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					Western Invitational Tournament

Stanford Senior Varsity-A

Questions by Stanford Senior Varsity - A by Jesse Molesworth, Sherman Lo, Rachel Marshak, edited by David Levinson Tossups: Category: Geography Tossup: 1. It is located at the juncture of two great Central Asian mountain systems -- the Tien Shan and the Pamirs. More than half of the country is drained by the Naryn River and other tributaries of the Syrdarœya. The republic also contains the second highest peak in the former USSR, Peak Pobedy. FTP, name this independent republic in Central Asia, bordered on the north by Kazakhstan, on the east by China, on the south by China and Tajikistan, and on the west by Uzbekistan whose capital is Bishkek. Answer: Category: Art Tossup: 2. In poetry the best exemplars were Velemir Khlebnikov and Vladimir Mayakovsky. In painting, force and dynamism were captured by showing a moving object in successive stages of motion. From their manifesto comes the dictum, “The roaring automobile is more graceful than Winged Victory.” FTP name this radical art movement inaugurated in 1909 by poet Filippo Marinetti and sculptor Umberto Boccioni. Answer: Futurism Kyrgyzstan

Category: American Lit Tossup: 3. “A bucket of sand and a wishing lamp is all I need to create a world in half a second that would make this one look like a hunk of mud,” he once said. To him poetry was the “supreme fiction.” FTP name this American poet of The Man With the Blue Guitar, “Sunday Morning,” “Peter Quince at the Clavier,” and “The Emperor of Ice Cream.” Answer: Wallace Stevens

Category: Film, Stage Tossup: 4. She studied in London with Seraphima Astafieva, later becoming a member of the VicWells Ballet. Though her most famous role was Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty, she also created roles in many ballets by the British choreographer Sir Frederick Ashton. In 1956, she was made Dame of the British Empire. FTP, identify this British ballerina often paired with dancer Rudolf Nureyev during his tenure with the Royal Ballet. Answer: Dame Margot Fonteyn de Arias

Category: Ancient History

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Tossup: 5. Situated at the confluence of the Tigris and Khosr, it was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris. First settled before 6000 BC and it was inhabited almost without a break until after AD 1500. In the 2nd and 3rd millennia BC, it was known primarily as a religious center. The sack of the city by the Babylonians and Medes in 612 BC effectively put an end to the Assyrian Empire. FTP, name this city, capital of Assyria after Sennacherib moved his throne from Calah. Answer: Nineveh

Category: Classical Music Tossup: 6. While studying at the Convict in Vienna, he was so poor that he relied on his friends to buy him music-paper and ink. He took private lessons from Salieri, who accused him of plagiarism of Mozart and Haydn. FTP name this Austrian composer of Rosamunde, Death and the Maiden, the Unfinished Symphony, and the Trout Quintet. Answer: Franz Peter Schubert

Category: US History Tossup: 7 [dml] In 1769, King George III granted it a charter as a private school. The charter was to last forever, but in 1816, the Granite State of New Hampshire tried to make it a state school. The Supreme Court in 1819 upheld the inviability of contracts in a famous case involving, for ten points, what school? Answer: Dartmouth College

Category: World History Tossup: 8. His victory at Pichincha drove the Spaniards from Ecuador. His victory at Ayacucho drove the Spaniards from Peru. However, his unsuccessful attempt to keep Venezuela in Gran Columbia led to his mysterious murder, as he was returning home to Ecuador. FTP name this chief lieutenant of Simon Bolivar and first president of Bolivia - who lent his name to one of Bolivia’s capitals. Answer: Antonio Jose de Sucre

Category: Sociology/Anthropology (Paleontology) Tossup: 9. For Christians it is epitomized by the risen Christ. According to its creator, the universe becomes increasingly “hominized,” wherein man is “the ascending arrow of the great biological synthesis.” FTP name this point described by French paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, named after the last letter of the Greek alphabet. Answer: Omega point

Category: Geology/Meteorology Page: 2

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Tossup: 10. It has a role in equalizing pressure moving south to north in the upper troposphere. It causes winds to move in curved paths, instead of straight paths. It also confounded the trajectory of British missiles lauched during the Falkland Island campaign. FTP name this force, caused by the rotation of the earth, which deflects airborne objects right in the Northern hemisphere. Answer: Coriolis Effect

