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					Global and Regional ICT Cooperation
   and Asia Broadband Program

Workshop on Broadband and ICT Development
                (ESCAP)


                 Kenji Saga
              Research Fellow
       National Institute of ICT, Japan
                21 June, 2007
              CONTENTS
• Global Trends of Information Flows
• Recent Trends of ICT Markets
• Global Achievement of ICT Policy/Strategy
• Asia Broadband Program
• National IT Strategies in Asia Pacific Region
• How to Bridge the Digital Divide
• Various Approaches to Develop Rural
  Information Infrastructure in Asia
• Conclusion
       Information Flows within Asia (2001-2005)
Comparative International Internet Bandwidth in major Regions

           Europe          2001
         511.7 Gbps                              North
                                                America
                                              55.2Gbps
                           Asia
              Africa      9.7Gbp
             0.01Gbp         s
                 s                               Central and South America
                                                        1.9Gbp
                                                           s




                                                TeleGeography; Packet Geography
                                                                         2002

                            2005
            Europe
          1,814 Gbps                               North
           3.6 times                             America
                            Asia                 288Gbps
                          179Gbps                5.2 times
               Africa
              0.07Gbp
              s7 times   18.5 times                Central and South America
                                                          14Gbps
                                                          7.4times



                                      Primetrica; Global Internet Geography 2006
                                                                              Internet Penetration Rates
                                            Asia                                                                                                    Europe
                                                                                    55.2%                                                                                                                                         53.8%

                                                                                  54.0%                                                                                                                                         53.0%
                                                                      44.9%                                                                                                                                               50.9%
                                                  30.8%                                                                                                                                                                 50.5%
                    10.2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              46.5%
                7.8%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 42.4%
         4.6%
         4.4%                                                                                                                                                                                 40.6%

        3.8%                                                                                                                                                                31.4%
     1.8%                                                                                                                                                              30.1%
    1.6%                                                                                                                             9.8%
  0.3%
                                                                                                                              7.3%
  0.2%
                                                                                                                      4.1%
0.0%            10.0%           20.0%         30.0%       40.0%           50.0%        60.0%        70.0%
                                                                                                              0.0%              10.0%               20.0%           30.0%               40.0%                     50.0%                      60.0%




                                                                                                    65.7%                                                                                                                                 75.5%
                                                                                            58.7%                                                                                                                            70.0%
                                                                                        56.1%                                                                                                                   63.3%
                                                                  39.7%                                                                                                                                         63.0%
                                    15.3%                                                                                                                                                                      62.3%
                            11.0%                                                                                                                                                                             61.6%
                   7.1%                                                                                                                                                               50.0%
                  6.5%                                                                                                                                                                49.8%
                5.3%                                                                                                                                                     41.4%
                5.3%                                                                                                                                                  39.4%
             3.2%                                                                                                                                   23.3%
         0.4%                                                                                                                        14.1%
         0.3%                                                                                                                    11.1%

       0.0%             10.0%         20.0%       30.0%       40.0%           50.0%         60.0%     70.0%    0.0%          10.0%          20.0%           30.0%   40.0%           50.0%             60.0%             70.0%               80.0%




                                                                                                                                                                                    Source: ITU Report
Recent Trends in Info-Com Market & Policy

• Triangular convergence are going on:
  Convergence between mobile and fixed service,
  Convergence between fixed and broadcasting,
  Convergence between mobile and broadcasting.
• Cellular phone handsets are becoming universal
  terminal.
• Beyond 3G mobile handsets will realize 10-100
  Mbps access to the Next Generation Internet.
• Evolution into an Ubiquitous Network Society
 Recent Trends in telecom and ICT market
   What is happening now and near future?
  Number of mobile phone subscriber is exceeding
  fixed telephone subscribers even in developing
  countries. This trend will expand further in future.
  An example of this trend in Pacific Islands countries:
  Reality in FSM (Federated States of Micronesia):
            As of 31 Oct. 2003 As of 30 Sept. 2006
Fixed PSTN subscriber: 9,950                  8,750
Mobile subscriber        5,083               18,018
 Implication of this trend is very Important!
Review of recent trends (Continued)

PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) will be
replaced by IP based network by the year 2010 in
major developed countries. British Telecom, NTT,
KDDI announced to totally replace existing PSTN by
IP network. Other global carriers will follow.
We should consider this trend in our
telecommunications policy and National
ICT strategy.
     How to deregulate telecom market?
• Only deregulation is enough for the creation of
  competitive telecommunication market???
• Lessons learned from New Zealand experience.
Government should consider and establish policy
  framework such as:
  How to create competitive and efficient telecommunication market?
  Establishment of network interconnection rule,
  Tariff reform (rate rebalancing based on cost based tariff system),
  Introduction of number portability policy, spectrum management, etc.
• Step by step approach is recommendable with
  careful evaluation of market situation.
Evolution into a New Stage of the Information Society
  “Ubiquitous Network Society”
• The world is entering into a new stage of the
  Information Society called a “Ubiquitous
  Network Society (UNS)”.
• International Telecommunication Union (ITU),
  United Nations University (UNU) and the
  Government of Japan jointly organized the
  Tokyo Ubiquitous Network Conference as the
  WSIS Thematic Meeting in May 2005.
What is a Ubiquitous Network Society
 A ubiquitous network society is a society where
 it is possible to seamlessly connect
  “anytime, anywhere, by anything and anyone”,
 and to exchange a wide range of information by
 means of accessible, affordable and user friendly
 devices and services.
 It will support the design and realization of a
 people-centered information society, where the
 secure and reliable flow of information ensured.
   Ubiquitous Network Society
    The world of beyond 3G Mobile
3G and beyond 3G mobile handsets will become
 a core device with various functions such as:
Car and pedestrian navigation
Media player such as camera, movie recorder,,,
Wallet and credit card
Remote controller of home electric appliances
Mobile TV/Radio terminals
Office documents (send and receive)
Global Achievement of ICT Policy/Strategy

Results of World Summit on the Information
 Society (WSIS 2003 and 2005)

•   WSIS 2003: Declaration of Principle
•   WSIS 2003: Plan of Action
•   WSIS 2005: Tunis Commitment
•   WSIS 2005: Tunis Agenda
Our challenge: Benefits of ICT for All
     WSIS 2003: Declaration of Principles

     “Common Vision for an inclusive information society”
•   Building an people centered information society
•   Information Infrastructure: an essential foundation
•   Capacity building: continuous life-long learning
•   Building confidence and security in the use of ICTs
•   ICT applications: benefits in all aspects of life
•   Cultural and linguistic diversity and identity, local contents
•   International and regional cooperation
     WSIS 2003: Plan of Action
              To be achieved by 2015
• To connect villages with ICTs and establish “Community
  Access Points
• To connect universities, schools, research centres, public
  libraries, cultural centres, health centres and hospitals
• To connect all local governments and establish websites
• To adapt all schools curricula to meet the challenges of IS
• To ensure all people in the world have access to TV/radio
• To encourage the development of content in all languages
• To ensure more then half of the world’s inhabitants have
  access to ICTs within their reach by 2015
WSIS 2005: Tunis Commitment

Reaffirmed WSIS 2003 Declaration and Plan of
Action
To build ICT networks and develop applications that
are affordable and accessible to all, available
anywhere and any time, to anyone and any device,
leading to a ubiquitous network.
Connecting all communities by 2015
 (From closing address by Yoshio Utsumi, Secretary General
of ITU)
      WSIS 2005: Tunis Agenda
• Internet Governance: Dialogue continues
 All governments should play equal role and responsibility
 Establishment of Internet Governance Forum convened by the
 UN Secretary General to foster multi-stakeholder dialogue
• Financial Mechanisms
 Financing of ICT deployment is vial to meet the MDGs
 Welcome the establishment of “Digital Solidarity Fund”
• The way Forward: Follow-up &
  Implementation
 UN General Assembly in 2015 will examine the results
 Regional Achievements of ICT Policy
       in Asia and the Pacific

