CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF
Higher Command Course
Army College of Warfare
18 October 2003
Genesis of the Internet
Internet a product of the cold war
Paradigm shift – hierarchical to
Advent of WWW
Gift of TCP/IP to public domain
CYBER TERROR SPYING
CYBER FRAUD SPOOFING
CYBER LAUNDERING SNIFFING
CYBER INFRACTION SPAMING
CYBER HACKING SPINNING
CYBER PHREAKING STALKING
CYBER HACTIVISM SEEDING (Viruses,
Worms & Trojans)
The Internet is the high ground and a
first termer in NDA will know that the
first lesson that one learns is to occupy
high ground and hold it under all costs.
Cyber Terrorism Threat
The most potent threat vector.
We are victims of polemics and politics of
definitions. What is terrorism? Is cyber
terrorism a hype or for real?
According to National Information Protection Centre
(NIPC), ”Cyber terrorism is an act through computers
that results in violence death and/or destruction and
creates terror for the purpose of coercing a government
to change its policies.”
“Cyber terrorism is the premeditated, politically
motivated attack against information, computer systems,
computer programmes, and data which result in violence
against non combatant targets by sub-national groups or
clandestine agents” 7
Cyber Psywar zoom
Cyber anarchy is a vested interest.
Anthrax, SARS and Melissa are more
psychological than physical.
We are in permanent and perpetual state of
The Motto: “We need to give them back,
something to live for, instead something to
Cyber security is now a big business
Propaganda and psyops.
Communications; crypto, stegano, PGP
Money laundering, hawala.
WMD Int, tech snooping, contact with hackers and
Transacting, shopping and scheduling in
contrabands, drugs and weapons
Clandestine meetings and RVs, ICQ, IRC
Cyber Terrorism Threat
Asymmetric warfare anchors on
unpredictable “the unknown unknown.”
Both the perpetrator and the victim deny
the impact if not the criminal/terror act.
A virtual attack may coincide with real
one, e.g. imagine mayhem if Code Red
and 9/11 were mounted simultaneously
2. The worm
propagates to other
turning them into
Code red worm
dummies that infect 3. …Code red ceases to proliferate, and
out onto the
other servers. And the numerous dummy servers turn to
Internet to find
this process attack the White House website,
continues attempting to overwhelm its server with
exponentially junk communications 11
Surveillance & Security
The digital surveillance and security
industry is spurting sharply.
It is expected to cross $50 billion
mark worldwide by 2008.
Threats to Infrastructure
The physical infrastructure threat.
Ranges from compromising critical
systems to severely affecting them.
Critical physical infrastructure, e.g.
power grids, water, railways, dams,
hospitals, oil pipelines, TV and AIR
stations, telecommunications, air traffic,
or any other networked system.
“To us cyber terrorism is a lower-level
Masachusetts Water Source Authority
Vitek Borden Exploit
A hacker Vitek Borden succeeded in
releasing a million litter of sewage into
the water supply in Australia after 44
India’s SCADA Systems
SCADA stands for Supervisor Control and
Acquisition of Data – these are systems that
are cybernated or computer controlled/
30 percent of such networks are accessible by
modems connected to public switched
Employees are lax about manual backup.
Threat to Data
Compromising critical computer systems
to steal or irreversibly damage vital
data. More pronounced against military,
R&D, defence production and other
More critical the data, greater the
THREATS TO INDIAN
Muslim Hacker Club
Al Qaeda network
ISI covert Internet-enabled spy
network. ICT exploitation tactics.
Pak “G” Force, mOs, WFD, PHC and
LTTE cyber hactivism.
Cyber Crime – Wide Canvas
Rampant misuse and abuse of e-banking and
Unauthorized access to data.
Forgery of digital signatures.
Infringement of intellectual property rights
covering patents and trademarks.
Fraudulent subversion of electronic payment
Cyber Crime (contd)
Wars over domain names, browsers and
Growing menace of intruders,
masqueraders, and saboteurs in the
Security Breaches (1997-2001)
(% of Respondents)
DoS Laptop Unauth Virus Sabotage IPR System Telecom Fin
Access theft penetration fraud fraud
Respondents 1997 98 99 2000 01
CSI/ FBI 2001 Survey 484 583 460 428 503
Threat Perception by US Defence Science Board in 1996
Probability of Occurrence
Source : Jane’s Intelligence Review, Dec
Systematic observation of cyberspace by
surfing, sniffing, snooping or other means.
primarily for the purpose of locating,
identifying, determining, profiling and
analyzing by all available and predictable
means the transmission of e-mail, movement
of packets, file transfer, e-money transactions
and subversive activities of criminals, cyber
terrorists, hostile regimes and
It equally applies to watch over
friendly elements to anticipate and
prevent cyber crime and social abuse,
carry out counter surveillance and find
holes in own procedures and systems of
Cyber Intelligence is open-source information
minus noise, gathered over the Internet
The product resulting from the collection,
processing, integration, analysis, evaluation
and interpretation of available information
concerning hackers, criminals, terrorists,
hostile countries and cyber operations.
