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9. IMPLEMENTATION - Mogale City

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					Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                      90



                                                                                                9. IMPLEMENTATION

9.1 Land Use
                                                                     The table below depicts the amenities needed to sustain the
This section deals with yield of different land uses to support      community of Tarlton. The calculations are based on the new
sustainable neighborhood development in Tarlton. It is primarily     development. The cost implications are based on the current
based on the additional residential development proposed the         pricing schedule (2010/2011) determined from tenders around
required land uses.                                                  the country. These figures do not take into consideration the
                                                                     escalations and the inflation rate. Details costing should be
Amenities: Land use conflicts between agricultural activities and    done at project implementation level.
the amenity expectations of rural residential dwellers should be
minimised. Significant impacts to primary production or to the environmental or cultural values of a rural area should be avoided.
Finite and valuable natural resources present on the land should not be lost. The local environment and landscape should have the
capacity to absorb this more intensive use and development without significant or irreversible harm to its values or to the new use
and development. Demand for costly or inefficient community services or infrastructure should not be generated. Although there are
already amenities in Tarlton, the location of future amenities should be along the movement lines of the R24 and N14 for easy
access.

Figure 30 shows the land yield per land use. From the table below it is evident that




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Figure 30: Land Use Yield


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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                                  92

                                                                    OPTION 1
Zone           Land Use            Number            Density/Coverage/    Yield           Projected         Cost per facility   Total required
                                   needed            minimum size         (gross          population (3
                                                                          units)          persons per
                                                                                          unit)
                                        159
               Total
               Housing @                      95.4   50- 70 du/ha                  5724             17172
               60%
               Primary School                   4    1.4 ha                                                 R      50 000 000   R     214 650 000
               Secondary                        1    4.6 ha                                                 R      60 000 000   R      60 000 000
               School
               Chreche                          3    130 sqm                                                R       1 500 000   R       5 151 600
               Clinic                           2    5000 sqm                                               R       5 000 000   R      10 000 000
               Hospital                         0                                                           R               -   R                -
               Places of                       4     150 sqm                                                R       1 500 000   R       6 000 000
               worship
Residential    Community halls                  1    5000 sqm                                               R      12 000 000   R      12 000 000
               Library                          1    130sqm                                                 R       4 000 000   R       4 000 000
               Post office                      1    500sqm                                                 R       1 500 000   R       1 500 000
               Police station                   1    1ha                                                    R      34 000 000   R      23 353 920
               Emergency                        1    1.2 ha                                                 R       7 000 000   R       7 000 000
               services
               Cemetery            provide at                                                               R      21 000 000   R                -
                                   regional level

               Municipal Pay                    1    100 sqm                                                R               -   R                -
               points
               Roads                          31.8                  20%
Table: 15: Option 1_ Land use budget




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                                          93



                                                                      OPTION 2
Zone            Land Use             Number       Density/Coverage/       Yield     Projected              Cost per facility   Total required
                                     needed       minimum size            (gross    population (3
                                                                          units)    persons per unit)

                                        404
                Total
                Housing @                 242.4   50- 70 du/ha             14544                   43632
                60%
                Primary School              10    1.4 ha                                                   R      50 000 000   R     500 000 000
                Secondary                     4   4.6 ha                                                   R      60 000 000   R     240 000 000
                School
                Chreche                       8   130 sqm                                                  R       1 500 000   R      12 000 000
                Clinic                        5   5000 sqm                                                 R       5 000 000   R      25 000 000
                Hospital                      0                                                            R               -   R                -
                Places of                         150 sqm                                                  R       1 500 000   R      18 000 000
                worship              12
                Community halls               4   5000 sqm                                                 R      12 000 000   R      48 000 000
Residential
                Library                       1   130sqm                                                   R       4 000 000   R       4 000 000
                Post office                   3   500sqm                                                   R       1 500 000   R       4 500 000
                Police station                1   1ha                                                      R      34 000 000   R      34 000 000
                Emergency                     1   1.2 ha                                                   R       7 000 000   R       7 000 000
                services
                Cemetery             provide                                                               R      21 000 000   R                -
                                     at
                                     regional
                                     level
                Municipal                   1     100 sqm                                                  R               -   R                -
                Paypoints
                Roads                      80.8                   20%
Table: 16: Option 2 Land Use Budget
Note: The number of facilities could be reduced on the bases that the actual sizes are increased




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                      94



9.2 Civil Infrastructure

                                                                        The table below depicts the civil infrastructure needed to
 Provision of social and physical infrastructure in rural areas is one sustain the community of Tarlton. The calculations are based
of the government’s priorities. The development of Tarlton with on the new development. The cost implications are based on
urban type of land uses necessities for the provision of urban like the current pricing schedule (2010/2011) determined from
infrastructure and services normally expected for residential areas. tenders around the country. These figures do not take into
If those services are not provided for in the outset, the expectations consideration the escalations and the inflation rate. Details
and future requirements of residents can lead to high costs of costing should be done at project implementation level.
providing rudimentary services on temporary bases. A proposal for
the Tarlton service centre development must be efficiently serviced
by social and physical infrastructure at an acceptable and sustainable levels and standards.


