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Chapter 7 Water Systems

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Chapter 7 Water Systems Powered By Docstoc
					  Chapter 9:
Water Erosion &
  Deposition

         ***Explanations and examples were given in
         classes that are not presented in the following
         notes. You may get additional information from
         your textbook, another classmate, or from the
         Internet.
I. The Water Planet
      (p. 240)
•Earth’s surface is
 about 70% covered
 with water.
  A. Hydrosphere
• Earth’s water environment
           OR
• All the water on Earth
B. The Water Cycle
Water constantly moves
 between the atmosphere
 and Earth
   Water Cycle (cont.)
 1. Evaporation
 2. Condensation
 3. Precipitation
 4. Collection
(*diagram)
   C. Runoff (p. 240)
1) Water that flows across
 Earth’s surface
 2. Factors that Affect
        Runoff
•Amount of rainfall
•time span over which it
 falls
•slope of the land
•type and amount of plants
II. River System
  Development
   (p. 244)
A. Drainage Basin
• Land area from which a
  river/stream gets its water
• Mississippi River is the
  largest in the U.S. (drains
  about 2/3 of the U.S.)
     B. Stages of Stream
• Young Development
• Mature
• Old
• River systems usually
  contain streams in all stages
  of development.
III. Groundwater
      (p. 251)
• Water that
  soaks into the
  ground and
  collects in
  spaces called
  pores
A. Permeable/Impermeable
• Permeable=soil and
  rock that water can
  move through
• Impermeable=soil or
  rock that water can’t
  pass through
    Groundwater (cont.)
• Groundwater will keep going
  to lower elevations until it
  reaches a layer of
  impermeable rock.
B. Wells and Springs
       (p. 254)
  1. Water well
  2. Artesian well
  3. Spring
 *Diagram on
    board
C. Hot Springs and
  Geysers (p. 255)
1. Hot spring=groundwater
 is heated and comes to
 Earth’s surface
2. Geyser=a hot spring that
 erupts periodically
Example: Old Faithful
D. Caves and Sinkholes
• Cave=forms when acidic
  groundwater moves through
  natural cracks in limestone,
  it dissolves the rock



*see diagram
   Cave Features
• Stalactites=icicle-like
  features that hang from the
  ceiling
• Stalagmites=features that
  form on the cave floor
• Column=when a stalactite
  and stalagmite join together
Caves and Sinkholes (cont.)

2. Sinkhole=a depression
  in the ground that
  collects water and
  funnels it underground
 IV. Water Diversion
• Many towns are forced to
  get water from other
  locations. Dams and
  pipelines are used to divert
  water to other locations.
 Water Diversion (cont.)
• In some areas of the U.S.,
  individuals, communities,
  and even states have gone to
  court over water rights.
Chapter 18 & 19:
Exploring Oceans
I. The Shoreline
•Where land meets the
 ocean/water.
A. Forces that carve
      shores:

1. Surface waves
2. Tides
3. Long shore currents
 B. Types of Shores
1. Rocky shoreline=steep
 and rocky
common features:
rocks; cliffs;
hollows;
notches
Shorelines (cont.)
2. Sandy shorelines=gradual
 slope and sandy
common features:
beaches;bay barrier;
spit; barrier islands
    *see diagram
II. The Seafloor
A. Ocean Floor Features
 1. Mountains
 • mid-ocean ridges
 • sea mount
 • guyot
 • island
 Ocean Floor Features (cont.)
2. Abyssal plain=the flat seafloor
 in the deep ocean
3. Ocean trench=where one piece
 of the seafloor dives beneath
 another one
  Ocean Floor Features (cont.)
4. Earthquakes and
 volcanoes are
 common along rift
 zones (cracks in
 Earth’s crust).
*see diagram
B. Benefits of Living in
  the Oceans (p. 557)
 1. Use less energy because
  of buoyancy
 2. No sudden
  temperature changes
 3. Water easily available
Living in Oceans (cont.)

 4. Ocean currents & waves
  help organisms get rid of
  wastes.
C. Photosynthesis &
    Respiration
 1. Photosynthesis=process
  plants use to make food
  (uses light energy, carbon
  dioxide, and water)
C. Photosynthesis & Respiration
            (cont.)
2. Chemosynthesis=process
 used by bacteria to produce
 food and oxygen; bacteria
 use dissolved sulfur near
 rift zones
   C. Respiration (cont.)
3. Respiration=oxygen is
 combined with food so that
 the energy in food can be
 used
D. Ocean Life
1. Plankton=drifting algae and
 animals; usually microscopic
Examples:
diatoms;
kelp
      Ocean Life (cont.)
2. Zooplankton=animal portion of
  plankton; most depend on currents
  for movement
Examples:
eggs and young fish;
 jellyfish;
 lobsters
    3. Nekton
• Include all swimming
  forms of fish and other
  animals
Examples:
fish; turtles;
whales; seals
 4. Benthos
• Bottom-dwellers; live on the
  ocean floor

Examples:
corals; snails;
clams and
oysters; sea urchins; flounder
  5. Ocean Habitats
• Beaches
• Rocky shore areas
• Estuaries
• Coral Reefs
    E. Ocean Pollution (p. 665)
• Most ocean pollution is
  caused by humans. It
  concentrates on coasts.
• Examples: plastic bags;
  fishing line; oil spills
Exxon
Valdez
Oil
Spill
   E. Ocean Pollution (cont.)
• Ocean pollution is a
  worldwide concern because
  oceans are connected.
• Thermal pollution=when
  power plants dump hot
  water into an ocean
The End
The End

				
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posted:4/13/2013
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