COMMERCIAL CYBERCRIME INT
OPEN INTELLIGENCE SNIFFING
COUNTRIES OF INTEREST
IRC ICQ 28
Sun Tse Precepts
in Cyber Arena
PLA’s capabilities to spy in cyberspace is next
only to Echelon and that of waging cyber war
and protecting cyber assets next only to
The scope of Chinese Information warfare
spreads over a wide canvas, military, social,
economic and political.
Encompasses electronic warfare, attacks on
“human cognitive systems,” cyber, signal and
signal deception, strategic deterrence,
Cyber Warfare is all Deception
and Ess Abuses
propaganda warfare, psychological warfare,
network warfare, structural sabotage and
#The Chinese have no compunctions
whatsoever for employing dubious tactics,
machinations and subterfuge, e.g invasion of
adversaries’ financial systems, use of
computer viruses, human sabotage,
disrupting enemies’ economies, or spreading
rumours over the Internet and thus
psychologically impacting society.
Doctrine and Training
“PLA has successfully integrated the latest
C4ISRT (Command, Control, Communications
and Computers Intelligence, Surveillance,
Reconnaissance and Targeting) and
information warfare techniques into its war
The Chinese have been conducting training in
Sino-Taiwanese Cyber War
@Eversince 1997 the Taiwanese and Chinese
armed forces have been preparing openly for
a long drawn hacker war.
@“The wolf has already come. Pick up your
@The most serious attack has been that of the
Chernobyl virus, written by a Taiwanese
computer engineering student, Chen Ing-hao.
@The virus reportedly impaired 3,60,000
computers in China and caused $120 million
Cyber War -1
@Whereas China accused Taiwanese
complicity, the Taiwanese authorities
maintained that it was an individual act
@The Guaangzhou Military Region, which
includes the South China Sea Fleet and
the Second Artillery units, was hit and
@A state of emergency was declared
placing the Nanjing Military Region and
the East China Sea Fleet on second-
degree combat readiness. This was the
first time China’s military entered a
second degree combat readiness since
the death of Deng Xioping in February
@ After the incident, the State Council and the
Central Committee Military Commission
promptly ordered the formation of a task
force composed of General staff Intelligence
Department, General staff Technology and
Communications Department, Ministry of
Defence Technological Intelligence
Department, Institute of Military Sciences’
Special Technologies Department (also known
as Department 553), and Ministry of
Security’s Security Bureau.
China is reportedly considering developing a
fourth branch of its People's Liberation Army
devoted solely to cyberwarfare.
"China’s military planners recognize that...
over-dependence on information systems is a
potential weakness... Combining information
warfare - such as computer hacking - with
irregular special and guerilla operations,
would allow China to mount destructive
attacks within the enemy’s own operations
systems, while avoiding a major head-on
confrontation." (For more on prospective 37
China’s Cyberwar Strategies
For more on prospective Chinese
cyberwar strategies, read Unrestricted
Warfare, a book of military proposals
written by two young Chinese military
officers in February 1999.
Sino-US CYBER WAR 2001
This war started as a sequel to the collision
between American military surveillance plane
and the Chinese fighter jet on April 1, 2001.
China launched massive attacks agains US
Websites including those of
It's (Cyber) War: China v. U.S.
Crackers Expand Private War
FBI Warns of Chinese Hack Threat
The Xinhua News Agency reported that
U.S hackers have defaced the websites
of the provincial governments of
Yichun, Xiajun and Beijing, the Deng
Xiaoping police force,the Tsinghua and
Xinjiang Universities, and Samsung's
and Daewoo Telecoms' Korean sites.
FBI-led National Infrastructure
Protection Center (NIPC) confirmed that
Chinese hackers had been active in
launching Web defacing and
distributed-denial-of-service attacks on
the Department of the Interior's
National Business Center, the U.S.