Category: Economics Tossup: 11. A chapter title in an 1899 work, H.L. Mencken called this buzz-phrase “one percent platitude and 99 percent nonsense.” The book posited that feudal division of classes continued into modern times, with the lords employing themselves uselessly. FTP name this two-word phrase invented in The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen. Answer: Conspicuous Consumption

Category: European History Tossup: 12. Charles I, an Angevin, had aroused the hatred of the locals by imposing heavy taxes and especially by putting the island under the control of French officials and soldiers. On that Monday evening the inhabitants of the island rose against their oppressors. Their example was followed in other towns, until almost all the French on the island had been massacred. FTP, name this massacre on Easter Monday, March 30, 1282 that led to the installation of Pedro III as king of Sicily. Answer: Sicilian Vespers

Category: Mythology Tossup: 13. Plato mentions only one; Martianus speaks of two, Aelian four, Varro ten, while medieval monks made them twelve in number. Aeneas consulted the Erythraean one before his descent into Hades. Michelangelo famously painted the Libyan one on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. FTP name these prophetesses of classical legend. Answer: Sibyl

Category: General Knowledge Tossup: 14. Its predecessor was an arrangement of black toads. However, according to legend, an angel appeared to an aged hermit of Joye-en-valle with an azure shield bearing this device. When Clotilde saw it, she soon convinced her husband Clovis to adopt it. FTP name this type of iris, still an emblem of France. Answer: Fleur De Lis

Category: Technology/Engineering

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Tossup: 15. The father suffered a crushed foot when a ferry hit the pilings on which he was standing - he later died of tetanus in Brooklyn, NY. The son ruined his health spending long hours in the high-pressure caissons - consequently, he was forced to supervise the construction site via a telescope. FTP give the last name shared by this father-son engineering tandem, best known for the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Answer: Roebling (John Augustus and Washington Augustus)

Category: Government/Current History Tossup: 16. Despite increasing the local conservative vote by 50%, this candidate's first run for parliament was unsuccessful. A member of the "dries," this Brit was a research chemist and tax lawyer, before entering politics. The second female Conservative cabinet minister ever, she became secretary of state for education and science in 1970. FTP, name this politician, Europe's first woman prime minister. Answer: Margaret Thatcher

Category: Physics/Astronomy Tossup: 17. It is about 300 light-years from Earth. Its diameter, first calculated by Francis Gladheim Pease and Albert A. Michelson in 1920, varies from 419 to 580 million km (260 to 360 million miles), making it one of the largest of observable stars. This calculation was the first successful determination of the size of a star. FTP, name this reddish star that that marks the right shoulder of the constellation Orion. Answer: Betelguese (accept Alpha Orionis)

Category: World Lit Tossup: 18. This comic writer is the subject of a book by Russian critic Mikhail Bakhtin. Abandoning the Franciscan order, he conducted botanical and archaeological studies with Jean du Bellay, bishop of Paris, and practiced medicine on Montpellier and Lyons. FTP name this monk, doctor, and French writer of the grotesque and riotous Gargantua and Pantagruel. Answer: Francois Rabelais

Category: Psychology Tossup: 19. The taste of lemonade is not separated into the elements of coldness, bitterness, and sweetness, but rather altogether. This illustrates a school of thought that is associated with the “closure tendency” and the “Eureka experience.” FTP name this school of psychology led by Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Koehler, in which the emphasis is placed on “the whole.” Answer: Gestalt

Category: Biology Page: 4

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Tossup: 20. Though the first was caught near South Africa, and the next was caught near Madagascar, all of the more than twenty specimens since caught were near the Comoro Islands. Its name comes from the Greek for “hollow-spine”; however, its discoverer nick-named it “old fourlegs” for its odd paired fins, which act as props. FTP name this group of very primitive bony fish, linked to the very first amphibians, and often described as “living fossils.” Answer: Coelacanth (SEE lah kanth)

Category: World History 1950+ Tossup: 21. His remains were recently interred in site of one of his most decisive victories, Santa Clara. This burial culminated the week-long celebration of the 30th anniversary of the death of this man, whose burial place was secret until last July when it was discovered in a remote area of Bolivia. FTP, name this Argentinean revoluntionary who helped Fidel Castro topple Fulgencio Batista. Answer: Che Guevara

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Category: Philosophy Tossup: 22. He refused to eat meat, and attained a state of mystical union with God at least four times, according to his student Porphyry. He persuaded his friend the emperor Galliienus to build a city for philosophers to be governed according to Plato’s laws. FTP name this author of the Enneads, student of Ammonius Saccas, and principal figure of Neoplatonism. Answer: Plotinus

