Abnormal Psychology

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					Introduction to Psychology

      Social Psychology
•   Internal vs. External
•   Stability
•   Fundamental Attribution Error
•   Defensive Attribution
•   Self-serving Bias
•   Individualism vs. Collectivism
     The Justification of Effort
• If someone works hard to attain a goal, the
  will be more attractive than to the individual
  who achieves the same goal with no effort.
• Hazing
• Basic training
• Charging money for pound puppies
• Aronson and Mills (1959) sex discussion
  group with an embarrassing initiation
       The ABCs of Attitudes
• An attitude can be defined as one’s
  favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction
  toward something or someone exhibited in
  beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior.
• A – affect (feelings)
• B – behavior (intentions)
• C – cognitions (thoughts)
           Attitude Functions
1) A knowledge function by helping us organize
   and structure our environment
2) An instrumental function in helping us
   maximize rewards and minimize punishments
3) An ego-defensive function by helping us deal
   with internal conflicts and defend against
4) A value-expressive function in helping us
   express ideals important to our self-concept
    Why Do Behaviors Change
• Self-Presentation (Impression Management)
• Self-Justification (Cognitive Dissonance)
• Self-Perception
     Conformity and Obedience
• Asch experiment
• Milgram experiment
• The difference a symbol of authority makes e.g., a
  lab coat
• The nurse’s obedience experiment – much lower
  level of compliance when the drug was familiar
  and when they had an opportunity to consult with
• Knowledge and social support increase the
  likelihood of resistance to authority
           Norm Formation
• Norms can be arbitrary, pervasive and
• Norm violation examples
• Who am I?
• Categorize self-descriptions into group and
  non-group identifications

• What is a group?
• Is this class a group
             What is a group?
•   “Two or more people who, for longer than a few
    moments, interact with and influence one
    another and perceive one another as us”
•   People on a plane?
•   Five people waiting at the same corner for a bus.
•   People attending a worship service.
•   The Brittany Spears Fan Club.
•   The students in a seminar class.
       Are groups good or bad?
• Conformity, obedience, diffusion of reponsibility,
  deindividuation, panic, the risky shift, groupthink,
  anonymity, social loafing

• Social, moral, and language development, sense of
  membership and identity, charity, emotional
  comfort, support, social facilitation, cooperation,
• Calhoun’s Behavioral Sink (1962)
• A rat colony lives in a quarter acre pen
• Population stabilizes at about 150
• He then divided the pen into 4 sections, the 2
  largest males each claimed one section along with
  a small harem of females, the rest of the colony
  lived in terribly overcrowded conditions
• Breakdown in mating and nest building, eating of
  the young, random an inappropriate aggression,
  others passive and withdrawn
• Infant mortality 80%, adults showed marked signs
  of stress related illness and premature death
         Collective Behavior
• Deindividuation – loss of self awareness
  and evaluation apprehension when the
  situation allows one to feel anonymous
• When combined with high states of arousal
  and a diffusion of responsibility it can
  create a mob mentality, disinhibiting violent
  and unacceptable behavior
• Convergence – only certain types of people would
  bait a person to jump or commit an act of
  violence, however, their actions spread throughout
  a crowd by means of contagion.
• This can create a norm of callousness or cynicism
  the seems to fit the situation. It creates the illusion
  of consensus for violence and extreme acts.
• Deindividuation alone cannot explain all
  these phenomena
• Riots, lynchings, mobs, wartime attrocities,
  police beatings, road rage, escape panics
• Cheering at sporting events, spring break
  behavior, Mardi Gras, fads, pop icons
• If you could do anything humanly possible
  with complete assurance that you would not
  be detected or held in any way responsible,
  what would you do?
• Common findings: 36% antisocial, 19%
  non-normative, 36% neutral, and 9%
• Robbing a bank is the most often reported

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