244 EXAM 1Spring 2007
Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. What is the number 1 reason people choose the foods they eat? a. Cost b. Taste c. Convenience d. Nutritional value 2. Which of the following is classified as a micronutrient? a. Iron b. Protein c. Alcohol d. Carbohydrate 3. Which of the following is characteristic of an essential nutrient? a. Cannot be found in food b. Cannot be degraded by the body c. Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body d. Cannot be used to synthesize other compounds in the body 4. Which of the following nutrients does not yield energy during its metabolism? a. Fat b. Proteins c. Vitamins d. Carbohydrates 5. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1o C? a. 10 calories b. 1 kilocalorie c. 10, 000 calories d. 1000 kilocalories 6. Which of the following nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram? a. Plant fats b. Plant proteins c. Animal proteins d. Plant carbohydrates 7. What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol? a. 160 b. 345 c. 560 d. 755 8. Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients? a. Vitamins b. Minerals c. Proteins d. Carbohydrates
9. In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as a. case-control studies. b. epidemiological studies. c. human intervention trials. d. correlation-control studies. 10. What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment? a. Both subject groups take turns getting each treatment. b. Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group. c. Neither group of subjects knows whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers do know. d. Both subject groups know whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers do not know. 11. Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease? a. All people with the risk factor will develop the disease. b. The absence of a risk factor guarantees freedom from the disease. c. The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease. d. The presence of a factor such as heredity can be modified to lower the risk of degenerative diseases. 12. According to the standards for CHD Risk Factors an LDL cholesterol of 132 is considered a. desirable b. borderline c. high d. there are no standards for LDL 13. What is the #1 lifestyle behavior resulting in death in the United States? a. Poor diet b. Tobacco use c. Alcohol intake d. Sexual behavior 14. What is a bolus? a. Enzyme that hydrolyzes starch b. Portion of food swallowed at one time c. Device used to analyze the contents of the stomach d. Sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine 15. What is one function of the pyloric sphincter? a. Secretes acid into the stomach b. Secretes hormones into the stomach c. Prevents the contents of the intestines from backing up into the stomach d. Prevents the contents of the intestine from emptying too quickly into the colon 16. After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract? a. Jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum, rectum b. Jejunum, ileum, duodenum, rectum, colon c. Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon d. Stomach, jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum
____ 17. Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
a. With an empty GI tract, the intestines remain quiet until the next meal. b. The waves of contraction along the GI tract occur at a constant rate when food is present. c. Circular muscles associated with peristalsis are found in the walls of the intestines but not the stomach. d. Wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles. Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles? a. Control peristalsis b. Grind large food particles c. Secrete digestive juices into the GI tract d. Control the passage of food through the GI tract What is the function of mucus in the stomach? a. Emulsifies fats b. Neutralizes stomach acid c. Activates pepsinogen to pepsin d. Protects stomach cells from gastric juices The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to a. raise the pH of chyme. b. lower the pH of chyme. c. hydrolyze large peptides. d. provide a little fizz in your life. What is the function of bile? a. Emulsifies fats b. Initiates digestion of protein c. Enhances absorption of complex carbohydrates d. Protects the stomach and small intestine from the action of hydrochloric acid Which of the following contains the most dietary fiber? a. wheat bread b. whole-grain bread c. enriched white bread d. unenriched white bread Which component of wheat contains the most fiber? a. germ b. endosperm c. husk d. chaff Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats? a. Vascular b. Mesenteric c. Lymphatic d. Enterohepatic Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice? a. Gastrin b. Secretin c. Glucagon d. Gastric-inhibitory peptide
____ 26. Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except
a. increasing water intake. b. decreasing fiber intake. c. increasing physical activity. d. responding promptly to the defecation signal. What is the composition of sucrose? a. Two fructose units b. One glucose and one fructose unit c. One glucose and one galactose unit d. One galactose and one fructose unit Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues? a. Muscle and liver b. Pancreas and kidneys c. Stomach and intestine d. Brain and red blood cells Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fiber? a. Causes diverticulosis b. Usually found in high fat foods c. Raises blood cholesterol levels d. Classified according to solubility in water The Dietary Guidelines recommends limiting all of the following EXCEPT a. saturated/trans fats b. added sugars c. salt d. protein The chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed a. hydrolysis. b. condensation. c. gluconeogenesis. d. homeostatic balancing. What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates? a. Mouth b. Stomach c. Large intestines d. Small intestines Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of a. amino acids from glucose. b. lactose from a source of sucrose. c. fat from excess carbohydrate intake. d. glucose from a noncarbohydrate substance. What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown? a. 10-25 g b. 50-100 g c. 150-175 g d. 200-400 g
____ 35. Which of the following is not required on food labels?
a. calories per serving b. sodium amount c. calories from fat d. calories from sugar The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are based on a. anecdotal evidence b. the nutrient requirements of acutely ill individuals c. science-based evidence d. media coverage of health related topics Which of the following is a feature of diabetes? a. Many people with type 2 diabetes are obese. b. Only people who have Type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy. c. Diabetes results chiefly from excess dietary intake of simple carbohydrates. d. People with type 1 diabetes fail to respond to the insulin made by the pancreas. Approximately how many pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average U.S. resident each year? a. 25 b. 65 c. 105 d. 190 Presently, HIV is known to be transmitted by direct contact with contaminated body fluids from all of the following sources except a. saliva. b. blood. c. semen. d. vaginal secretions. Which of the following is a structure-function claim? a. Prevents heart disease b. Alleviates joint pain c. Reduces risk of neural tube defects d. Improves memory By what age do most people first have well-developed arterial plaque? a. 30 b. 40 c. 50 d. 60 Direct contributors to the metabolic syndrome include all of the following except a. abdominal obesity. b. hypertension. c. insulin resistance. d. high sodium intake. To lower a high blood cholesterol level, all of the following are recommended except a. consume 2 servings/week of fish. b. consume less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. c. lower the saturated fat and trans fat intake to 10% total energy. d. decrease the carbohydrate intake to 50% of total energy.
____ 44. Foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions are
a. essential foods b. functional foods c. non essential foods d. organic foods The DASH diet was developed to lower the risk for a. cancer. b. diabetes. c. hypertension. d. metabolic syndrome. What is believed to be the primary cause of type 1 diabetes? a. Defect in insulin sensitivity b. Excessive body weight gain c. Defect of the immune system d. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates All of the following are characteristics of diabetes mellitus except a. type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. b. type 2 diabetes develops primarily after people reach adulthood. c. the two major forms are variations of the insulin-dependent type. d. the most common form is characterized by resistance to insulin by body cells. The Dietary Reference Intakes are based on all of the following EXCEPT a. EAR b. EER c. RDA d. UL AMDR are a. micronutrient intake ranges b. tolerable upper limits for vitamins/minerals c. ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients d. desk references of nutrient contents in commonly consumed foods Which of the following is not among the recommendations issued by health professionals to reduce cancer risks? a. Moderate or stop intake of alcohol. b. Increase intake of foods high in iron. c. Limit intake of red meats. d. Eat at least 5 servings a day of vegetables and fruits.