9.3 The World Heritage Site

The Cradle of Human Kind World Heritage Site is located within the municipal boundaries of Mogale City Local Municipality. Located
at close proximity to the major cities and towns such as Johannesburg, Pretoria, Krugersdorp and Rustenburg, makes it difficult to
manage development in and around the site. In an afford to protect and manage the COH WHS, the COH WHS Management
Authority (MA), Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD), West Rand District Municipality (WRDM),
and Mogale City Local Municipality (MCLM) commissioned the development of an Environmental Management Framework (EMF),
including a Strategic Environmental Management Plan (SEMP). The aim of this EMF and SEMP is to provide guidelines regarding
development and certain types of land use and activities in the COH WHS.

One of the major development management tools used in the EMF is the delineation of a buffer zone around the COH WHS. In an
international expert meeting on World Heritage and Buffer Zones Davos, Switzerland 11 – 14 March 2008, it was clear that more
questions than answers were provided in the determination and criteria to be used to delineate buffer zones around WHS. However,
it was conceded that:




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                         95




       Buffer zones around World heritage sites have always
        been a difficult subject to agree upon by planning
        authorities and the community residing around these
        areas.
       The buffer zone should not be seen as an area on its own
        or even an area that is aligned to the world heritage site
        only, but should be seen as an area of concern and
        should be read as part of the urban/ rural texture as
        illustrated in Figure 31 adapted from the UNESCO
        resolution In an international expert meeting on World
        Heritage and Buffer Zones Davos, Switzerland 11 – 14
        March 2008.

          The National Environmental Management: Protected
          Areas Act (Act No. 57 of 2003) makes provision for the
          relevant development authorities to make use of the
          Environmental Management Frameworks (EMF) for the
          determination of buffer zones around WHS and indeed
          other significant sites. Furthermore, it stipulates that the
          EMF should provision for the development of guidelines
          for the management of the areas within and around the Figure 31: Concept for the Buffer zone around WHS (UNESCO)
          buffer zones.

          One of the major challenges in the Mogale City in the delineation of the buffer zone around the COH WHS is the existing
          development fabric. The Tarlton area, just like other rural service centres around the COH WHS is characterized by rural
          and agricultural activities. Its close proximity to the major cities like Johannesburg, Pretoria, Rustenburg and Krugersdorp
          makes Tarlton attractive to urbanization. Since 2003 people settled around Tarlton, forming informal settlements.




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                              96



9.4 Development boundary.

 The Development Boundary is set to
discourage urban sprawl. Tarlton has to have
a designated growth boundary within which
urban like development would take place.
This policy does not entirely curtailed
development outside the boundary, but it
should be recognized as the separating
mechanism between the rural and urban
uses geographically. In Tarlton, the urban
land used will cluster around the R24 and the
N14. The experienced rapid population
increases in Tarlton are discouraged outside Figure 32: Urban Development Boundary
the designated growth areas.


9.5 Agriculture Value Chains

The value chain concept is proposed as a
more integrated approach towards
agricultural development. By using this
approach, a range of areas can be
identified where the municipality and
various other stakeholders can be
involved. Two levels of value chain are
relevant for this approach, i.e. the firm /
producer value chain and the sector value
chain. In the context of this report, the firm
value chain describes the activities of the
individual farmer or farming cooperative.

                                                 Figure 33: Agricultural Value Chains



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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                                       97



Applying this generic principle to a farming business, would typically entail the activities illustrated sketch above.

The overall sector value chain could be described generically, but would differ for every specific product, e.g. fresh produce such as
vegetables that would go, unprocessed, directly to the market vs. products such as bulbs that are packed and exported. The
proposed interventions will be discussed according to the main components of each of these generic value chains.


Support to Farming Activities:
Value             Chain           Description / Support Required
Component
Land:
                                  Land is the main infrastructure need for farming. In addition to availability, the suitability of land for a
                                  specific product needs to be investigated. As shown in the general agricultural importance rating of land
                                  in Tarlton area, showing clear areas throughout the study area diminishing towards the north west of the
                                  study area.


