT PRACTICE • Show how you would place the parental alleles on each side of the Punnett Squares: RB Rb rB rb RB RB RB RB NOW FILL IN THE BOXES AND • WHAT IS THE PHENOTYPIC RATIO? 100% running black RB Rb rB rb RRBB RRBb RrBB RrBb RB RRBB RRBb RrBB RrBb RB RB RRBB RRBb RrBB RrBb RRBB RRBb RrBB RrBb RB 8. Gametes are: • A. body cells • B. sex cells • C. somatic cells • D. skin cells • ANSWER: sex cells B 9. The likelihood that a particular event will occur is: • A. hybrid • B. offspring • C. probability • D. recombination • ANSWER: C probability 10. The wild type is… • A. dominant trait • B. recessive trait • C. most common trait • ANSWER: C 11. homologous • D. male + corresponding female set of chromosomes GO TO PUNNETT PRACTICE • On your dry erase board. • Do #4 on page 2. • Cross two plants that are heterozygous for green pods. #4 Answer Genotypic ratio: GG:Gg:gg G g 1: 2: 1 G GG Gg g Gg gg Phenotypic ratio: Green:yellow 3:1 12. Haploid and 13. Diploid • 13. C. one set of chromosomes N in humans 23 14. B. two sets of homologous chromosomes 2N in humans 46 14. What is a tetrad? • A. 4 homologous chromosomes MULTIPLE ALLELE TRAITS IN CHICKENS • Question #1:On the cross pictured, what must be the genotypes of the two parents for the outcome to always be a buttercup offspring? • ANSWER: • rrPP X RRpp Did you set it up right? RP Rp rP rp RP Rp rP rp 9:3:3:1 RP Rp rP rp RRPP RRPp RrPP RrPp RP RRPp RRpp RrPp Rrpp Rp RrPP RrPp rrPP rrPp rP rp RrPp Rrpp rrPp rrpp 15. Crossing-over • F. homologous chromosomes exchange segments 16. What is a chiasma? • A. when 4 chromosomes come together • B. when a cell divides into 4 cells • C. when a cell splits • D. making poopie • E. is the point of crossing over of the two inner homologous chromosomes • ANSWER: E 17. Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis • Mitosis: • starts with 2N parent • Daughter cells are 2N • Daughter cells identical • Makes somatic cells • Ends with 2 cells • 1 division 17. Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis • Meiosis: • starts with 2N parent • Daughter cells are N • Daughter cells different • Makes sex cells • Ends with 4 cells • 2 divisions 18. If you had a tall plant, how can you tell if it is TT or Tt? T t • Cross it with tt • (a test cross) t t T T t t 18. If you had a tall plant, how can you tell if it is TT or Tt? T t • Cross it with tt Tt tt t t Tt tt T T Tt Tt t t Tt Tt 19. Spongebob SsYy marries and mates Spongebetty ssYy Y=yellow y=blue S=square s=round 19. Spongebob SsYy marries and mates Spongebetty ssYy Y=yellow y=blue S=square s=round 19. SsYy X ssYy SY Sy sY sy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY sy SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy sy 19. SsYy X ssYy SY Sy sY sy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY sy SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy sy 6 square yellow 6 round yellow 2 square blue 2 round blue SY Sy sY sy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY sy SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy SsYY SsYy ssYY ssYy sY SsYy Ssyy ssYy ssyy sy 20. Flower Parts EXTRA: Male Flower Parts? • Stamen pistil stigma anther • ANSWER: stamen anther 21. Hetero or Homo zygous • _____HH _____hh _____Hh • ANSWER: • Homozygous Heterozygous • HH hh Hh EXTRA: Recessive? •T t H h • ANSWER: t h EXTRA: Dominant? •T t H h • ANSWER: T H CHECK YOUR SKILLS: Go to Punnett Practice #7 • Genotypic Ratio? • Phenotypic Ratio? Nn x nn • N n Genotypic: Nn:nn n Nn nn 2 : 2 Phenotypic Nn nn Smooth;const. n 2 : 2 CHECK YOUR SKILLS: BbFf x bbff • How many boxes do you need? 16 • How do you separate each parent? BF Bf bF bf • bf bf bf bf BF Bf bF bf bf BbFf Bbff bbFf bbff bf BbFf Bbff bbFf bbff BbFf Bbff