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Review for Mid-Term Exam

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    HNRS 228 - Astrobiology
    Prof. Geller
Overview of Chapter 1

Life Elsewhere
Worlds Beyond Imagination
  distances between worlds
  distances between stars
  communications between star systems
Stuff of Life
  birth and death of stars and planets
  origin of the chemical elements
  chemistry review
  formation of solar system
  other solar systems
Overview of Chapter 2

Roots of science
  Greeks and Geocentrism
Copernican Revolution
  Copernicus, Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Newton
Nature of Modern Science
  What you think you know
 Overview of Chapter 3
What is Life
  Its properties, evolution and definition
Cells: The basic units of life
  Structure, composition, prokaryotes, eukaryotes
Metabolism: The chemistry of life
  Energy needs and sources; water
DNA and Heredity
  Structure, replication, genetic code
Life at the Extremes
  Extremophiles and their implications
Chapter 4 - Rocks

How geologists tell apart different
 minerals and rocks
  color, luster, texture
  hardness test
     scratching one against another
        • diamond is hardest
  acid test
     using weak hydrochloric acid to
  streak test
     form a streak across a ceramic tile
Chapter 4 - Geologic Time
Fossilization
“Reading the Rocks”
  principle of uniformity
  principle of original horizontality
  principle of superposition
  principle of crosscutting relationships
  principle of faunal succession
  radiometric dating
Geologic Time Scale
Chapter 4 -
Geologic
Time
Chapter 5 - Origin and
Evolution of Life on Earth
Searching for the origin
Functional beginnings of life
  From chemistry to biology at the molecular
   level
Prokaryotes and oxygen
Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity
Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate
 change
Evolutions of humans
Conclusions
Density vs. Temperature
(water)
Biochemical Pathways
Chemical Beginnings
Molecular Features of
Living Systems (continued)

DNA
         Transcription

      m-RNA
                      Translation

              t-RNA
                                    Translation/Genetic Code

                         Polypeptide
                                               Conformation

                                       Functional Protein
  Taylor Hierarchy of Life
Community
   Population
          Organism
               Organ
                    Tissue
                        Cell
                             Organelles
                                  Macromolecules
                                        Atoms
Taylor Hierarchy of Ecology

Earth
     Biosphere
          Biome
               Ecosystem
                   Community
                        Population
                            Organisms
Chapter 6 - Searching the
Solar System for Life

Review Requirements for Life
Searching for Life in Our Solar System
Exploring the Solar System
  remotely from Earth or spacecraft, landers
   on surface, human exploration
Biological Tour of the Solar System
Sample Phase Diagram
Nebular Condensation
Chemistry

  Molecule   Freezing Point Distance from
                                Center
     H2          10 K         >100 AU
    H2O          273 K         >10 AU
    CH4          35 K          >35 AU
    NH3          190 K          >8 AU
   FeSO4         700 K          >1 AU
    SiO4        1000 K         >0.5 AU
Planetary Summary
                Mass      Density      Major
     Planet   (Earth=1)   (g/cm3)   Constituents

Mercury         0.06        5.4      Rock,   Iron
Venus           0.82        5.2      Rock,   Iron
Earth           1.00        5.5      Rock,   Iron
Mars            0.11        3.9      Rock,   Iron

Jupiter          318        1.3        H, He
Saturn            95        0.7        H, He

Uranus           14         1.3      Ices, H, He
Neptune          17         1.7      Ices, H, He

				
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