                                  In terms of specific crop suitability, the land with the highest suitability for cabbage, spinach and maize
                                  are located in the southern portions of the study area.


                                  The Municipality has already identified and procured a 259ha portion of land for communal agriculture –
                                  the Vlakdrift Agricultural Commonage Project just to the north of the R24, across the N14. A detailed
                                  feasibility study and implementation plan for this initiative has been completed. Part of the property
                                  (Portion 16 which is on 10 ha) has been developed into Cemetery. The rest of the property remains
                                  fallow.   The recommendations for the practices in Vlakdrift commonage is intensive agricultural
                                  production based on horticultural vegetables and poultry production. This can be complemented by grain
                                  cropping, tree plant nurseries, agricultural ware housing, produce storage and processing. In the long
                                  term, small scale dairy units could also be developed. It is proposed that horticultural crops in Vlakdrift
                                  farm include lettuce, carrots, green beans, green pepper and tomatoes as well as leaf vegetables mainly




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                                     98



                             spinach and cabbages which have a ready market locally and in Pretoria and Johannesburg.
Value              Chain     Description / Support Required
Component
Farm Infrastructure          Water:
                             Water availability is a key consideration in the establishment of agricultural activities, especially in the
                             South African Context. For the Vlakdrift Agricultural Commonage Project, it has been found there is a
                             need for the boreholes to be augmented to address the inadequate water provision for irrigation
                             agriculture.


                             In terms of establishing more productive agriculture in the area, the water aspect will have to be given the
                             same priority as land provision, whether water is provided newly developed infrastructure or alternative
                             measures such as rainwater harvesting.


                             Equipment and other infrastructure:
                             The following infrastructure will have to be developed over the next five years:
                             a) An irrigation system for 36 ha;
                             b) Two (2) broiler production units with a capacity of at least 25,000 birds per unit;
                             c) Small dairy unit for 100 cows Homestead Boundary fence;
                             d) Three boreholes;
                             e) One homestead;
                             f) Boundary fence; and
                             g) Farm cement dam.

Procurement                  Both technology development and procurement are areas where a structured intervention in agriculture in
                             the area could yield results. Organising both commonage farmers and smaller commercial farmers in the
                             area to bargain collectively for special deals from e.g. suppliers of raw materials, feeds or fertilisers could
                             result in cost savings.
Technology                   The same applies to technology development, or obtaining improved technology input. In the case of




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                                    99



Development                                technology development, specific support programmes offered by the state could also be accessed.
Table: 17: Support to farming Activities


           The Sketch depicts the location of the Vlakdrift commonage.




           Understanding Product Value Chains


           In addition to support to the farms / commonage as ‘firms’, it would be important to also map the specific product value
           chains, in order to identify the exact point of intervention / support. E.g. the maize value chain may require an intervention in
           terms of establishing cooperation for sales of product, while the weak link in the beef value chain may be transport to
           market.

           It is therefore recommended that in addition to aspects such as land identification and water resource management, a better
           understanding be developed through studies of the key agricultural product value chains in the area to better focus support
           and interventions.




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                      100



9.6 Economic

The future of the economy in Tarlton is dependent on many factors that drive the wider economy in South Africa and demands
innovation, new skills and a supportive business environment. Indeed, structural convergence between rural and urban area of
Krugersdorp, and in particular the emergence of settlements dominance of the area means at regional level it no longer makes sense
to talk of a single, distinct rural economy.

The relationships between the Krugersdorp in Mogale City and the other regional centres like Johannesburg, Pretoria and
Rustenburg, Tarlton and indeed other rural hinterlands are now recognised as a highly interdependent economic system. Mogale
City municipal area can be regarded as one of the high-performing towns in Gauteng in terms of agriculture and tourism, both
contribute to, and benefit from, the prosperity of these regional centres.

However, Tarlton has a sparse development of residential areas that are more remote from each other and characterised by low-
growth and low-wage economies.