bbFf bbff bf BbFf Bbff bbFf bbff bf • Genotypic Ratio • BbFf : Bbff : bbFf : bbff • 4 4 4 4 • Phenotypic Ratio • Black fat : black thin : white fat : white thin • 4 4 4 4 CHECK YOUR SKILLS: RR x RW incomplete dominance • R R R W CHECK YOUR ANSWER: RR x RW incomplete dominance • R R Genotypic RR : RW R RR RR 2 2 Phenotypic W RW RW Red : Pink 2 2 #22 • Black rooster and white chicken form black and white spotted chicks • ANSWER: codominance #23 • The color of the skin is determined by six different locations on genes • ANSWER: polygenic trait #24 • A red flower is crossed with a white flower to make pink offspring. • ANSWER: incomplete dominance #25 • TT x WW = TW offspring • ANSWER: codominance #26 • Eye color alternatives include blue, brown, green, black • ANSWER: multiple alleles #27 • A black rabbit crossed with a white rabbit produced a gray rabbit • ANSWER: incomplete dominance #29 • ANSWER: The higher the crossover frequency, the farther apart are the genes. #28 • The greater the number of recombination frequencies (crossovers), then the _____ the genes are to each other. • ANSWER: farther apart #29 • Red, hair freckles, and fair skin seem to be inherited together. They must be on _____ genes. • ANSWER: linked #30 • The location on a chromosome is referred to as the: • ANSWER: locus gene Back of chicken worksheet: •Do questions #1 and #2 • Incomplete dominance = the offspring show trait in-between the two dominant traits (like black and white have gray offspring) • Codominance = both dominant traits will appear like black and white will have spotted black-white offspring • Genotype for black chickens BB • Genotype for white chickens WW • Genotype for erminette BW #31 • What is the difference between a trait and an allele? • TRAIT: general description EX; eye color, height ALLELE: alternative choices EX: blue and green, and tall-short A-B = 29% B-C=11% B-D=4% A-D = 21 % ADD: A-C =18% C-D = 3% What is the order of these genes? • ANSWER: A C D B 32. Names of the phases in meiosis: 32. Names of the phases in meiosis: Anaphase II Anaphase I Prophase I Metaphase I Metaphase II Telophase I Prophase II Telophase II #33 Structures of Prophase I Go to Back and do “Polygenic Inheritance” Worksheet • Human Skin Shades • Mulatto denotes a person with one white parent and one black parent, or more broadly, a person of mixed black and white ancestry. May also include Native American and other backgrounds. KNOW YOUR MATCHING • Numbers of descriptions of offspring • phenotypic ratio • Numbers of letters of offspring , TT, Tt, tt • genotypic ratio • Trait that is expressed even if other trait is present • dominant 32. MATCHING (cont.) • Trait that is only expressed if the dominant trait is not present • recessive • Alternative choices of a trait • alleles 32. MATCHING (cont) • General description of a gene • trait • Plant’s pollen fertilizes the same plant • self-pollination • Plant’s pollen fertilizes a different plant • cross-pollination Can You Identify? locus Compare egg and sperm: • Egg forms one large egg and three smaller polar bodies • Sperm form all the same size and shape What is the purpose of the Punnett Square? • A. show the exact offspring • B. show only dominant offspring • C. predict the probability from a cross • D. predict who will win the sperm lotto • ANSWER: C Independent Assortment and Crossing Over • Independent Assortment randomly segregates the alleles. • Crossing-over breaks and reattaches chromosomes to make new gene arrangements. • BOTH INCREASE DIVERSITY ESSAYS? • Punnett Squares • Monohybrid Cross • Codominant or Incomplete Dominant • Dihybrid Cross Be able to write a genotypic and phenotypic ratio.
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