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Integrating Multiple Texts How to properly attribute multiple sources both narratively and parenthetically First Step: Create Works Cited Create works cited (see OWL website) So you know what the first word/s of the entry are, so you will know what gets included in the in-text citation Bird, Big. “The Fluffy Feathers.” Sunny Skies 49.2 (2007): 45-54. Bird is the key for the in-text citation Citing Periodicals (print first) Typically they are articles in a scholarly journal Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication. Works Cited From Our Book A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication. Russell, Cristine. “Climate Change: Now What?” The Rhetoric of Green. Ed. CSU Composition Program. US: Fountainhead Press, 2009. 118- 127. Print. When to Cite Sources Whenever you quote from a source. When borrowing ideas/images from a source, even when you use your own words by paraphrasing or summarizing. When you borrow factual information from a source that is not common knowledge. The Basics of In-text Citations As close as possible to the borrowed material (end-of-sentence) Need two pieces of info: what source from (which will match the works cited) and page number (if available) Two ways to achieve the transmission of this info: ◦ Narrative in-text citation ◦ Parenthetical in-text citation Narrative in-text citations Cite this way the first time you introduce a source Attribution is done at the sentence level rather than in parenthesis Page numbers must still appear in parenthesis “One thing is clear,” writes Thomas Mallon, “plagiarism didn’t become a truly sore point with writers until they thought of writing as their trade […] Suddenly his capital and identity were at stake” (3-4). Example Explicated Author’s last name omitted in parenthesis because it appeared in the narrative. Page numbers still in parenthetical Ellipsis […] used when parts of the original quotation are left out. First introduction to a source use a narrative lead-in ◦ Give the author’s full name and credentials ◦ Current title/position, level of expertise, background ◦ Boosts ethos ◦ Once established, the last-name only is sufficient List of Active Lead-in Phrases Accepts Comments Acknowledges Confirms Adds Contends Affirms Contradicts Agrees Concedes Argues Declares Asserts Denies Believes Describes Cautions Disagrees Challenges Discusses Claims Disputes Emphasizes Endorses Explains List of Active Lead-in Phrases Grants Rejects Highlights Reports Implies Responds Insists Shows Maintains Suggests Negates Thinks Notes Urges Observes Verifies Outlines Writes Proposes Refutes Parenthetical In-text Citations Short-hand publication info in parenthesis The first word/s on works cited will appear in the parenthesis along with page number (exceptions will apply) Ya ya ya ya “ya ya ya ya” ya ya (Bird 48). Notice: no comma between author and page number. Notice: period comes at end Example From the very beginning of Sesame Street in 1969, kindergarten teachers discovered that incoming students who had watched the program already knew their ABCs (Chira 13). Example Explicated The parenthetical tells readers two things: ◦ The info about Sesame Street came from somewhere other than the writer…in this case Chira. ◦ The ideas came from page 13 in Chira’s work The full bibliographic information appears on the Works Cited page at the end of the essay ◦ Chira, Susan. “Sesame Street At 20: Taking Stock.” New York Times 15 Nov. 1989: 13. When there is No Author Some sources are anonymous Cite the first word/words that appear on the Works Cited…typically the article title Truncate the title if it is long to the first few key words Include page number Example of No Author (parenthetical) The Works Cited entry is as follows: ◦ “Getting Yours: A Publicity and Funding Primer for Nonprofit Organizations.” People 32.1 (2002): 3-12. Example: Simply put, public relations is “doing good and getting credit” for it (“Getting Yours” 3). Example of No Author (narratively) The Works Cited entry is as follows: ◦ “Getting Yours: A Publicity and Funding Primer for Nonprofit Organizations.” People 32.1 (2002): 3-12. Example: (assume the article has been previously introduced) According to “Getting Yours,” simply put, public relations is “doing good and getting credit” for it (3). Multiple Authors If source has more than one author, list them in the same order that appears on Works Cited Ex: Herman, Brown, and Martel predict dramatic changes in the earth’s climate in the next 200 years. No Page Numbers Many internet cites don’t have page numbers; DO NOT NUMBER PAGES YOURSELF. PDF files often have them, but HTML files don’t Just list the author or title in the parenthetical. Example without Page Numbers It is now theoretically possible to recreate an identical creature from any animal or plant by using the DNA contained in the nucleus of any somatic cell (Thomas). It is now theoretically possible, poses Thomas, to recreate an identical creature from any animal or plant by using the DNA contained in the nucleus of any somatic cell. Final Thoughts Balance the number of narrative citations and the number of parenthetical citations Don’t sound like a broken record (ie: According to Bird…start of each sentence) Be sure to cite everything borrowed Be sure to cite correctly Start with a works cited!
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