portfolio by babbian

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               English
              Language
              Learners
               Portfolio
By: Nikolai Wojciechowski

For: Julio Quintero ENG 307
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Table of Contents
Bibliography
ELL Teaching

Second Language Acquisition

Subject Area

Assessment

Immigration

Data on ELL’s
USA

Pennsylvania

Latrobe, PA

Reaction to ELL
Initial Reaction

Expectation

Reaction to feedback

Reaction to other’s lessons

My Mind-map

Teaching Demonstration

Useful Resources
                                                                                                            3




Bibliography

ELL Teaching

Gallardo, M. E. (2011). Review of" Educating emergent bilinguals: Policies, programs, and practices for

     English language learners". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(4), 462-463.

     doi:10.1037/a0024031


Genesee, F., & Lindholm-Leary, K. (2012). The education of English language learners. In K. R. Harris, S.

     Graham, T. Urdan, A. G. Bus, S. Major, H. L. Swanson, . . . H. L. Swanson (Eds.), APA educational

     psychology handbook, Vol 3: Application to teaching and learning. (pp. 499-526). Washington, DC

     US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13275-020


Gregory, G. H., & Burkman, A. (2012). Differentiated literacy strategies for English language learners,

     Grades 7–12. Thousand Oaks, CA US: Corwin Press.


Ortiz, J., Burlingame, C., Onuegbulem, C., Yoshikawa, K., & Rojas, E. D. (2012). The use of video

     self‐modeling with English language learners: Implications for success. Psychology in the Schools,

     49(1), 23-29. doi:10.1002/pits.20615


Stansfield, C. W. (2011). Oral translation as a test accommodation for ELLs. Language Testing, 28(3),

     401-416. doi:10.1177/0265532211404191
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Second Language Acquisition

Swanson, H. L., Orosco, M. J., Lussier, C. M., Gerber, M. M., & Guzman-Orth, D. (2011). The influence of

     working memory and phonological processing on English language learner children's bilingual

     reading and language acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(4), 838-856.

     doi:10.1037/a0024578


Ramirez, G., Chen, X., Geva, E., & Luo, Y. (2011). Morphological awareness and word reading in English

     language learners: Evidence from Spanish- and Chinese-speaking children. Applied

     Psycholinguistics, 32(3), 601-618. doi:10.1017/S0142716411000233


Ross, S. G., & Begeny, J. C. (2011). Improving Latino, English language learners' reading fluency: The

     effects of small‐group and one‐on‐one intervention. Psychology in the Schools, 48(6), 604-618.

     doi:10.1002/pits.20575



Subject Area

Brown, C. L. (2007). Strategies for Making Social Studies Texts More Comprehensible for English-

     Language Learners. Social Studies, 98(5), 185-188.


Bunch, G. C. (2009). 'Going up there': Challenges and opportunities for language minority students

     during a mainstream classroom speech event. Linguistics and Education, 20(2), 81-108.

     doi:10.1016/j.linged.2009.04.001
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Cho, S., & Reich, G. A. (2008). New Immigrants, New Challenges: High School Social Studies Teachers and

     English Language Learner Instruction. Social Studies, 99(6), 235-242.


Chu, S., & Flores, S. (2011). Assessment of English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Clearing

     House, 84(6), 244-248. doi:10.1080/00098655.2011.590550


Cruz, B., & Thornton, S. J. (2009). Social Studies for English Language Learners: Teaching Social Studies

     that Matters. Social Education, 73(6), 271-274.


Custar, R. (2011). The relationship between oral language proficiency and academic achievement of high

     school English Language Learners. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts

     International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 72(3-). (2011-99170-598).


Fránquiz, M. E., & Salinas, C. S. (2011). Newcomers to the U.S.: Developing Historical Thinking Among

     Latino Immigrant Students in a Central Texas High School. Bilingual Research Journal, 34(1), 58-75.

     doi:10.1080/15235882.2011.568831


Ortiz, A. A., Robertson, P. M., Wilkinson, C. Y., Liu, Y., McGhee, B. D., & Kushner, M. I. (2011). The Role of

     Bilingual Education Teachers in Preventing Inappropriate Referrals of ELLs to Special Education:

     Implications for Response to Intervention. Bilingual Research Journal, 34(3), 316-333.

     doi:10.1080/15235882.2011.628608


Pennock‐Roman, M., & Rivera, C. (2011). Mean effects of test accommodations for ELLs and non‐ELLs: A

     meta‐analysis of experimental studies. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(3), 10-28.

     doi:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2011.00207.x
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Szpara, M. Y., & Ahmad, I. (2007). Supporting English-Language Learners in Social Studies Class: Results

     from a Study of High School Teachers. Social Studies, 98(5), 189-195.


