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Citing Sources - Colorado State University's Composition Program

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Citing Sources - Colorado State University's Composition Program Powered By Docstoc
					Integrating Multiple Texts
How to properly attribute multiple sources both
narratively and parenthetically
First Step: Create Works Cited
 Create works cited (see OWL website)
 So you know what the first word/s of the
  entry are, so you will know what gets
  included in the in-text citation

   Bird, Big. “The Fluffy Feathers.” Sunny
       Skies 49.2 (2007): 45-54.

    Bird is the key for the in-text citation
Citing Periodicals (print first)
   Typically they are articles in a scholarly
    journal

   Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal
       Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium of
       publication.
Works Cited From Our Book
 A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or
  Collection
 Works may include an essay in an edited collection or
  anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is
  for this sort of citation is as follows:
 Lastname, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of
       Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of
       Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry.
       Medium of Publication.
 Russell, Cristine. “Climate Change: Now What?”
       The Rhetoric of Green. Ed. CSU Composition
       Program. US: Fountainhead Press, 2009. 118-
       127. Print.
When to Cite Sources
   Whenever you quote from a source.

   When borrowing ideas/images from a
    source, even when you use your own
    words by paraphrasing or summarizing.

   When you borrow factual information
    from a source that is not common
    knowledge.
The Basics of In-text Citations
 As close as possible to the borrowed
  material (end-of-sentence)
 Need two pieces of info: what source
  from (which will match the works cited)
  and page number (if available)
 Two ways to achieve the transmission of
  this info:
    ◦ Narrative in-text citation
    ◦ Parenthetical in-text citation
Narrative in-text citations
   Cite this way the first time you introduce a
    source
   Attribution is done at the sentence level
    rather than in parenthesis
   Page numbers must still appear in
    parenthesis
   “One thing is clear,” writes Thomas Mallon,
    “plagiarism didn’t become a truly sore point
    with writers until they thought of writing as
    their trade […] Suddenly his capital and
    identity were at stake” (3-4).
Example Explicated
   Author’s last name omitted in parenthesis
    because it appeared in the narrative.

   Page numbers still in parenthetical

   Ellipsis […] used when parts of the
    original quotation are left out.
First introduction to a source
   use a narrative lead-in
    ◦ Give the author’s full name and credentials
    ◦ Current title/position, level of expertise,
      background
    ◦ Boosts ethos
    ◦ Once established, the last-name only is
      sufficient
List of Active Lead-in Phrases
   Accepts           Comments
   Acknowledges      Confirms
   Adds              Contends
   Affirms           Contradicts
   Agrees            Concedes
   Argues            Declares
   Asserts           Denies
   Believes          Describes
   Cautions          Disagrees
   Challenges        Discusses
   Claims            Disputes
                      Emphasizes
                      Endorses
                      Explains
List of Active Lead-in Phrases
   Grants           Rejects
   Highlights       Reports
   Implies          Responds
   Insists          Shows
   Maintains        Suggests
   Negates          Thinks
   Notes            Urges
   Observes         Verifies
   Outlines         Writes
   Proposes
   Refutes
Parenthetical In-text Citations
 Short-hand publication info in parenthesis
 The first word/s on works cited will
  appear in the parenthesis along with page
  number (exceptions will apply)
 Ya ya ya ya “ya ya ya ya” ya ya (Bird 48).
 Notice: no comma between author and
  page number.
 Notice: period comes at end
Example
 From  the very beginning of Sesame
 Street in 1969, kindergarten teachers
 discovered that incoming students
 who had watched the program
 already knew their ABCs (Chira 13).
Example Explicated
 The parenthetical tells readers two things:
  ◦ The info about Sesame Street came from
    somewhere other than the writer…in this
    case Chira.
  ◦ The ideas came from page 13 in Chira’s work
 The full bibliographic information appears on
  the Works Cited page at the end of the essay
  ◦ Chira, Susan. “Sesame Street At 20: Taking
      Stock.” New York Times 15 Nov. 1989: 13.
When there is No Author
 Some sources are anonymous
 Cite the first word/words that appear on
  the Works Cited…typically the article
  title
 Truncate the title if it is long to the first
  few key words
 Include page number
Example of No Author
(parenthetical)
   The Works Cited entry is as follows:
    ◦ “Getting Yours: A Publicity and Funding
              Primer for Nonprofit Organizations.”
              People 32.1 (2002): 3-12.

   Example: Simply put, public relations is
    “doing good and getting credit” for it
    (“Getting Yours” 3).
Example of No Author
(narratively)
   The Works Cited entry is as follows:
    ◦ “Getting Yours: A Publicity and Funding
              Primer for Nonprofit Organizations.”
              People 32.1 (2002): 3-12.

    Example: (assume the article has been
     previously introduced)
    According to “Getting Yours,” simply put, public
     relations is “doing good and getting credit” for
     it (3).
Multiple Authors
 If source has more than one author, list
  them in the same order that appears on
  Works Cited
 Ex: Herman, Brown, and Martel predict
  dramatic changes in the earth’s climate in
  the next 200 years.
No Page Numbers
   Many internet cites don’t have page
    numbers; DO NOT NUMBER PAGES
    YOURSELF.

   PDF files often have them, but HTML files
    don’t

   Just list the author or title in the
    parenthetical.
Example without Page Numbers
 It is now theoretically possible to
  recreate an identical creature from any
  animal or plant by using the DNA
  contained in the nucleus of any somatic
  cell (Thomas).
 It is now theoretically possible, poses
  Thomas, to recreate an identical creature
  from any animal or plant by using the
  DNA contained in the nucleus of any
  somatic cell.
Final Thoughts
 Balance the number of narrative citations
  and the number of parenthetical citations
 Don’t sound like a broken record (ie:
  According to Bird…start of each
  sentence)
 Be sure to cite everything borrowed
 Be sure to cite correctly
 Start with a works cited!

				
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posted:4/17/2013
language:English
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