Unit 4 The Nightingale and the Rose • 教学目的：通过《夜莺与玫瑰》使学生对 神话故事中的爱情展开讨论并理解作者 Oscar Wilde 透过表面的神话故事所隐含的 对人生的评论。 • 教学内容： 作者及背景知识介绍； 文章结构及写作风格、技巧赏析； 掌握重点词汇及完成练习； • 教学重点：识别关键词汇及分析理解难句。 • 教学方法: 讲授、问答、讨论、模仿、练习、 作业等。 Unit 4 The Nightingale and the Rose I. Background Knowledge About the author: Oscar Wilde’s early school years • In 1871, Oscar was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin. Again, he did particularly well in Classics, earning first in his examinations in 1872 and earning the highest honor the College could bestow on an undergraduate - a Foundation Scholarship. • In 1874, Oscar crowned his successes at Trinity with two final achievements. He won the College's Berkeley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford. 1874-1878, He had a brilliant career at Oxford, where he won the Prize for English verse for a poem. Even before he left the University in 1878 Wilde had become known as one of the most affected of the professors of the aesthetic craze, and for several years it was as the typical aesthete that he kept himself before the notice of the public. Oscar Wilde’s works Poems 1881 The Happy Prince And Other Tales 1888 Dorian Gray 1890 The House Of Pomegranates 1891 The Ballad of Reading Goal 1898 Plays: Lady Windermere's Fan 1892. A Woman of No Importance 1893. An Ideal Husband 1895 The Importance of Being Earnest 1895 Criticism: • a man of far greater originality and power of mind than many of the apostles of aestheticism undoubted talents in many directions as a typical aesthete that he kept himself before the notice of the public a poet of graceful diction playwright of skill and subtle humor • a dramatist whose plays had all the characteristics of his conversations • All these pieces had the same qualities--a paradoxical humour and a perverted outlook on life being the most prominent. They were packed with witty sayings, and the author's cleverness gave him at once a position in the dramatic world Oscar Wilde’s belief Art for art’s sake The only purpose of the artist is art, not religion, or science, or interest. He who paints or writes only for financial return or to propagandize political and economic interests can only arouse feeling of disgust. Quotes from Oscar Wilde’s Works: Quotes on Men Men become old, but they never become good. Lady Windermere's Fan. Rich bachelors should be heavily taxed. It is not fair that some men should be happier than others. In Conversation. Men are horribly tedious when they are good husbands, and abominably conceited when they are not. A Woman of No Importance. Lady Windermere: ...I don't like compliments, and I don't see why a man should think he is pleasing a woman enormously when he says to her awhile heap of things that he doesn't mean. Lady Windermere's Fan. Quotes on Woman One should never trust a woman who tells one her real age. A woman who would tell one that, would tell one anything. A Woman of No Importance. Crying is the refuge of plain women but the ruin of pretty ones. Lady Windermere's Fan. Women know life too late. That is the difference between men and women. A Woman of No Importance. Women are meant to be loved, not to be understood. The Sphinx Without a Secret. Quotes on Love One should always be in love. That is the reason one should never marry. In Conversation. To love oneself is the beginning of a life-long romance. Phrases and Philosophies for the Use of the Young. A man can be happy with any woman as long as he does not love her. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Young men want to be faithful and are not; old men want to be faithless and cannot. The Picture of Dorian Gray. II. Text Analysis Structure • 1) Nightingale struck by the “the mystery of love” • 2)Nightingale looking for a red rose to facilitate the love • 3) Nightingale sacrificing her life for a red rose • 4) Student discarding the red rose Genre of this story and its characteristics: Fairy tales - fairies play a part - contain supernatural or magical elements - children’s stories - full of veiled comments on life Characteristics: • 1) personification of birds, insects, animals and trees • 2) vivid, simple narration --- typical of the oral tradition of fairy tales • 3)repetitive pattern Symbolic meanings of “Red rose”, “Lizard” “Butterfly” and “Nightingale”: Symbolic meanings: Red rose --- true love, which needs constant nourishment of passions of the lovers. Lizard --- cynic (cynical people) cynic: a person who sees little or no good in anything and who has no belief in human progress; person who shows this by sneering and being contemptuous. Nightingale --- a truthful, devoted pursuer of love, who dares to sacrifice his own precious life Student --- not a true lover, ignorant of love, not persistent in pursuing love Wilde’s comments in a letter to one of his friends(May 1888): The nightingale is the true lover, if there is one. She, at least, is Romance, and the student and the girl are, like most of us, unworthy of Romance. So, at least, it seems to me, but I like to fancy that there may be many meanings in the tale, for in writing it I did not start with an idea and clothe it in form, but began with a form and strove to make it beautiful enough to have many secrets and many answers. Other analyses 1) The Student's one-sided preference for word knowledge over emotions is clear from the moment he first sees the rose. "It is so beautiful," he says, "that I am sure it has a long Latin name" . The Student, the young woman, and their society are all one-sided psychically. They have devalued the "capacity to love", here symbolized by both the Nightingale and the rose. 2) The relationship of head and heart is a central concern of Wilde's fairytales. Promising to provide the red rose "out of music by moonlight" and to "stain it with my own heart's-blood," the Nightingale asks of the Student only that he "will be a true lover, for Love is wiser than Philosophy, though she is wise, and mightier than Power, " But the Student cannot understand what the Nightingale says, "for he only knew the things that are written down in books.” He has too much "head" knowledge and almost no "heart" knowledge. 