Weisman, E. M., & Hansen, L. E. (2007). Strategies for Teaching Social Studies to English-Language

     Learners at the Elementary Level. Social Studies, 98(5), 180-184.




Assessment

Barr, S., Eslami, Z. R., & Joshi, R. M. (2012). Core Strategies to Support English Language Learners.

     Educational Forum, 76(1), 105-117.


Bunch, M. B. (2011). Testing English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind. Language Testing,

     28(3), 323-341.


Cawthon, S. W. (2010). Assessment Accommodations for English Language Learners: The Case of

     Former-LEPs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15(13)


Council of the Great,City Schools. (2010). Raising the Achievement of English Language Learners in the

     Buffalo Public Schools: Report of the Strategic Support Team of the Council of the Great City

     Schools, Winter 2009-10. ().Council of the Great City Schools.


Crane, E. W., Barrat, V. X., Huang, M., & Regional Educational, L. W. (2011). The Relationship between

     English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and

     11 in Utah. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110. ().Regional Educational Laboratory West.
                                                                                                       7


Fry, R., & Pew, H. C. (2008). The Role of Schools in the English Language Learner Achievement Gap.

     ().Pew Hispanic Center.


Paradis, J., Emmerzael, K., & Duncan, T. S. (2010). Assessment of English Language Learners: Using

     Parent Report on First Language Development. Journal of Communication Disorders, 43(6-), 474-

     497.


Petterway, A. L. (2006). Statewide Standardized Assessments and Their Impact on ESL Students. Online

     Submission,


Rotenberg, A. M. (2002). A Classroom Research Project: The Psychological Effects of Standardized

     Testing on Young English Language Learners at Different Language Proficiency Levels. ().


Wolf, M. K., Herman, J. L., Dietel, R., & National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards,

     and,Student Testing. (2010). Improving the Validity of English Language Learner

     Assessment Systems. Full Report. Policy Brief 10, Spring 2010. ().National Center for

     Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).




Immigration

Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Thompson, M. S. (1987). School performance, status relations,

     and the structure of sentiment: Bringing the teacher back in. American Sociological Review,
                                                                                                       8


Bowman, J.,C.Ames. (2011). Counterpoint: Amnesty Promotes Illegal Immigration. Points of View:

     Immigration Restrictions, , 3.


EDITORIAL: Educating illegals. (2009). Winston-Salem Journal (NC).



Hesselberg, G. (2011). New classes will teach about issues faced by undocumented

     immigrants.Wisconsin State Journal, The (Madison, WI).


Issitt, M. L. W., Andrew. (2011). Immigration Restrictions: An Overview. Points of View: Immigration

     Restrictions, , 1.



Kingsbury, N. R. (2004). Illegal Alien Schoolchildren: Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs: GAO-

     04-733.U.S. Government Accountability Office.



Lee, M. M. (2011). Point: English Immersion is a Proven Instructional Method. Points of View: Bilingual

     Education, , 2.



Malone, P. (2011). BRIEF: Senate approves in-state tuition for illegal immigrants.Pueblo Chieftain, The

     (CO).



Pawlick, P., Laura. (2011). Point: Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants Is a Practical and Just Solution.

     Points of View: Immigration Restrictions, , 2.


Pearce, M. (2011). Point: Immigration Restrictions Must Be Enforced. Points of View: Immigration

     Restrictions, , 5.


52(5), 665-682. doi:10.2307/2095602




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Data on ELL’s
In the US:
     The percentage of ELL students in the Unites States jumped from 6% to 14% from 1979 to 1999.
     Another jump occurred in the next ten years when the number of ELL students raised from 3.5
      million in 1999 to 5.3 million students in 2009.
     California has the most ELL students followed by Texas, Florida, New York, Illinois, and Arizona in
      that order.
     These states contain over half of the United States’ ELL student population.
     In 2004 72% of ELL students spoke Spanish, 21% spoke an Asian language, and 10% spoke a
      European language other than Spanish.
     When it comes to standardized tests the students there who have IEPs get to have
      accommodations and modified tests. ELL students do not receive similar treatment.
     As a result ELL students score poorly, and schools with high ELL populations do not get as much
      funding from the government causing anti-foreigner sentiments to grow.


In Pennsylvania
     The Pennsylvania department of education reports that there are 42,542 who have limited
      English proficiency
     These students speak 175 different languages.
     Pennsylvania schools must provide ELL students with a planned program to facilitate acquisition
      of English as well as classroom content.