Geological Survey's site and Pacific Bell
Presidential Directive 16
President Bush signed a directive in July
2002, ordering the government to
develop a cyber-warfare guidance plan.
The strategic doctrine would detail
when the U.S. would use cyber attacks,
who would authorize it, what
constitutes legitimate targets, and what
kinds of attacks -- Denial of Service,
hacking, worms -- could be used.
The Fifth Dimension
The U.S. government and military have been
studying the possibility of cyberwarfare for
years, although it has only recently become a
realistic threat. The U.S. military is convinced
that "operations within the information domain
will become as important as those conducted
in the domains of sea, land, air, and space."
(Source: Joint Vision 2020).
The full extent of the US cyber arsenal is
among the most tightly held national security
secrets. But reports point to a broad range of
weapons under development, including use
of computer viruses or "logic bombs" to
disrupt enemy networks, the feeding of false
information to sow confusion and the
morphing of video images onto foreign
television stations to deceive.
An extraordinary amount of detailed
intelligence is needed about a target's
hardware and software systems for
mounting a large scale cyber attack.
Commanders must know not just where
to strike but be able to anticipate all the
repercussions of an attack.
Indo-Pak Cyber War
* It’s desi hackers vs rediff.comPak G
Force. N Vidyasagar The Times of India
* War in Cyberspace, Priya Ganapati,
Al Qaeda – ISI Gathbandan
Al Qaeda uses simple hacking tools, e.g.
LOphtCrack that can break 8 letter/figure
password in two minutes. The tool is freely
Al Qaeda doing recce of critical infrastructure
in particular that of US, Russia and India.
Technical expertise: Khaled Sheikh
Mohammad studied engineering in a
university in North Carolina
Some experts had training in computer
security. ISI ran classes at Qandhar and
in Malaysia under Muslim Hacker Club.
Reports suggest revival.
All money movement is done by e-mail
and hawala. None dare burst it
Al Jazeera still gets tapes. Tapes Trail
Al Qaeda connection
A hacker in US opines, “Al Qaeda as a
network has known connections to ISI. ISI
has contacts with hacker groups operating
agaist other targets, The belief is that if you
accept that there is connection between Al
Qaeda and ISI and ISI is operating against
for example India, then Al Qaeda (even in its
present state) would be able to gain access
to computer hacks and plan operations”
It may well happen in India
Someday Al Qaeda, if it is still alive and
operating will use cybespace as a
vehicle for attacking infrastructure, not
with bombs but with bytes. It would
inflict biggest possible damage with
least possible investment.
for Cyberspace Security
Let us not be naïve.
There are no ethics in cybersociety
War will continue to be between
Flesh and silicate pitched against
flesh and silicate
Technologies and Tools
Black bag jobs
Red and Blue Pill
Trap and Trace
Technologies and Tools
Spyware, e.g. spyBuddy
A black-bag operation is a secret break-in by
a law-enforcement or intelligence
organization. It involves secret search of
suspected locations, copying files or other
materials. Besides scrounging trash, elect-
ronic and physical surveillance, pen-tests
are part of the game. The search sometimes
leads to what the hackers call “Rat Racing.”
A packet sniffer is a wiretap device that plugs
into a computer network and eavesdrops on
the network traffic. Like a telephone wiretap
that allows an intelligence agency to listen in
on the conversations, sniffer programme lets
someone listen in computer conversation.
Carnivore is one such packet sniffer or packet
CARNIVORE: A PACKET
Carnivore acts like a “packet sniffer”
down into bundles called "packets".
Carnivore eavesdrops on packets that
all Internet traffic is broken into and
watches them go by, then saves a copy
of the packets it is interested in.
News of Carnivore broke in July 2000.
Public furor. How voracious Carnivore could
get? Can it vacuum up Internet comns from
innocent users? How frequently is it used?
What is the legal basis? Is it permanently
FBI came clean or did they? “Designed to
conduct efficient wiretaps of e-mail and
online communications involving suspected
hackers, terrorists and other criminals.”
Carnivore is packed in a slim laptop and
is described as “a tool within a tool”
that enables the FBI, in cooperation
with an Internet Service Providers
(ISPs) to collect counter-intelligence by
tapping e-mails or other electronic
communications of targeted user. This
is done on the court orders. Carnivore
is used in two ways, viz. as a
"content-wiretap" and a “trap-and-
Windows NT or Windows 2000
Box with 128 megabytes of RAM
A Ppentium 111, 4-18 gigabit of
disk space and 2 G Jaz Drive Network
A COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) Windows
NT (or Windows 2000) box with 128-
megabytes of RAM, a Pentium III, 4-18
gigabytes of disk space, and a 2G Jaz drive
where evidence is written to
The software is written in C++
The box has no TCP/IP stack, and therefore it
A hardware authentication device to control
access to the box, preventing personnel from
accessing the device without leaving telltale
signs. It is a "network isolation device", which
is probably a Shomiti or NetOptics tap.