Category: American History Tossup: 23. Educated at Emory University, from 1850 to 1852 he was a professor of mathematics at the University of Mississippi, and from 1857 to 1860 he was a U.S. representative from Mississippi. He drafted the Mississippi ordinance of secession and after the civil war, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1877 to 1885. Kennedy praised him in Profiles of Courage for his courageous stand while a member of the Supreme Court. FTP, name this man, Cleveland's Secretary of the Interior and a justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Answer: Category: Art 24. It was the first major showing of modern art in the United States. It had a huge impact on the American public; over a quarter of a million people paid to see the exhibition, which first promoted an awareness of contemporary art in America. FTP, name this art exhibition in New York City held February 17-March 15, 1913. Answer: Armory Show Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar

Category: US History 25. Born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, she was the daughter of the Reverend William Smith and Elizabeth Quincy. Active in her husband's political career, she advocated equal education for women, and spoke out frequently against slavery. FTP, name this woman, wife and mother to U.S. Presidents. Answer: Abigail Adams

Category: Biology 26. Although it is common throughout the world, its incidence in the U.S. is low today due to fortification of processed wheat. The disease mainly afflicts those whose diet lacks proteins. It often begins with weakness, lassitude, insomnia, and weight loss. Exposed skin on the neck and limbs, becomes rough, reddened, and scaly, and painful mouth lesions develop. FTP, name this disease shown by Joseph Goldberger to be caused by deficiency of niacin. Answer: Pellagra

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Bonuses: Category: Geography Bonus: 1. Identify the name common to the three different cities 30-20-10. 1. (30) Thunder Bay, a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, was incorporated in 1970 with the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and this city and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. 2. (20) Another city with this name resides in Jefferson County, southeastern Texas and is a major deepwater port on Sabine Lake, near Louisiana; settled about 1835. Linked to the Gulf of Mexico by the Sabine-Neches Canal, it is a major petroleum-shipping port; manufactures include refined petroleum, petrochemicals, and ships. 3. (10) It was an important port as early as the 6th century AD. It was occupied (1858) by the British and was fortified as a naval base by the Chinese in the 1880s. It was attacked and briefly held by the Japanese in 1895; subsequently it was granted, with adjacent parts of the peninsula, to Russia as part of the Liao-tung lease. Answer: Port Arthur

Category: North American History Bonus: 2. Identify the following treaties associated with the Panama Canal FTP each. 1. According to this 1850 treaty, the US and the UK agreed to jointly operate a canal across Central America. Answer: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 2. According to this 1900 treaty, the US gained the right to operate the canal solely, but pledged to keep it open. Answer: Hay-Pauncefote Agreement 3. According to this 1903 treaty, the US annexed the Canal Zone and arranged the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal. Answer: Hay Banau-Varilla Treaty

Category: European History Bonus: 3. Answer the following questions on the mutiny on the Bounty in 1789 for the stated number. 1. FFP, name the commander of the British merchant ship. Answer: Captain William Bligh 2. FTP, name the settlement established in 1790 by 9 of the mutineers and 6 male and 12 female Polynesians whom the mutineers had brought from Tahiti. Answer: Page: 7 Pitcairn Island

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3. The story was used by a renowned British poet in his poem "The Island" F15P, name him. Answer: George Gordon, Lord BYRON

Category: American Lit Bonus: 4. Identify the following addresses by Ralph Waldo Emerson FTP each. 1. Delivered in Cambridge, MA, it created controversy for presenting Jesus Christ as a normal man who had reached a state of enlightenment attainable by all. Answer: Havard Divinity School Address 2. Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa society, it suggested that “man is not a farmer, or a professor, but he is all.” Answer: The American Scholar 3. Delivered before the Masonic Temple in Boston, it distinguished between materialism and idealism, as well as outlining Emerson’s new philosophical school. Answer: The Transcendentalist

Category: Economics/Business Bonus: 5. Identify the following from the world of finance FTP each. 1. The international monetary system in use from 1945 to 1971 in which exchange rates were fixed and the U.S. dollar was freely convertible into gold (by foreign governments and central banks only). Answer: Bretton Woods 2. One of the first securities pricing model, it was developed by Lintner, Sharpe, et. al. and introduced the concept of beta. Answer: CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) 3. This is the standard term denoting a bond not denominated in the currecny of that country in which it is sold. Answer: Eurobond

