Learning _ Remembering - CityU Web Page

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					Learning & Remembering

Principles for Remembering

It is very important that you have an interest in what you learn. Pay attention or you won’t learn anything! Organize the information.




Practice what you have learned & organized.

Memory Aids/Methods
There are many types of memory aids/ methods that help you remember things, e.g.: 1. Diary 2. Memos 3. Turning numbers into letters 4. Making notes 5. Rote rehearsal. However, some are effective and some are not so effective.


Less Effective

Extensive recoding
Link-word method Inductive, concept attainment method Method of Loci

Simple rehearsal
Rote method





Tutoring & lecturing


The following slides introduces some mnemonics for enhancing remembering.
Mnemonics are:  Techniques for helping us to remember.

It is the connecting of two ideas, with the second one triggering yet another one, and so on. It is based on the idea of making information meaningful by relating it to what you know.


Keyword Method
Select one word to represent a longer thought or several subordinate thoughts.
1. 2. 3. 4.


Generate your own keywords. Construct an image between the keyword & the word to learn. Keyword word to learn. image Keywords should be visualizable. Keywords should be interacting.

Keyword Method (example)
Word to learn: persuade Keyword: purse
Picture: A woman is being persuaded to buy a purse.
to learn keyword

Keyword Method (example)
This example relies both on rhyme or sound & imagery Spanish word to learn: lapiz



pencil (meaning of lapiz)

Keyword Method (example)
Spanish word patio (pronounced pot-o) meaning duck




Keyword Method (example)

French word pere sounds pear, & it means father.  Generate images of father by using the pear keyword

Pegword Method
1. First memorize a set of objects rhyming with integer names.
2. Then generate an to be learned. image of each item

3. Link the image of the item to learn to the corresponding image of the object. 4. Give it a meaning (use picture).

Pegword Method (examples)
Integers-Objects One-bun Two-shoe Three-tree Four-door Five-hive Six-sticks Seven-heaven Eight-gate Nine-wine Ten-hen Image To Learn Image



Method of Loci (Places)
Good for remembering events in a particular order. 1. Construct a sentimental map of your home/ surrounding area. 3. Place the things in these loci. 4. Walk down the street to pick up the things. 5. No more than one item in one place. 6. Places should not be too much alike.

Method of Loci (example step 1)
MacDonald Barber Shop
Fruit Vendor Drug Store Pet Shop Home HK Bank China Bank

Bakery Park

Method of Loci (example step 2)
public recognition

see parents see principal

extra marks extrinsic reward praise
+ Reinforcement

copy work reprimand



Remember words by forming one word to represent all of the words. Word formed on the basis of the first letters. POLKA P – pegword O – organizational scheme L – loci K – keyword A – acronym



Construct a sentence to remember a sequence of objects. First letter of each word represents the first letter of the object.

My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas = Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Acrostics (example)
Biological groupings used in taxonomy
King i n g d o m Phillip h y l u m called l a s s out r d e r fifty a m i l y good e n u s soldiers. p e c i e s

Acrostics (examples)

Sober Physicists Don't Find Giraffes In Kitchens. ~The orbital names for electrons (SPDFGIK).
Computer Science All People in Saskatchewan Turned NDP. ~ The OSI model: Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical

Rhymes Make a rhyme to remember informtaion. E.g.

Black & Yellow, Kill a Fellow


Black & Red, Venom Lack

Ridiculous Association/ Image Bizarreness
 


This method is to remember things by associating objects with bizarre or ridiculous images. Association is enhanced if the image is vivid, ridiculous, impossible, or illogical. Make the associations interactive, such as rule of substitution out-of-proportion rule rule of exaggeration e.g. The dog rode the bicycle down the street.


Imagery Representation
  

Good readers respond to text by constructing images of the meanings conveyed by the text. This method requires making mental pictures of material. No intentional transformation of content is applied here.

e.g. “The king led the elves through the driving rain storm.” – form in your mind the actions and the scene of the sentence.

Memory Strategies
Other than mnemonics, there are memory strategies that are useful for remembering. The slides below differentiate the strategies into 2 categories: Elaboration & Organization

Memory Strategies

Note taking ~ construct meaningful paraphrases of important ideas ~ integrate new & old information in personally meaningful way


Story Grammar
Who is the main character? Where and when did the story take place? What did the main characters do? How did the story end? How did the main character feel?


Preview. Question. Read. Reflect. Recite. Review. Survey headings. Ask yourself as you read. Read the material. Make connections to prior know. Test your memory of the text. Reread portions you don’t understand or remember.


3. 4.




“How does this information relate to what the author discusses in the preceding section?” ~(synthesis) “How can this be applied in a school setting?” ~(application)


Classifying /Grouping

girl heart robin purple finger flute blue organ man hawk green lung eagle child piano  green man piano heart eagle blue girl flute lung hawk purple child organ finger robin


Concept Mapping

~ Diagram

concepts relationships

~ Identify important concepts & specify their interrelationship
~ You may print this concept map on learning and remembering to help you understand more about this topic.

Major Contrast of Strategies
Less Effective Techniques are those that rely on simple rehearsal of material. More Effective Techniques are those that require: ~ extensive recoding, and ~ relating of new content to other knowledge.

Review of Memory Skills
   

 

  

Pay attention Make sure you understand (Extensive) encoding Make associations (old & new) Impose organizations Use mnemonic device Involve senses (eyes, ears, nose, touch, feel) Image when possible Distribute learning (spread out practicing over days) Overlearn (learn again & again & again & again) Rehearse periodically

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