Some units are rumored to have dial-in
modem ports, but it seems that the standard
procedure is to have an FBI agent come in
daily to exchange the Jaz disk for a fresh one.
RED AND BLUE PILL
Carnivore comes in two pills, the “Red” one
and the “Blue” one The former is
administered when the ISP claims that it
cannot or will not comply with the court
order. The Blue Pill is a sophisticated
Carnivore programme that scans only e-mails
where the ISP cooperates for an
investigation. The FBI explains the origin of
the codename: "Carnivore chews all the data
on the network, but it only actually eats the
information authorized by a court order.
TRAP AND TRACE
A less invasive wiretap that courts in the US allow without
probable-cause. A pen-register records just the telephone
numbers of inbound calls to a suspect.
IP Sniffing OMNIVORE
Earlier, the FBI was using Carnivore in a
mode they call "Omnivore": capturing
all the traffic to and from the specified
IP address. There are numerous
products that can fulfill these types of
requirements. The easiest is the
freeware program known as TCPDUMP,
which is available for both Windows and
CARNIVORE is now known as DCS 1000
Effectiveness under doubt
Genoa provides a cutting edge search
engine, sophisticated information
harvesting programme and P2P
Still in experimental stage.
Network wiretap comes with a feature called
“protocol analysis,” which allows them to decode the
computer traffic and make sense of it. Network
sniffing has a distinct advantage over telephone
wiretaps as many networks use shared media
dispensing the need to break into a wiring closet to
install the wiretap. This can be done from any
network connection and is called promiscuous mode
sniffer. However this shared technology is fast
changing to switched technology, which implies that
sniffer would have to actively tap the wire.
BlackICE Defender" has a feature called "Packet Logging". It monitors
all traffic to and from the machine and saves it directly to disk just like
Carnivore. This feature could be used when there is apprehension of
being subjected to an attack. The popular freeware utility known as
"Ethereal" can then be used to display the contents of this data. IP
fing may also be done in a pen-register mode. Many packet sniffers
could be used for this capability.
ICE stands for Intrusion Countermeasures Electronics.
Described as sniffing the glue that holds the
It is a freeware, network protocol analyzer for
Unix or Windows.
It allows examination of data from a live
Interactively browse the data.
View summary and detailed description of
Dsniff is a collection of tools for network
auditing and penetration testing.dsniff,
filesmart, mailsnarf, msgsnarf, urlsnarf, and
webspy passively monitor a network for
interesting data, e.g password, e-mails, files
etc. Its avowed purpose is to create security
awareness. However significantly, it provides
useful sniffing/wiretap utilities to hackers that
are claimed to be more advanced than
dsniff Websites (contd)
- Capture & record every IRC.
- Capture & record banking information
- Capture & record passwords
- Capture & record everything typed or
clicked on computer
Some of these software products have the
ability to send the above information covertly
via email !
If you bank online or access password
protected material, your passwords or private
banking information can be exposed!
Downloadable, worth 40 dollars or so
Monitor home PC from workplace or
Real-time remote keystroke viewing
Remote desktop viewing
Remote application and task management
Remote open windows management
Internet Conversation Logging. Ability to
log AOL/ICQ/MSN/AIM chat conversations.
Disk Activity Logging. Record all changes
made to the hard drive, e.g. directories and files,
created, deleted or renamed.
Window Activity Logging
Clipboard Activity Logging
Website Activity Monitoring
Printed Document Logging
Screen Shot Capturing
Webwatch Keyword Alerting
Remote system information viewing.
Remote file system navigation
Remote locking control
Remote Internet connection monitoring
Document history viewing
Mouse freeze control
Remote Website launching.
Remote application launching
Remote shut down
Evidence Eraser software, e.g.
Evidence Eliminator Pro
Find computer monitoring programmes used
Allows you to rename any suspect files
Minimizes software while scanning so you can
do other things!
You can right click on files in explorer and
scan them for spyware!