• e-APEC Strategy (APEC: October 2001)
• Bangkok Agenda (APT: July 2004)
• e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
  (ASEAN: November 2000)
• Pacific Plan: Digital Strategy (PIF: 2005)
Asia Broadband Program

Japan’s International Cooperation Policy


Benefits of ICT for all people
 in Asia and the Pacific!
         Significance of Broadband platforms in Asia

                   1. Significance of Broadband platforms

  (1) High-speed/large capacity, (2) Constant connection/flat rates
        Radical step to overcome the restraints of time/space


• Provide the merits of socioeconomic development regardless of whether countries are
                               developed or developing
          • Encouragement of economic integration and mutual understanding


       2. Significance of Broadband platforms in Asia
  (1) Huge population, future growth potential
  (2) Closer relationships among people of geographical, social,
                economic and cultural backgrounds
  (3) Preservation of diversified cultural assets in Asia


           Information flows in Asia will be increased, information
                 transmission to the world will be strengthened.
                    Formulation of “Asia Broadband Program”

                                                          Hosted by MIC Minister
  Targeted at making the entire Asian
                                                  The International Conference for Asia Broadband
  region the world’s information                  Strategy (July and December 2002)
  transmission hub, by increasing
  intra-regional information flow.             • Basic concepts on how to develop the Asia
                                                  Broadband Program” were proposed.
                                               • Business and opinion leaders from Japan and
                                                  Asian countries/economies participated.


“e-Japan Priority Policy Program - 2002”
(The IT Strategic Headquarters, June, 2002 )

“Basic Policies for Economic and
Fiscal Policy Management and                        “Asia Broadband Program”
Structural Reform 2002”                                   (March 28, 2003)
(Cabinet Decision, June 25, 2002)
                                                    (MIC and other ministries.)

  The "Asia Broadband Program" as a
  specific policies to create a                 Japan will make concerted efforts with
  broadband environment in Asia to be           other Asian countries to ensure that
  formulated. ( within FY2002)                  the Program to deploy broadband
                                                platforms across Asia is implemented.
             Outline of “Asia Broadband Program” (1)
Target (the year of 2010)

1) Ensure all people in Asia have access to broadband
    (including access from various public facilities).
2) (a) Construct international networks with sufficient
      bandwidths to directly link Asian countries.
   (b) Balance volumes of information flows.
    (Asia-North America ≅ Asia-Europe ≅ North America-Europe)
3) (a) Facilitate transition of networks to IPv6-ready ones.
   (b) Make Asia the leading ICT region.
4) Prepare an environment where people can use ICT securely
 and easily.
5) Digitize and archive major Asian cultural assets.
6) Develop machine translation technologies between major
  Asian languages.
7) Dramatically increase the number of ICT engineers
 and researchers.
                 Outline of “Asia Broadband Program” (2)

1. Measures to prepare for network infrastructures related to broadband platforms
 1) Support for network infrastructure building in developing countries
 2) Promotion of international network construction in Asia
 3) Development of network technologies
 4) R&D and standardization
 5) Human capacity building, Exchange of human resources

2. Measures to introduce and diffuse broadband platforms
 1) Preparation of common key infrastructures
     - Assurance of network security, preparation of rules on IPRs within Asia and
     appropriate application thereof, cooperation on diffusion of IPv6, etc
 2) Promotion of broadband applications
 3) Promotion of digital content distribution
     - Development of multilingual translation technologies, support for access to
     cultural assets, etc. through digital archives, etc.
 4) Support for developing national strategies and policies, etc.
 5) Support for developing countries
Progress of Asia Broadband Program
Related websites

    Asia Broadband Program OFFCIAL SITE

      This website introduces the “Asia Broadband Program”.


