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ARCHITECTURE

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					                                  ARCHITECTURE




        Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings. In a broader sense, the
architecture includes designing and building the overall built environment, from the macro
level of town planning, urban design, landscape architecture, down to the micro level of the
building design, furniture design and product design. Architecture also refers to the results of
the design process.


       A. The scope and the desire

           According to Vitruvius in his book De Architectura (which is the oldest written
           sources which still exists today), a good building should choose a beauty /
           Aesthetics (Venustas), Strength (Firmitas), and Purpose / Function (Utilities);
           architecture can be seen as balance and co-ordination between the three elements,
           and there is no one element overpowering the others. In the modern definition,
           architecture should include consideration of function, aesthetic, and
           psychological. However, it can also be said that the elements of the function itself
           in it already includes both aesthetic and psychological elements.

           Architecture is shuttling, including the math, science, art, technology, humanities,
           politics, history, philosophy, and so on. Citing Vitruvius, "Architecture is a
           science arising from other sciences, and is equipped with the learning process:
           assisted with the assessment of the work as a work of art". He adds that an
           architect should be well versed in the field of music, astronomy, etc.. Philosophy
           is one of the major architectural approaches. Rationalism, empiricism,
           phenomenology structuralism, post-structuralism, and dekonstruktivisme are some
           directions from philosophy influencing architecture.
           Theory and practice

           The importance of the theory to be a reference to the practice should not be overly
           emphasized, although many architects shun theory altogether. Vitruvius said:
           "praktikdan theory are its parents. Practice is an ongoing reflection on the
     implementation of a project or process by hand, the process of conversion of the
     material in the best way. Theory is the result of that reasoning that explains the
     process of conversion of the material into the final result as the answer against an
     issue. A practicing architect without basic theory can not explain the reason and
     the basis of the forms he chose. while practicing architect who theorize without
     just stick to the "shadow" rather than substance. An architect who hold to the
     theory and practice, he had multiple weapons. he can prove the truth of the results
     of the design and also can make it happen in the execution ". This all inseparable
     from the concept of the basic thinking that a major force in every architect is
     ideally located in the power of ideas.
     History

B.   For more details see the main article: History of architecture

     Architecture born of the dynamics between needs (conducive environmental
     conditions, security, etc.) and means (available building materials and
     construction technologies). Prehistoric and primitive architecture constitute this
     early stage. Then humans progressed and knowledge began to be formalized
     through oral traditions and practices, architecture evolved into a craft. At this
     stage there was the trial process, improvisation, or impersonation to become a
     successful outcome. The architect is not a significant figure, he merely continued
     the tradition. Vernacular architecture born of such an approach and is still
     practiced in many parts of the world.

     Early human settlements were essentially rural. Then comes the surplus
     production, rural societies transformed into urban ones. The complexity of
     building and typology increases. Technological development of public facilities
     such as roads and bridges is growing. New building typologies such as schools,
     hospitals, and recreational facilities also appear. Religious architecture remains an
     important part of society. Architectural styles developed and texts on architecture
     began to appear. The written works into a collection of rules (canons) to be
     followed in the construction of religious architecture. Examples of these include
     the canon of written works by Vitruvius, or Vaastu Shastra of ancient India. In the
     Classical period and the European Middle Ages, the building is not the work of
     individual architects, but professional associations (guilds) was formed by the
     artisan / skill building experts to organize the project.

     At the time of the Enlightenment, the humanities and the emphasis on individual
     becomes more important than religion, and a new beginning in the architecture.
     Development assigned to individual architects - Michaelangelo, Brunelleschi,
     Leonardo da Vinci - and the cult of the individual had begun. But at that moment,
     there is no clear dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the
     other labor-related. At this stage, an artist to design a bridge for structural
     calculations it is still common.
With the consolidation of the knowledge from different disciplines (eg
engineering), and the emergence of new building materials and technology, the
architect began to focus on the technical aspects of building toward aesthetics.
Then the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with Bouwheer
(client) is rich and concentrated on the visual elements in the form of referring to
historical examples. In the 19th century, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in France to
train prospective architects creating sketches and beautiful drawings without much
emphasis on context.

Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass consumption
and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the middle class. Ornamented
products, once within the scope of the limited aesthetic expensive skills, become
affordable through mass production. Such products lacked the beauty and honesty
in the expression of a production process.

Dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the beginning of the 20th century
gave birth to the ideas that underlie modern architecture, among others, Deutscher
Werkbund (formed 1907) which produces machine-made objects with better
quality is the point of the birth of the profession of industrial design. After that,
the Bauhaus school (founded in Germany in 1919) rejected history and looked at
architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.

When Modern architecture began to be practiced, it was an avant-garde movement
with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic. Truth sought by rejecting history and
turning to function that gave birth to the form. Architects became prominent
figures and were dubbed as "the master". Later modern architecture moved into
the realm of mass production due to its simplicity and economy.

However, the general public feel any decrease in the quality of modern
architecture in the 1960s, partly because of lack of meaning, sterility, ugliness,
uniformity, and psychological effects. Most architects answered through Post-
Modern Architecture by attempting a more populist architecture at the visual
level, even at the expense of depth. Robert Venturi argued that "shack adorned /
decorated shed" (an ordinary building which its interior is functionally designed
and embellished exterior) is better than a "duck / duck" (a building where both
form and function into one). Venturi opinion is the basis of Post-Modern
Architecture approach.

Another part (and also non-architects) responded by going to what they
considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal
philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider
everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment.
Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Chris Jones,
Christopher Alexander started searching for a more inclusive process of design in
order to get better results. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral,
environmental, and social sciences were done to the design process.

Along with the increasing complexity of building, architecture becomes more
multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture today needs a set of professional in the
process. This is the state of the profession today. Nevertheless, individual
architects still favored and sought after in the design of building meaningful
cultural symbol. For example, an art museum for new experiments in style
dekonstruktivis be today, tomorrow maybe something else.
Conclusion

production building is the most visible man. However, most buildings are still
designed by themselves or masons in developing countries, or through production
standards in developed countries. Architect remain marginalized in the production
building. Expertise sought only architect in the construction of complex building
types, or buildings which have cultural significance / political matters. And this is
accepted by the general public as an architecture. Role of the architect, though
changing, never became a major and never stand alone. Always there will be
dialogue between society and the architect. And the result is a dialogue which can
be termed architecture as a product and a discipline.

				
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posted:4/15/2013
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