Category: World History 1950+ Bonus: 6. Name these doctrines for the stated number of points. 1. 5pts: The U.S. promised military or economic aid to help resist Communist aggression in the Middle East. Answer: Eisenhower doctrine 2. 10 pts: The U.S would support irregular forces engaged in resisting pro-Communist governments in the Third World Page: 8

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Answer:

Reagan doctrine

3. 15 pts: Japan would never again strive to become a military power and it would provide economic aid to Southeast Asian countries Answer: Fukuda Doctrine

Category: Biology Bonus: 7. Given a taxonomic classification for a fungus, give its common-name equivalent FTP each, or on an easier clue for 5. For instance if I said “Order Peronosporales,” you would say “Mildew.” 1. (10) Class: Myxomycetes (5) Its plasmodium, commonly colored white or yellow, slowly creeps on rotting logs, engulfing bacteria and other food. Answer: 2. bread. Answer: 3. Yeasts (10) Order: Tuberales Slime Molds (10) Order: Endomycetales (5) Some types are used for commercial production of industrial alcohol, beverages, and

(5) Their fruiting bodies are delicacies, especially in France and Italy, where they are hunted by dogs trained to detect their odor. Answer: Category: Film Bonus: 8. Film noire may evoke images of shadows and darkness but some of them had colorful titles. Identify the film noire (with a color in its title) from a description 1. A 1949 James Cagney movie where he plays a pyschotic crook named Cody Jarrett. The movie ends with a Cagney uttering the famous lines "Top of the world!" as Jarrett goes to his death atop of an exploding gas tank. Answer: White Heat 2. This 1946 feature was directed by George Marshall and includes Alan Ladd as Johnny Morrison and Veronica Lake as Joyce Harwood Answer: The Blue Dahlia 3. Easy Rawlins, a tough World War II veteran and detective, is hired by a financier and gangster to locate Daphne Monet, a search that leads him from elegant boardrooms to the raucous jazz joints of late 1940s Los Angeles. Name this film starring Denzel Washington, based on a work by Walter Mosley Truffles

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Answer:

Devil In A Blue Dress

Category: Geology/Meteorology Bonus: 9. Identify the following types of rock formed by the cooling of lava FTP each. 1. This fine-grained rock occurs when cooling is slow enough to permit minerals to begin crystallization. Answer: Basalt 2. This glassy rock is always produced on the earth’s surface. It is formed by extremely rapid cooling of viscous lava. Answer: Obsidian 3. This sponge-like, cindery rock is the result of sudden cooling, as gases trapped in the molten lava leave thousands of tiny air-holes Answer: Scoria

Category: World Lit Bonus: 10. Identify the following types of novels FTP each. Usually a series of novels dealing with a set of characters over time. An example is Remembrance of Things Past by Proust. Answer: Roman-Fleuve A novel that contains characters based upon actual people. An example is Simone de Beauvoir’s Les Mandarins. Answer: Roman A Clef A novel that treats the growth of one character. An example includes Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship. Answer: Bildungsroman

Category: Art/Architecture Bonus: 11. Identify the following monuments of ancient Egypt FTP each. 1. Built by Ramses II near the Nubian border, it consists of four colossal statues. When threatened by the expansion of Lake Nasser, it was moved via a Unicef project. Answer: Abu Simbel 2. Arguably the first pyramid was the stepped pyramid built by Imhotep for Zoser. Name the site of this monument. Answer: Saqqara

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3. On the west bank of Luxor (near the ancient Thebes) is this temple. It was meant to house a row of sphinxes a mile in length. Answer: Karnak Temple

Category: Philosophy Bonus: 12. Kant is cool. Answer these questions about the great German metaphysician FTP each. 1. Legend holds that citizens of Kant’s town could set their watches by his daily walks. Name this East Prussian town, the equivalent of the modern Kalinengrad. Answer: Konigsberg 2. Kant wrote The Crique of Pure Reason to show the possibility of this type of knowledge knowledge that exists independent of experience. Answer: A Priori 3. Give the name for Kant’s dictum of ethics: “Act only on that maxim that you would will to be a universal law.” Answer: Categorical Imperative

Category: Anthropology Bonus: 13. Natives tribes have often interested anthropologists, answer the following questions FTP each. 1. Franz Boas investigated the custom of potlatch among the Kwakuitl (Kwah CUE till), natives of this Canadian Province. Answer: British Columbia 2. Napoleon Chagnon lived for a time among the Yanamamo, natives of the rainforests of this continent Answer: South America 3. Clifford Geertz studied the ritual of cock-fighting on this Indonesian island with area of 2147 square miles. Answer: Bali

