geopolitics by jianglifang

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									                    Types of territoriality
    State

  Ethnic

Religious

   Racial

    Fears of
“Balkanization”
(splitting state)

 But common
  defiance of
   outsiders
            Pan-isms
(Uniting same group from different states)


Ethnic:       Pan-Arab, Pan-Kurdish

Religious: Pan-Islamic

Racial:       Pan-African

States:       Pan-American
      Kurds
Ethnic group in
Turkey, Iraq,
Iran, Syria.

Many Kurds
for state of
Kurdistan.

States pit Kurds
against each other
Iraq
Ethnic:
Arabs vs.
Kurds

Religion:
Sunnis vs.
Shi’as

Rulers are
Sunni Arab
Iranians
                  Iran-Iraq War,
                     1980-88


                IRAN (Shi’a Persian) vs.
                IRAQ (Sunni Arab)

                Yet Iraqi Shi’as fought for Iraq,
                Iranian Arabs fought for Iran

                (State territoriality won)
       Iraqis
                   Armenia-Azerbaijan
                     War, 1988-94
                   ARMENIA (Christian) vs.
                   AZERBAIJAN (Shi’a Mulsim)

                   Yet Shi’a Iran stayed neutral,
                   fearing ethnic Azeris in NW Iran

                   (Ethnic territoriality won)




Armenian (above)
 and Azeri views
                                            Kashmir conflict
                        KASHMIR
                                  (CHINA)


                                            INDIA (Hindu) vs.
             PAKISTAN                       PAKISTAN (Muslim)
                                  CHINA

                        INDIA                British India partitioned
                                             into two states, 1948.

                                             Kashmir had Muslim
                                             majority but Hindu ruler.

                                             Wars split Kashmir
Indian and
                                             between India,
Pakistani
propaganda                                   Pakistan, and China
maps                                         (all now have nukes)
Mediterranean Sea




    Nile River
British Palestine
1918-48

Arab ethnic majority

Jewish religious
minority grew in 1940s
UN Partition Plan, 1948
  • Jewish State (Israel)

  • Arab State (Palestine)

  • International Zone
       (Jerusalem)
Israeli Jews vs. Palestinians. other Arabs
 Israeli Settlements
   and Palestinian
    towns in the
  West Bank, 2000


   Israeli settlers see as
historic Jewish homeland

  Palestinians compare
  illegal settlements to
        Apartheid
        Israel

Zionism:
Jewish (religious) territoriality

Israelis are multiethnic
European, Middle Eastern,
Newer Russian, Ethiopian immigrants


Arab Israeli minority
          Palestinians
  (in West Bank and Gaza Strip)


Arab (ethnic) territoriality

Palestinians are multireligious
Muslims and Christians


Ethnic nationalist movement,
but some newer Muslim groups
Water &
Israel’s
border
        Palestinian
      autonomy, 2000


 Gradual turnover of Israeli-
Occupied areas to Palestinians
  for “Two-State Solution”

      Plan collapsing as
       killings increase
    Wall, Barrier or
     New Border?

Israelis: “Security Barrier” to
 keep bombers out of Israel.

Palestinians: “ Wall” isolates
 villages, cuts water access
Jerusalem: Holy City to Jews, Muslims, and Christians
Jerusalem

West (Israeli);
East (Arab)
with Israeli settlements
    Palestinian and Israeli propaganda maps



                  Israeli map lumping together Arab states;
                       depicting tiny defenseless Israel




Palestinian map
 without Israel
Cold War propaganda map: “Red menace”
View of Communist “Red Bloc” during Cold War




                         Lumping failed to recognize
                       differences among Communists,
                           or local causes of conflict
  “Clash of Civilizations” theory
Samuel Huntington theory of Western, Islamic,
Slavic, etc. “blocs” in conflict with each other.
“Clash of Civilizations” theory

         Fails to recognize
  differences within each “bloc.”

 Most sources of conflict are local
  (often ethnic), not religious.

     Often blames the victim
         for the conflict.

  The West shares responsibility
           for conflicts
  (military aid arms both sides)
Lumping Arabs or Muslims after Sept. 11
How Many Americans View the World
Cartoon:

Bush’s View
of the World


Problem:
some former
allies later
seen as “evil”
        GEOPOLITICS



      State’s power to control
territory, shape international policy
  and other states’ foreign policy
Growth of Russian Empire
African
colonies
Decolonization, 1940s-1990s
  Divide-and-conquer


                               Berlin
                               Conference
                               divides map
                               of Africa,
                               1884
Ethnic nations split between
and within colonial empires
 (British, French, Russian)

    But “clean” ethnic
boundaries also not possible
         Mackinder’s Heartland Theory
   (Whoever controls Pivot Area can control the world)
The “Great Game” between Britain and Russia, 1800s-1900s
Enlargement of        Berlin
Soviet bloc after      Wall,
 World War II       1961-89
NATO and Warsaw Pact, 1945-89
Changes in Europe, 1990-93
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2002




                                           Kosovo
                                           military
                                            zones
 European          euro
  Union



    Began as
    European
   Economic
  Community
 (EEC), 1957.
Stronger in 1994

10 new members
  to join, 2004
United Nations member states




       Switzerland 2002
Other international alliances

								
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