    DO Site Digital Opportunity Site
     This website provides developing countries in Asia and other areas of the world with support in setting up
  their strategies for ICT policies. Such support is provided by:
  a) introducing leading-edge ICT policies and projects of Japan and other countries for bridging the digital
    divide
  b) facilitating the free exchange of information and opinions on ICT matters, such as by having ICT
    experts provide on-line support to ICT policy makers in developing countries who wish to set up and
    implement ICT strategies in their countries.


    Digital Archive in Asia
    This portal website provides links to the digital archive websites currently available in Asia
National IT Strategies in Asia-Pacific
•   India: IT Action Plan – IT for All by 2008
•   Indonesia: ICT Policy Framework, 5 Year Plan
•   Japan: e-Japan Strategy II (u-Japan Strategy?)
•   Korea: IT839
•   Malaysia: National IT Aganda
•   Philippines: PGMA’s 10 Points Agenda
•   Singapore: Infocomm 21 Master Plan
•   Thailand: IT2010
Comparison of each National IT Strategy
                                    Singapore   Malaysia   Philippines   Indonesia   Thailand   Viet Nam   Cambodia   e-ASEAN


1. Private Sector Initiatives
-Software Industry Promotion


- Promotion of ICT Venture

2. Infrastructure Development


3. ICT Promotion
4. Electronic Government
5. Development         of   Tele-
applications
6. Human Capacity Building
7. Promotion of E-Commerce
8. Networks Securities and
Intellectual Property Rights
9. Promotion of ICT Contents
10. Bridging the Digital Divide


11. Regional ICT Hub
12. ICT strategy Head Quarter                                                                                           -
Example 1: National IT Strategy in Thailand
• 1996: “IT2000: Thailand IT Policy into the 21 Century”
• 2002: “IT2010: Thailand into Knowledge based Society”
                 Five Strategic Flagships
  E-Society: Bridging the Digital Divide
  E-Education: HRD, lifelong learning & virtual education
  E-Industry: Promotion of IT related industry
  E-Commerce: Focusing on e-service
  E-Government: Public service, employment and infra.
       First National ICT Master Plan (2002-2006)
Example 2: National ICT Policy in
           Indonesia
                    Appl
                              icati
                                             ons
     E-Government




                          Promotion
                          ICT Industry




                                               E-Commerce
                    Infrast
                              ructur
                                         e
Example 3: National IT Policy in Malaysia
• Early 1990s, “Vision 2020: Malaysia as value-
  based knowledge society” was established.
• In order to realize Vision 2020, the Multimadia
  Super Corridor (MSC) was initiated.
  Phase 1 (1996-2003): Creation of the MSC
  Phase 2 (2004-2010): Link the MSC to other
  cyber cities in Malaysia and world wide
  Phase 3 (2011-2020): Transform Malaysia into a
  knowledge society
       Common Target is
“How to Bridgte the Digital Divide”

       Let’s consider this subject.
  Digital Divide Factors
• Disparity between:
  – Developed countries and developing countries
  – Urban areas and rural/remote areas
• Differences caused by: (solutions)
  –   Income        (Measures on Poverty Reduction)
  –   Education and job training (e-Learning, etc.)
  –   Race (Peace Building, Poverty Reduction, etc.)
  –   Gender (e-Learning, e-Health, e-Business, etc.)
  –   Age (Barrier Free, Universal Accessibility, etc)
  –   Disabilities (Barrier Free, Universal Design, etc.)
     Promote Gender Equality and
    Empower Women (Item3, MDGs)
                Project examples
•   e-Chutney in Fiji (Navua Women’s Group)
•   Community Radio Operation by Women in
    Fiji and Vanuatu
•   Village Phone Program in Bangladesh
•   Puskowanjati by Women’s Cooperative in
    East Java, Indonesia
(MDGs: Millennium Development Goals by United Nations)
Navua Women’s Rural Group, Fiji
The e-Chutney experience!