    Economic ambitions
     increased provision of affordable housing within broader plans that help sustain the scale and vitality of villages and market
       towns
     provision of employment space that allows rural businesses to start up and grow
     effective delivery of skills and workforce development to rural communities
     maintaining Tarlton as a leader in agriculture and food sector, supported by leading research centres of excellence and
       knowledge exchange in fields such as bio-fuels, non-food crops and agricultural engineering
     improved connectivity and transport services between Tarlton and regional centres to increase connections to the knowledge
       base centres of excellence, hubs and markets
     timely provision and take-up of next-generation broadband services, to enable rural businesses to reach new customers and
       suppliers
     successful development, management and conservation of environmental assets to deliver tourism, biodiversity and healthy
       living objectives
     improved pathways to employment and access to high-quality services for those experiencing deprivation in rural.
         Priority 1: Equipping people with the confidence, skills and choices for employment and entrepreneurship
         Unemployment rate is high throughout Tarlton and for many people access to rewarding employment remains difficult. Basic
         skills, and enhanced progression routes to higher skills levels are essential, along with raising aspirations and self-
         confidence, to increase the likelihood of getting into work, education or training.




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                              101




          The population in the informal settlements and farm workers systematically experience greater barriers than others.
          Reducing these barriers will require targeted programmes, effective multi-agency working and ensuring an offer shaped
          around individual circumstances.

          Some people including single parents, worklessness or low-paid, part-time work is a major determinant of severe and
          persistent poverty. Targeted support to reduce barriers to rewarding work for farm workers and the informal settlement
          dwellers will make a valuable contribution to the government’s goal of reducing poverty, as well as making additional talent
          available in the labour market.


          Priority 2: Tackling barriers to employment in the poorest of communities
          Frequently, communities where a high proportion of people are not in work also experience other forms of disadvantage,
          such as crime, anti-social behavior, poor educational outcomes, access to public services and transport.

          Lack of access to health care have a major impact on productivity, employment and educational performance. A concerted
          focus on tackling persistent lack of access to health care, and adding to the quality and length of life of local people will have
          a major impact on the economic outcomes at community and regional level.

          Lack of access to transport can also be a significant barrier to employment, particularly amongst young people. In tracking
          ad addressing these barriers in a concerted focus on the poorest of communities will have a profound effect on narrowing
          the gaps in employment and wider outcomes, contributing not only to improved life chances for individuals, but also to
          stronger communities and improved regional economic performance.

          Priority 3: Increasing economic demand
          Entrepreneurship or diversity of enterprise should be encouraged in Tarlton. The lack of support to local entrepreneurs limit,
          wealth generation and reduces resilience in the face of economic shocks. Tarlton needs comprehensive packages of
          support and investment to encourage start-up and growth of indigenous enterprises that will support agriculture and tourism,
          including social enterprises. Public-sector location, employment practices and procurement can stimulate Tarlton’s second
          economy activities.
          Enterprise is about more than just new businesses and jobs. It’s about enterprising behaviour. Therefore, there needs to be
          more emphasis on increasing community capital. This includes supporting communities to take on second economic
          activities as a base for local enterprises, or supporting local people to set up social enterprises to address local issues, for
          example, start a village shop or start recycling facilities.




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Tarlton Precinct Plan_2011                                                                                                           102




          Priority 4: Employers valuing a flexible, diverse and healthy workforce
          Globalisation and migration patterns since 1994 have created a more culturally diverse workforce in South Africa. It is more
          important than ever before to promote the full economic participation of all sections of the potential workforce and to use the
          talents of all.

          Farmers and people in the hospitality business, like any other business, will increase profitability through responding
          positively to changes in the labour market. These employers also help to remove barriers to participation for groups who are
          under-represented in employment. To benefit from the full range of talent in the population, employers may need support in
          engaging with the potential available and in providing appropriate training or even re-skilling. There are many benefits of a
          flexible and diverse workforce, including motivation, enriched creativity and access to new markets.

          There is also a growing recognition that businesses that invest to create healthier jobs and working environments benefit
          greatly from a more productive workforce. Collaboration between the National Department of Rural Development and Land
          Reform, National Department of Lobour, various employers and business support organisations to improve the health of the
          workforce will deliver major long-term benefits to individuals, businesses and economic growth.

          Priority 5: A vibrant, skilled and resourced NGO
          NGO’s often have a good understanding of need at individual and community level, and the ability to deliver services in a
          tailored and sensitive way. The cultural sector and the NGO sector voluntary and community organisations and social
          enterprises can play important roles in helping to empower people and communities to tackle local issues and have major
          economic impact in their own right. Additional support for community capacity-building and local leadership will help to
          ensure that interventions are most effectively targeted and shaped in response to need.

          The opportunity for engagement in volunteering and cultural activities offers people pathways towards employment as skills
          are enhanced, confidence is gained and, importantly, as they have access to new social networks and opportunities.
          Government policies envisage an enhanced role for the NGO. To help ensure that NGO can fulfil this contribution,
          appropriate support is needed to enhance their capacity.




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