Category: Government/Political Science/Current History Bonus: 14. For five points for each name, given the state, name the two senators. 1. Arizona 2. Minnesota 3. Ohio Answer: Answer: Answer: John McCain, Jon Kyl Paul Wellstone, Rod Grams John Glenn, Mike DeWine

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Category: Ancient History Bonus: 15. Identify the following Germanic tribes that raided Rome in the 5th century FTP each. 1. Under Alaric they raided Italy and Greece from 395-410, sacked Rome, and established a kingdom in France. Answer: Answer: Visigoths (prompt on Goths) Vandals 2. Under Gaiseric they invaded Gaul and North Africa before sacking Rome in 455. 3. Under Theodoric the Great they conquered Italy between 488 and 493 before being put down by Justinian. Answer: Ostrogoths (prompt on Goths)

Category: Technology BONUS 16. [dml] Identify the following ship types from a description for 15 points each 1. In the sixteenth century, this was the first three-masted ship in the Mediterranean. This Portuguese boat with a high stern which could carry 800 men and 100 guns, functioned both as a merchant and warship. A British pop star from the 1980s who played with the band Squeeze for a time shares this name. Answer: Carrack

2. This Dutch ship served traders and was first launched at Hoorn. It had a length six times its width and an almost flat bottom. With a short mast and a block and pulley system, its sails could be managed by a small crew. This boat, whose name sounds like the high pitched woodwind instrument it resembles, helped build the Dutch trading empire Answer: fluyt or fluytschip

Category: Music Bonus: 17. Identify the following forms of musical composition FTP. If you need an example from classical music, you will receive five. 1. (10) A polyphonic musical composition in which one or two themes are repeated or imitated by successively entering interwoven voices. (5): Bach composed many, including “The Art of ____”(blank) Answer: Fugue 2. (10) A lengthy choral work usually of a religious nature consisting chiefly of recitatives, arias and choruses without action and scenery. (5) Handel’s Messiah

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Answer:

Oratorio

3. (10) Similar to a fantasia, it is a musical composition of an irregular form having an improvisatory character. (5) Liszt composed 20 Hungarian ones. Answer: Rhapsody

Category: World History Bonus: 18. Identify the following emperors of the Mogul dynasty FTP each. Called the “Guardian of Mankind,” this greatest Mogul emperor succeeded his father in 1556 (at the age of 14) and extended the Mogul boundary to its largest ever. Answer: Answer: Akbar Jalal ud-Din Mohammed Shah Jahan During this emperor’s 30 year reign, the Taj Mahal and the Pearl Mosque at Agra were built. This man imprisoned his father Shah Jahan and led the empire into a period of prosperity and war with the princes of Rajputana and Maratha. John Dryden wrote a play about him. Answer: Aurengzeb (or Aurengzebe)

Category: Religion/Mythology Bonus: 19. Identify the following related Arthurian knights for the stated number of points. FFP name the knight who, along with Sir Bors and Sir Galahad, quested for the Holy Grail. Though he failed, he actually saw the Grail. Answer: Answer: Percival Lohengrin FTP name the son of Percival known as the Knight of the Swan. F15P name the great-grandfather of Percival, entrusted from Heaven with the guardianship of the Grail, who builds a chapel at Mount Selvagge. Answer: Titurel

Category: Math/Computer Science Bonus: 20. Identify these men associated with the development of non-Euclidean geometry for FTP each. 1. In 1733 this Italian Jesuit philosopher sought to vindicate Euclid by constructing a quadrilateral in which all four corners were right angles; he failed. Answer: Giovanni Saccheri

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2. These two men - one Russian and one Hungarian - both explored the Saccheri Quadrilateral, developing the acute angle theory independently. Name either of these co-foudnders of hyperbolic geometry. Answer: Nikolai Lobachevsky and Janos Bolyai 3. In a famous lecture of 1854, this German mathematician championed the obtuse angle theory of the Saccheri Quadrilateral and invented elliptic geometry. Answer: Bernhard Riemann

Category: British Lit Bonus: 21. In Edmund Spenser’s The Fairie Queen, the most anthologized books are (surprisingly enough) the first three. FTP each name the protagonists of these three books, idealizing Holiness, Temperance, and Chastity. Answer: Redcross Knight, Sir Guyon, And Britomart