                                       E-Chutney Sales
                            4000




                # bottles
                            3000

                            2000

                            1000

                              0
                                   1     2     3    4    5     6

                                               Month




                                    Obtained a computer
                                   with e-mail for marketing
            e-Health Projects
        Health care issues include…
•   Inadequate health statistics
•   Few training opportunities
•   Limited health care infrastructure
•   Cost of off island transfers: Isolation
               Project examples
•   Pacific Open Learning Health Net by WHO
•   Pacific Association for Clinical Training
WHO: Pacific Open Learning Health Network




 •   Continuing education for health professionals
 •   Telecentres in 10 countries, in major hospital
 •   Expansion into rural areas?
 Most Important Problem to be solved
- Development of Rural Infrastructure -
• Disparity is becoming larger between ubiquitous
  network community and no ICT network community
  as we enter into the Ubiquitous Network Society.
• Huge amount of investment is needed.
• Not attractive for private sector investors because of
  lack of commercial sustainability.
• There is no simple solution to this problem.
• ITU, UNDP, UNESCO and other aid organizations
  have been focusing on the development of Multi-
  purpose Community Telecenter (MCT).
             What is Tele-center?
• Tele-centers or Community Access Points (CAPs) are
  public facilities that offer shared access to ICT.
• MCT is a technology hub which allows a community
  to establish many programs and services which provide
  social, economic and IT support.(UNESCO)
• However, in reality, tele-centers are full of varieties.
  (So, Action Plan of WSIS 2003 used the word “Community Access Point”)
• Establishment and sustainable operation of tele-centers
  or CAPs are becoming more and more important policy
  target to bridge the Digital Divide in rural and
  underserved or unserved areas of developing countries.
     Why Tele-center or CAP?
• Without communication infrastructure, we cannot
  transform the Digital Divide into Digital Opportunity
  in rural and remote areas of developing countries.
• The most cost effective solution in rural area is to share
  necessary facilities at tele-centers or CAPs.
• We have various experiences of building tele-centers
  world wide. (Many success stories and miscarried
  projects)
• In many countries in the world, tele-center projects
  have been undertaken as one of the e-Government
  Initiatives and become a hot topic in many
  international Forum.
  Roles of the Rural Tele-center
• To educate people and to enrich living standards
• To realize grass roots access to global
  information through the Internet
• To promote the sale of local products through the
  Internet and e-Commerce
• To provide government information such as
  natural disaster warning to local communities
• To attract visitors from all over the world by
  demonstrating local culture and beautiful scenery
• To attract investors to villages by ensuring global
  access from rural areas
Selection of Network Technology
for the design of rural tele-centers
The variety of new technologies and applications in
designing user-oriented tele-centers such as barrier
free and maintenance free facilities
Wireless LAN technologies such as Wi-Fi have been
remarkably reducing the cost of broadband access.
Explosion of mobile Internet access and SMS
ADSL technology is becoming a popular solution
for tele-centers in semi-rural area
       From “one size fits all”
         To “full of variety”
• Each country’s approach is based on the reality of
  its economic development stage, specific features
  of society, culture, and geographic conditions.
• Sharing information and collaborative learning are
  essential for the success of telecenter program.
• Taking into consideration of best practices and
  experiences of other countries, I would like to
  recommend you to establish your own model.
  Various Approaches for Tele-centers (1)
Community e-Center: CeCs (the Philippines)
• First CeCs has established on 20 October, 2004.
• NCC (National Computer Center) aims to
  establish 100 CeCs all over the country.
• Role of CeCs: (Multi-purpose)
  Source of information for agriculture, education, health and
  livelihood
  e-Learning Center and e-Library
  Public Calling Office (PCO)
  Internet Cafe
  Various Approaches for Tele-centers (2)
  Tele-centers at Post Offices (Malaysia)
                Roles of stakeholders
• Government – provides policy and strategy to steer
  the program
• Post Office – provides key infrastructure
• Community – Program driver and to ensure the
  sustainability (volunteers from local community)
  Establishment of steering committee
  Development of local content and portal site
  Implementation of IT training course (e-Learning)
Various Approaches for Tele-centers (3)
 Internet Tambon Initiative (Thailand)
  Integration of National Economic Development
   Plan with National IT Strategy (IT2010)
• “One Tambon One Product Initiative”: Facilitation of local
  products and industries as a business incubation policy for
  SMEs
• “Internet Tambon Initiative” for the promotion of
  e-Commerce in rural area
• Established 8000 Internet Tambon all over the country:
  next target will be a village tele-center
                         (tambon is group of villages: sub-district)
Success Stories: e-Farmers in China
 Agricultural market prices and innovative ideas via Internet

