Outline The effects of Yoga --reduction of stress Reporter : Zing-I Wu Adviser : Li-Chuan Lin About Yoga Stress symptom Introduction Discussion Conclusion Future research About Yoga From : India Yoga 連結 . 合一 「內在真我的統一」 也是一個身心修練的通泛名詞 Traditional Yoga Hatha Yoga (身，哈達瑜伽。) Raja Yoga (心，勝王瑜伽。) Jnana Yoga (知，智慧瑜伽。) Bhakti Yoga (情，虔信瑜伽。) Karma Yoga (意，行動瑜伽。) Modern Yoga Bikram Yoga ( Hot Yoga ) Restoration Yoga ( Relaxation Yoga ) Iyengar Yoga 以姿勢的精準、著重練習順序、使用輔助 器材等等為特色，也是目前公開介紹呼吸 鍛鍊法最多的瑜珈上師 Ashtanga 瑜伽 雙人瑜珈 . 孕婦瑜珈 . 親子瑜珈 . 塑繩瑜珈 . 塑球瑜珈 Stress symptom Headache Back pain sleep disturbances anxiety symptom depression symptom Introduction Yoga practices Gentle stretching; Exercises for breath control Meditation as a mind-body intervention (Ernst E. 2001) Introduction Hatha Yoga Asana ( postures ) Pranayama ( breathing exercise) Dhyana ( meditation ) Eight Steps(八支行法) (一)YAMA ( 持戒 ) (二) NIYAMA ( 精進 ) (三) ASANA ( 調身 ) (四) PRANAYAMA ( 調息 ) (五) PRATYHARA ( 攝心 ) (六) DHARANA ( 凝神 ) (七) DHYANA ( 禪定 ) (八) SAMADHI ( 三昧地 ) Posture of Yoga SURYA NAMASKARA A ( 拜日式A ) Posture of Yoga VIRABHADRASANA ( 勇士式 ) A B Posture of Yoga VRKSASANA ( 樹式 ) UTTHITA HASTA PADANGUSTHASANA ( 拎腳趾式 ) Posture of Yoga SALABHASANA ( 蝗蟲式 ) DHANURASANA ( 弓式 ) Posture of Yoga URDHVA DHANURASANA ( 上彎弓式 ) BAKASANA ( 鶴式 ) Posture of Yoga PARIPURNA NAVASANA SALAMBA SIRSASANA ( 船式 ) ( 頭立式 ) Posture of Yoga BALASANA ( 嬰兒式 ) SAVASANA ( 攤屍式 ) The effects of Yoga Vigorous postures and participants may have experienced enhanced feelings of mastery, as they were challenged to learn difficult postures (asanas). Concentrated practice might induce beneficial effects on self-control and foster self-efficacy (Andreas Michalsen et. al , 2005 ) The effects of Yoga Nitric oxide may also be involved in the pathophysiology of stress, anxiety and depression ( Esch T et. al 2002 ; Jayasinghe SR, 2004 ) Vigorous postures with repeated functional peripheral vessel occlusion and subsequent hyperemia , also modulate blood flow and alter endothelial function Nitric oxide is constantly produced and released throughout the endothelium. The effects of Yoga Yoga may also induce the relaxation response, for which a decrease in cortisol levels and sympathetic nervous system responsivity ( Hoffman JW et. al 1982 ; Esch T et. al , 2003 ) The effects of Yoga The effects of 15 min of daily stretching exercise Significant increase of heart rate variability Marked decrease of heart rate The increase in flexibility was correlated to improvement of cardiac autonomic function (Mueck-Weymann M etc. al , 2004) The effects of Yoga Modulation of autonomic nervous tone consequent reduction in sympathetic tone, Activation of antagonistic neuromuscular systems Increase the relaxation response in the neuromuscular system Stimulation of the limbic system primarily by meditation (Riley, 2004) The study about the effects of Yoga for Anxiety The effects of Yoga for anxiety Vahia et al (1973 , n = 39) Psychoneurosis or psychosomatic disorder. Yoga treatment: five steps anasa-dhyana(n = 21) Control: anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs (n = 18). Trial duration: 6 weeks Measurement : TAS (pre -post) evaluations , HDRS and BSASI Yoga group significantly greater pre-post reduction in scores than for control group (p<0.05) The effects of Yoga for anxiety Sahasi et al (1989 , n = 91) Anxiety neurosis Yoga treatment: yoga pranayama (n = 38) (30). Control: diazepam (n = 53) (18). Trial duration: 3 months Measurement : IPAT at pre and post , SSI Mean changes significant for yoga group (p<0.05) The effects of Yoga for anxiety Sharma et al ( 1991 , n = 71) Anxiety neurosis. Yoga treatment : Yoga pranayama(n = 41) (33). Control: placebo capsule, once a day (n = 30) (24). Trial