In Latrobe
     Greater Latrobe School District has less than a 1% population of ELL students
     Only have 8 ELL students in grades K-12 out of 4,253 students
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Reaction to ELL
My initial reaction:
My initial reaction to teaching ELL is positive. I feel like I have a solid foundation of practical knowledge
to use in the classroom. I have learned a lot about how to make accommodations for ELL students. I also
learned how to include ELL students in the lesson without removing them from the class. I feel like I will
learn more about ELL students once I get out into the work force, or even get to work alongside with an
ELL specialist.


Immigration
One thing some tax payers in the United States are not happy about is paying taxes for illegal immigrant
children to go to public schools. Legally, public schools are obligated to educate illegal immigrant
children. This article found that costs of educating these children vary from state to state. In fact, the
populations of illegal students are highly concentrated in single areas. From 1999 to 2000 the
population of illegal students rose in Texas, Florida, California, Illinois, and New York. These states
traditionally have high illegal immigrant populations. By 2000 12 to 26 of these state’s populations were
represented by illegal immigrants. The state of New York spends $10,000 per a pupil in their school
systems. This is higher than any other state besides New Jersey which also spends $10,000 per pupil.
The state supports the largest city in America, New York City, and has extreme costs in education. Now
that the illegal immigrant population is growing the costs grow as well. This has caused a great deal of
controversy in the state of New York, as well as states like Florida, California, Illinois, and Texas.




My expectations for my teaching demonstration:
I had high expectations for my lesson. I believed my jigsaw activity minimalized the amount of lecture
for the lesson. I believed it would also allow ELL’s to learn the language through speaking during
presentations or by listening. I also though assigning ELL students a “buddy” would help them get
through their guided notes. I really believed that I had created a great lesson.


Reactions to the feedback I received on my demonstration
I was very pleased to get the constructive criticism that I received from my peers. They let me know
that I should take some control of the room so I can keep the classroom as stress-free as possible for the
ELL students. They also liked the buddy system I established. They also enjoyed the jigsaw activity
although my directions could have been clearer. Next time I will be sure to make directions with more
clarity.
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Reactions to my peers’ demonstrations
Ted: Ted had a great lesson on evolution of weapons. I like how involved the class was. It was extremely
enjoyable and would have gotten and ELL involved by using hands on methods. The only draw-back is if
the ELL did not understand the directions and suddenly found himself being bombarded by paper

Travis: I really like his lesson on flag colors. The lesson allowed the student to work in groups and
collaborate to create a unique flag. The student could even colors of their home country and share part
of his or her culture with the class.

Jenna: Jenna’s lesson was about animals. She used an interactive web page where the students had to
identify the animals walking across the smart boars. The ELL students who may have needed an extra
second to find the proper English word to use to identify the animals may have been cut off or drowned
out by other students.

Grant: Grant’s lesson was a sing-along about George Washington. I like how it got the class active and
the lyrics were very informational. He used a good scaffolding method by providing a list of metaphors
he used in his lyrics to help the ELL students better understand.

Megan: Megan had a great lesson on heat. I like how she used the hands on demonstration of melting
ice. She also provided a good hand-out that came in Spanish as well as English to help ELL students learn
the content as well as academic English.




Scaffolding
DEFINITION: Anything a teacher does to make content more understandable

TECHNIQUES:

       label things around class
       use guided notes
       give student a list of vocabulary
       translation of vocabulary
       list of false cognates and idioms
       Teach using conversational methods like cooperative groups, collaboration, brainstorming, and
        other activities that require language skills.
       use visuals
       Using drama
       Using realia
       tape recorders
       supply graphic organizers
       Repetition
       Error acceptance
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       use cues
       include finished version of a model in a lesson
       Outlining materials for a lesson
       Use multidimensional assessments that include a combination of question types
       Use multiple forms of assessments on top of exams to gage knowledge gained
       Teachers must be sure to use standards and objectives that are on grade level to meet NCLB
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My Mind-map
Initial (Also by: Grant Paxton and Nathan Tedjeske)
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Process of teaching ELL’s (Also by: Alex Smith)




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Teaching Demonstration
My lesson plan

France Activity

Spain Activity
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UK Activity

Guided notes for ELL students

Assessment




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Useful Resources
Pennsylvania Department of Education’s standards for English Language Learners

Other sources:
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http://static.pdesas.org/content/documents/Pennsylvania_English_Language_Proficiency_Standards.pd
f

http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume4/ej14/ej14r7/



http://edr.sagepub.com/content/33/1/4.short



http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=
EJ848981&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ848981



http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pyCDXfKK-
ZMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA19&dq=english+language+learners+statistics&ots=dYJtSd1p7b&sig=pCc-
3mYq7WbLuVK_vc02kMugYbo#v=onepage&q=english%20language%20learners%20statistics&f=false



http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=
ED482995&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED482995



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