• A Chinese farmer discovered good market prices
  of tomatoes via the Internet and grew variety of
  tomatoes. His income grew eight times larger.
   (Herbei Privince)
• A woman learned the latest technology for silk
  worm production via the Internet and realized
  higher quality and higher income. (Tongnan)
   (Source: Royal D. Colle “Memo to Telecenter Planners” at APEC TEL30)
  Success Stories: e-Farmers in India
• ITC Limited: an agricultural venture company
  set up more than 3000 villages kiosks bringing
  more profits to farmers, eliminating profits of
  middlemen, and also providing information on
  health, nutrition and entertainment to rural people.
• A farmer obtaining soy bean prices on the
  websites of Chicago Board of Trades in USA,
  reports to farmers in the community to decide best
  timing to sell their products. (Sourced: Royal D. Colle)
Every Failure is a Stepping Stone to Success
           - Examples of miscarried projects -
• The Jhai Remote Village IT System in Lao PDR
  (Lack of careful management)
• Initial stage of Tele-center at Post Office Project in
  Malaysia (Now, it became a success story)
  (Insufficient HRD and community involvement)
• Initial Stage of PF Net in Solomon Islands (Now, this
  project is regarded as best practice
  (Insufficient coordination with local community)
• Desa Maju terminals in Indonesia
  (Lack of careful management)
Key Factors for the Success of Rural Tele-centers
         Policy Recommendations (part 1)
• Strategic approach by government (and/or local
  government and community)
• Information sharing on success stories and miscarried
  experiences by setting up data base on the cyber space
• Establishment of group of tele-centre managers, and to
  organize workshops/seminars for sharing knowledge
• Powerful leadership with careful management
• Participation of community leaders from initial stage
• Establishment of tele-center steering committee at each
  site (involvement of community volunteers)
 Key Issues for the Success of Rural Tele-centers
          Policy Recommendations (part 2)
• Rely on Grass-root initiative to find solutions
• Introduction of non-licensing scheme for 2.4GHz and
  5GHz band to facilitate grass-roots development of
  communication infrastructure
• Collection of sufficient information at specific site
• Access is essential, but if possible, Broadband access to
  meet growing and multi-media needs
• Development of human resources and participation of
  rural community people in operation (establish
  partnership with schools and NGOs)
• Establishment of new partnership between government,
  business, schools and civil society
There are still problems to be solved
• How to realize sustainable operations for rural tele-
  centers ?
• How to implement cost-effective global internet access
  lines from rural/remote areas of developing countries ?
• How to raise awareness of community leaders and
  educate/train local community people to be able to
  utilize ICT technology and how to update their ability
  to catch up rapid progress of IT technology?
• How to realize strategic alliance/partnership between
  government, business, academia and NGO?
   How to upgrade these tele-centers
 toward a Ubiquitous Network Society?
• To set up base stations for 3G, Wi-Fi and/or Wi-
  MAX at the roof top of telecenters?
• Access to these stations from various terminals
  such as Cellphone, PDAs, PCs or wearable PCs?
• Last one mile solutions will be not so difficult.
• However, how to establish broadband backbone
  network in rural areas world wide?
• Ultra broadband internet satellite or airship?
  It seems too early to predict a model system.
 Conclusion: New Challenge

“New initiative of international
cooperation should be encouraged”


   Benefits of ICT for all !
      Thank you for your attention

				
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