duration: 12 weeks Measurements : HAS , SUD, various physiological measures and PSLES Significant greater improvement in yoga group (p<0.05). The effects of Yoga for anxiety Broota and Sanghvi (1994 , n = 30) Examination anxiety Yoga treatment : Broota relaxation technique (n = 10) Control 1 : Jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique (n = 10) Control 2 : talking only (n = 10) Trial duration: 3 days Measurement : ACL at pre and post , self evaluation ladder scale (anxiety measure) Significant difference between the three groups on the pre-post changes (p<0.01) Mean of the pre-post changes for Broota group significantly greater than Jacobson group (p<0.05) and talking control group ( p<0.01) The effects of Yoga for anxiety Shannahoff-Khalsa e.t. al (1999 , n = 22) OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) Yoga treatment : kundalini yoga meditation (n = 12) (7). Control : relaxation response and mindfulness meditation (n = 10) (7). Trial duration : 3 months Measurement : Y-BOCS at pre and post , SCL-90-R (OC and GSI), POMS, PSS, and PIL Significant reduction in mean for yoga group (p <0.05) The effects of Yoga for anxiety Malathi and Damodaran (1999 , n = 50) Examination anxiety Yoga treatment : yoga various asanas (n = 25) Control : work such as reading and writing (n = 25). Trial duration : 3 months Measurement : STAI at pre and post practice Significant pre-post reduction for yoga group (p<0.01) The effects of Yoga for depression The study about the effects of Yoga for depression Khumar et al. ( 1993 , n=50 ) Severe depression Yoga : Yoga ( rhythmic breathing , relaxation) ( n=25) Control : No intervention (n=25) Measurement : ZungDSRS and PIS, all pre-treatment, Zung scale only after 15 and 30 days Significant differences in pre–post depression scores for yoga group. Significant differences between treatment and control group at mid and post treatment ( p =0.01) The effects of Yoga for depression Woolery et al. ( 2004 , n=28 ) Mild depression Yoga group : Iyengar Yoga (n=13) Control : no active intervention (n= 15) Duration : 5 weeks Measurement : BDI STAI (pre and post) , POMS (pre and post 1st, 5th and last class) Significant reduction in BDI and STAI for yoga group Significant changes in POMS pre to post class The study about the effects of Yoga for emotion The effects of Yoga for emotion Andreas Michalsen et. al ( 2005 , n=24) Emotional distress Yoga : Iyengar Yoga ( n=16 ) Control : no intervention ( n=8 ) Duration : 3 months Measurement : STAI , CPSS , POMS , CES-D , cortisoln ( Yoga ) CESSignificant improvements : perceived stress (P<0.02) , STAI(P<0.02 ) , well-being (P<0.01), vigor (P<0.02) , fatigue (P<0.02) and depression (P<0.05) Physical well-being also increased (P<0.01) Salivary cortisol decreased significantly after participation in a yoga class (P<0.05) Perceived stress Cortisol concentration Discussion Inclusion criteria : Anxiety , depression , emotional distress Methods : Hatha Yoga Measurement: STAI etc. scale for mind ; Cortisol for physical Results : Hatha Yoga for reduction of stress is effective Conclusion Hatha Yoga for stress reduction is effective Reduction of headache , back pain , anxiety , sleep disturbances , depression , decreased of cortisol A certified Yoga teacher Duration : 3 months Frequency : 2-3 times/week or everyday Not suitable : pregnancy , seniors , menstruating women (need to modify ) Future research Other effects about Yoga: Drug addiction (Shaffer HJ et. al , 1997 ) Hypertension ( Murugesan R et. al , 2000 ) Irritable bowel syndrome ( Taneja Iet. al , 2004 ) Multiple sclerosis ( Oken BS et. al , 2004) Insulin Resistance Syndrome , Cardiovascular Disease ( Kim E. Innes et. al , 2005) Thanks for your attention!