Single file scan function built in complete with
Save results to a text file for future reference
Print the results directly from the software
SpyCop icon deters spyware installation
Finds when a spy programme was installed.
Checks if a spy programme is detectable with
"LiveUpdate" feature to instantly update
database without re-downloading!
Unrecognizable to most spy programmes.
A screensaver which scans the system when
the user is absent.
Virus scanners don't detect spyware &
Firewalls don't stop it!
Many think someone needs access to your
computer to install spy software. This just
Now there are hybrid versions that can be
sent to you just like a virus in email.
Why aren't more people upset about
Hacker (and terrorist) profiles are
created not by identifying real
evidence, but by probing
scenarios, resemblances and
PROFILING & TRACKING
Est virtual identity before real identity.
Exploit inter group rivalries
Catalogue ustad-shagird relationship.
Model “terror family” tree.
Form chain of custody of exploits.
Become a chameleon
JAFFNA MULLAITTIVU 9 11 12
1.AMMA 1. AC 5 15 TRINCOMALEE
2. ARASU 2. AIERISH 3 1. BONAT
3. BANU 3. ALFA 16 2. CHITRA
4. BURMAN 4. ALLEN 1 3. DAYA
5. BALRAJ 11 7
5. CALIFORNIA 6 4. DEEPAN
6. CHICAGO 6. CHANDRU 3 5. GURUJI
7. ESHWARAN 7. CHARLIE 2 8 10 6.JENA
8. KENNEDY 8.CHINANNA 7. MAINDAN
9. LOSANGELES 9. DHANAM 13 143.390 8. MICHAEL
10. MADI 10. DIVAKAR 7 144.390 9. MOHAN
11. MOSCOW 11. FORK 1 145.390
14 10. NATHAN
12. NAKULAN 12. IAN 4 144.440 11. HIMAN
13. RAHIM 13. KAMAL 1 12. RADUMAN
14.SENTHIL 14. KUMAR MULLAITTIVU 13. RAMESH
15. VINCENT 15. MAHENDI 15 5 9 10 13 4 17 14.SHARAD
16. WILSON 16. MURALI KILINOCHCHI 15. SURENDRAN
17.PASILAM 146.310/144.310 1
MANNAR 18.PULLIANDI 16
MANNAR 144.310 146.310/144.440
2. NE BATTICALOA
3. N7 1. AGATIAR 5 6 7 8
1 3 TRINCOMALEE 4 9
4. TIMBU 2. DILIP 2 2 11
3. KANDAN 1 14
VAVUNIA 4. KARIHALAN 13 15
1. BAHIR 5. KUMAR 144.820 7 6 5144.850 1
2. DAYABARAN 6. NATHAR 8 2 6 8 2
3. JESSIE 7. NEWTON 4 1 10
4. KANNAN 8. RAJAN 7 12 BATTICALOA
5. MAIN 9. REAGAN 145.450 4
9 145.350 10
6. MAHENDRAN 10. SABASAN 144.820
7. N 37 11. SIVAN 143.660 4
8. SENDAN 12. SURAN VAVUNIYA 3 145.630
9. SHANKAR 1
11 3 147.430
11. VIBULAN JAFFNA 11 146.910
12. VILLAI 8 145.650
MANNAR 9 7 145.810
1. ALEX 6 10
2. GRACY 146.850
3.. KEEDAN MULLAITTIVU
5. RADHAN TRINCOMALEE
Udhayan,, Sivarasan @ Raghuvaran,
Easan the 'one eyed Jack',
Captain David .
Kiruban, Ravi @ Ravichandran
Thavoor, Suchindran @ Mahesh
Das, KP @ T.S.Kumaran
Romeo, A.S.Shanthakumar @
Kesavan, Easan @ Easwaran ...
E IDENTITY TO REAL
Udhayan, Responsible for fabrication of Arul
- 89 RPG shells,
Easan. Incharge of hawala transactions.
KP. Highest functionary in SE Asia.
Kumar. Assistant of 'KP' in South East Asia.
Captain David. Commander LTTE fleet of
three vessels including Elusia and Sea Bird.
Dixon. Communication expert
Pottu Amman, Intelligence Chief
ISI: Cyber Surveillance
ISI has set up a special wing called
National Response Centre for Cyber
Crimes (Associated Press, March 13,
2003). “Earlier it had to rely on US
investigators to trace e-mails sent by
the kidnappers of Danial Pearl”
GLOBAL INFORMATION BASE
Applied System Intelligence Inc. (ASI)
KARNAC (Knowledge-Aided Retrieval iN
Anchored on bunch of technologies and
Database Management Systems
Detect, identify and corroborate impending
t5errorist operations interalia missions of the
Produced by Bangalore-based company
It sifts through myriad of unstructured
information pieces that stream into CIA.