3) Wilde is right that the only lover is the Nightingale. The wholeness it achieves is symbolized by the discarded, devalued rose. In the end, the Student and the young woman reject the wholeness offered by that symbol. Figurative speeches used in the text: 1)Personification --- give human forms or feelings to animals, or life and personal attributes to inanimate objects, or to ideas and abstractions. e.g. Time, you old gypsy man, Will you not stay, Put up your caravan Just for one day? 2) Simile and metaphor Simile: …her voice was like water bubbling from a silver jar. …as white as the foam of the sea… Metaphor: ...and the cold crystal moon Writing techniques: Climax --derived from the Greek word “ladder,” implies the progression of thought at a uniform or almost uniform rate of significance or intensity e.g. I came, I saw, I conquered. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. Anti-climax: --- stating one’s thoughts in a descending order of significance or intensity, often used to ridicule or satire. eg. 1. As a serious man, I loved Beethoven, Keats, and hot dogs. 2. For God, for America, for Yale. 3. You manage a business, stocks, bonds, people. And now you can manage your hair. Syntactic device: Inversion …yet for want of a red rose is my life made wretched.(for emphasis) …Crimson was the girdle of petals, and crimson as ruby was the heart. She passed through the grove like a shadow and like a shadow she she sailed across the garden. Night after night have I sung of him. I. Language Points 1. jewels (gems): emeralds（绿宝石）, ruby（红 宝石）, sapphire（蓝宝石）, jade（翡翠） diamond plants: daisy（雏菊）, rose, oak-tree（橡树） daffodil 水仙 花 animals: nightingale, lizard（蜥蜴）, butterfly subjects: philosophy, metaphysics（形而上 学）, logic stringed instruments: harp（竖琴）, violin 2. want: 1)the condition or quality of lacking something usual or necessary for /from want of 由于缺少 The plants died for/from want of water. stayed home for want of anything better to do. 2) pressing need; 贫困 to live in want = to live in poverty 3) something desired: in want of = in need of Are you in want of money? He’s a person of few wants and needs. 3. fling 1) to throw violently, with force Don’t fling your clothes on the floor. 2) to move violently or quickly She flung herself down on the sofa. She flung back her head proudly. 3) to devote to He flung himself into the task. 4. bloom vi. to produce flowers, yield flowers, come into flower or be in flower开花 The roses are blooming. blossom 1) vi. (of a seed plant, esp a tree or plant) to produce or yield flowers, bloom The apples trees are blossoming. 2) vi. to develop Their friendship blossomed when they found out how many interests they shared. 5. ebb n. 1.The tide is on the ebb. 2.The financial resources have reached its lowest ebb. vi. 1) fall back from the flood stage The tide will begin to ebb at 4 o’clock. 2) to fall away or back; decline or recede The danger of conflict is not ebbing there. 6. linger vi. 1) to be slow in leaving, especially out of reluctance The children lingered at the zoo until closing time. 2) to proceed slowly linger over one’s work (磨洋工） 3) to persist Winter lingers. vt. to pass (a period of time) in a leisurely or aimless manner. We lingered away the whole summer at the beach. 7. see 1）see about doing: attend to, make arrangements for, deal with安排，处理 It is time for me to see about cooking the dinner. 2) see something out: to last until the end of 熬过，度过 Will our supplies see the winter out? It was such a bad play we couldn’t see out the performance and we left early. 3) see through sb./ sth The paper is too thick to see though. It was a hard time for us, but we managed to see it through. 4) see to something: to attend to, take care of负责，留意 If I see to getting the car out, will you see to closing the windows? 8. go 1) go about something: to perform to do从事，着手 to go about one’s business Don’t go about the job that way. 2) go after sb/sth to go after a job, a girl, a prize 3) go against sb/sth Opinion is going against us. The case may go against us. 4) go along : vi. to agree with, support We’ll go along with you /your suggestion. 5) go round vi. 萦绕， There is a tune going round in my head. If there are not enough chairs to go round, some people have to stand. 6) go back on sth Don’t go back on your promise. Never go back on your friends.背叛，出卖 7) go by vi. He let the chance go by. A car went by. go by sth = according to, based on to go by the rules/the book 8) go for sb/sth My wife went for me because I was late for dinner. Do you go for modern music? I find this report badly done, and that goes for all the other work done in the office. 9) go into: to enter a profession, state of life to go into business/films 10) go over vi.= change one’s stance He went over from the People’s Party to the Enemy’s Party. • go through sth. vt = (some formalities) • The country has gone through too many wars. • They went through the new marriage service. • 11) go under vi= go bankrupt, fail • She has so many worries, she is sure to go under. II. In-class activity: Discussion： 1. The characters’ different attitudes toward love: (1) The Student’s (2) The Lizard’s, the Butterfly’s and the Daisy’s (3) The Nightingale’s 2. Is love better than life, as the Nightingale believed? Interview other students. Be prepared to summarize their ideas. Home work • III. Exercises in the textbook. • IV. Assignment Written work: Describe how the Nightingale built a red rose out of music in about 150 words.