Category: Popular Culture Bonus: 22 Four musicians played back-up for blues legend Howlin’ Wolf in his London Sessions. Two of them were Rolling Stones, while the other two both played in the band Blind Faith. You can choose to name any three of them now FTP each, or you may hear additional clues about them FFP each. Make your decision now. Answer: (only if team opts for first choice) Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts In addition to Blind Faith, this guitarist was a member of the Yardbirds, Cream, and Derek and the Dominos. Answer: Eric Clapton In addition to Blind Faith, this keyboardist was a member of Traffic and the Spencer Davis Group. He recorded the song “Higher Love.” Answer: Answer: Steve Winwood Charlie Watts He is the long-time drummer of the Rolling Stones.

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DUPLICATE: Category: Mathematics/Computer Science Tossup: 2. It uses two prime numbers, p and q. Then it multiplies them to form n=pq. By selecting p,q suitably large, this scheme capitalizes on the inherently difficult problem of factoring prime numbers. Many variations on these ciphers have been explored since their inception in 1978, but it appears to remain efficient and secure. FTP, name this encryption algorithm. Answer: RSA

Category: British Lit Tossup: 7. He makes love to Mrs. Waters in an inn at Upton. He briefly joins the army on the road to Bristol, but quits when assaulted by Lieutenant Northerton. He endures beatings by Thwackum and Sqaure at Squire Allworthy’s estate. He erroneously thinks that his father is Partridge and that his mother is Jenny Jones. FTP name this foundling, lover of Sophie Western, and title character of a Henry Fielding novel. Answer: Tom Jones

Category: Technology/Engineering Bonus: 16. Answer these questions about navigation. 1. This is a basic method of navigation in which the position of a ship or aircraft is determined by calculation from a previous position of the craft, the direction of travel from the previous position, the speed of the craft, and the time traveled. Answer: Dead Reckoning 2. This instrument was invented independently, in about 1730, by John Hadley and Thomas Godfrey. It enables a navigator to measure the angular elevation of the sun and other celestial bodies, and from this information the navigator's latitude and longitude, with the aid of a good clock. Answer: Sextant 3. Through the use of signals from a constellation of 21 satellites plus 3 spares, this navigation system has become the system of choice for many surveyors and navigators. Through the use of differential correction signals, centimeter level accuracy can be achieved. Answer: GPS (Global Positioning System)

Category: Physics Bonus: 2. Answer these questions about transistors 1. FFP each, name the 3 men who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of the transistor. Answer: Walter Houser Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Bradford Shockley

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2. The transistor has three basic parts. FFP each, name these 3 parts. Answer: Collector, Emitter, Base

Category: Linguistics Bonus: 13. Identify the following linguists FTP each. This Swiss linguist was the pioneer of the field of semiotics, or theory of signs. In the textbook A Course in General Linguistics, he posited the relation of the signifier, signified, and sign. Answer: Ferdinand de saussure This French structuralist borrowed Saussure’s theory of signs before being run over by a laundry truck. In his book Writing Degree Zero, he theorizes a poetic writing in which all signs have empty signifiers. Answer: Roland Barthes This Russian formalist rejected Saussure’s semiotics completely, seeing meaning in The Word. He conceived of poetic writing as that in which aesthetic value is “the dominant.” Answer: Roman Jakobson

Category: Chemistry Bonus: 24. Answer these questions about ammonia FTP each. 1. First name the man who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for the synthesis of ammmonia from hydrogen and nitrogen. Answer: Answer: Fritz Haber Karl Bosch Now FTP name the German engineer who adapted the Haber process for large-scale use. Ammonia is useful in the production of the compound with formula (H2N)2 CO. FTP name it, used as a fertilizer, as well as in the production of barbiturates, cosmetics, and deodorants. Answer: Urea

Category: Physics Bonus: 25. 30-20-10 Name the scientist (30) His doctoral thesis dealt with a collective motion theory of the atomic nucleus that he had developed with physicist Mottelson at the suggestion of James Rainwater. The theory helped to explain many nuclear properties by showing that nuclear particles can vibrate and rotate so as to distort the shape of the nucleus from the expected spherical symmetry into an ellipsoid. (20) They received the 1975 Nobel Prize in physics for this work.

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(10) This Danish director of the Nordic Institute of Theoretical Atomic Physics was the son of the 1922 Nobel Laureate in physics. Answer: Aage Neils Bohr

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