It goes through e-mailsw, letters and even
rumours sent in by the CIA operatives to lend
aq logical pattern and coherence.
Software understands different languages
including Persian, Arabic and German.
Funded by In-Q-Tel
In 20001, National Science Foundation
announced a scholarship programme for
training cyber cops.
200 students bachelor's degrees in
information technology and computer security
at six U.S. universities.
Graduates must work for the government for
one year for every year of scholarship
support they receive.
in the Project
Designated "Centers of Excellence" by the
National Security Agency. They are
The University of Idaho.
The University of Tulsa.
The Naval Postgraduate School.
Carnegie Mellon University, which is also home to the
government's CERT Coordination Center, formerly
known as the Computer Emergency Response Team.
Pronounced (ek-pah). This law was designed
to clarify how existing wiretap laws apply to
cyber space, but at the same time sets
boundaries on how much the government
could intrude into on-line privacy. Commonly
called "Internet wiretap law" The law was
originally promoted by privacy and civil rights
organizations. However, subtle changes that
made it into the final version ended up being
what privacy advocates called "a wish list for
the law enforcement community"
Stands for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Act. It establishes va legal regime for foreign
int separate from ordinary lawenforcement.
FII Foreign Intelligence Information is
FISA allowsb surveillance without court order
Communications Assistance for Law
Enforcement Act (CALEA) commonly
called Digital telephony law was passed by
the US Congress in 1994 to allow law
enforcement to tap digital lines with the same
ease in which they were tapping analogue
lines. It required phone companies (common
carriers) to make sure their systems would
support wiretapping. This required existing
systems to be retrofitted (estimated cost:
$500 million) as well as to support new
technological developments in wiretapping.96
Patriot Act - 2001
Broadly expands law enforcement
agencies’ surveillance and investigative
Aim is to intercept and obstruct
Contradictory views expressed on the
threats to security viz threats to privacy
How is it different?
Makes it easier for the investigative agencies
to use FISA to circumvent Title 111.
FISA courts can allow roving surveillance
The standard under which FISA pen/trap
orders can be obtained is much lower
Pen/trap orders apply to both wire and
When obtained all pen/trap orders are valid
throughout the US
Powers (RIP) of UK.
RIP mandates black-boxes to be permanently
located at all ISPs, unlike Carnivore, where
boxes have to be brought on site for each
investigation and removed when the
investigation is done. Like Carnivore, a court
order is needed. The technology provides an
effective mechanism to bypass a
constitutionally required process of court
authorization for wiretapping of electronic
SORM OF RUSSIA
SORM is a Russian acronym for System of
Ensuring Investigative Activity. The regulation
requires all ISPs to install a “black box”
rerouting device and to build a high-speed
communication line, which would hot-wire the
provider, and of necessity all Internet users
to FSB headquarters. FSB is the successor
agency to KGB. The agency needs a warrant
but that is more of a formality that can be
easily dispensed with because of the
provision to reroute transmissions in real time
to FSB offices. 100
Section 167 (2) (a) of the Code of Criminal
Procedure has been amended in Andhra
Pradesh to make the production of the
accused for the purpose of remand through
video linkage as valid. But for such law, the
physical production of the accused for the
purpose of remand would have been
mandatory. Similarly, recording of evidence
through video-conference has been permitted
by the Calcutta High Court.
Let us therefore
Fix the enemy in time and space (Cyber and
Develop indigenous software that facilitates
humans and machines to think and act
together. Software that is:-
- Comprehensive (Total Information
Destroy, disrupt, deface, deny enemy’s ICT
and cyber assets/access
Let us therefore
Revamp our intelligence agencies with intake
from technical graduates, preferably trained
in IT, biometrics, communications,
bioinformatics and cryptography.
In the army, convert Intelligence Corps into
a technical arm.
Create expertise within the Services and the
Promote R&D in our training institutions
* Creation of a "cyber court" to preside over
* Increased participation and data sharing
between the services and between the
services and the Defence Ministry,
particularly from the top down.
* Creation of a National Infrastructure
Shed anti-technology mindset
India not only needs cyber warriors
whose cerebrums are ticking
and not clogged by trivia.
Tasmaad uttishth Kauntay
udhay krit nishchaya