chapter 30 lecture - Pasadena City College

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					Chapter 30
The Making of Industrial Society
Overview: The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution: pg. 816
Energy: new energy sources such as coal and steam replace wind, water, human and
animal labor/power
Organization: new organizations such as factories replaced agricultural industries
Rural agriculture declined, urban manufacturing increases
The site of production changed from the countryside to urban cities

Transportation: new transportation developments such as trains & automobiles replaced
animal & watercraft transportation
Overview: Creation of New Classes
The Industrial Middle Class
Consisting of accountants, attorneys, engineers, factory managers, physicians, skilled
laborers, small business owners, teachers
Urban Proletariat
Mostly unskilled workers
Industrialization provided inspiration for new political systems, esp. Marxism
Overview: Unexpected Costs of the Industrial Revolution
Genesis of an environmental catastrophe
Humanity continued to exploit the environment for natural resources (i.e., the search for
coal, iron, etc.)
Intellectual origins of human domination over natural resources
Unforeseen toxins or pollutants, as well occupational hazards for workers
Social ills
Landless proletariat
Migrating work forces
Genesis of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution originated in Great Britain during the 1780s
An agricultural revolution followed industrialization in Britain
Food surplus

Disposable income

Population increase

Larger market for goods/products

Larger labor supply for industries

British Advantages
Strong banking tradition
Many British had the financial resources to make industrialization a reality

Natural resources
Coal & iron ore deposits in England

Ease of transportation
Relatively small size of the country allowed for rapid transportation of resources and

River and canal system also facilitated transport of resources and labor

Exports to imperial colonies
Especially machine textiles such as cotton clothing
English colonies provided a larger market (and, thus, increased profits) for English

produced goods
Cotton-producing Technology
New cotton-producing technology allowed for the increased production of English
Flying shuttle doubled weaving output
without doubling supply of yarn

Spinning jenny (1768)
Increased supply of yarn, faster than flying shuttle could process

Power loom (1787) met supply of yarn
Power loom produced yarn

The Growth of Factories
Massive machinery
Machines used in factories were very large and expensive

Because they were so large, it became costly to transport huge machines; machines,

therefore, were concentrated in industrial zones/cities
Supply of labor
The concentration of machinery in industrial zones/cities forced many workers to move

from the countryside to urban areas in search of employment
Industrial machines required workers to develop specialized skills; a factory worker

only “built” or “put together” a certain piece of the product, he did not “build” or “put
together” the entire product (division of labor)
Demanding working conditions: long hours, no breaks, fast-paced work, constant

Transportation of raw materials & finished products to markets
Concentration of factories in newly built factory towns on rivers
New Sources of Power
Steam Engine
Developed by James Watt (1736-1819) in 1765

Burned coal in order to boil H2O to produce steam

Steam engine was applied to rotary engines & other multiple applications (cotton

weaving machines)
1760: 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton imported
1787: 22 million
1840: 360 million
Implications: Slave Labor
Cheap cotton acquired from American south
Cotton was a valuable cash crop in the American south
Cheap cotton production benefited from the transatlantic slave trade
African slave labor used to pick cotton
Iron Industry
Henry Cort devises method of refining or improving iron ore (1780s)
First major advance in iron ore refinement since the middle ages

In 1852 Great Britain produced more high-quality iron than rest of world combined
Synergy of iron ore refinement with increasing technological development
For example, the use of improved iron ore in steam engines produced more

energy/power in machines/engines
Rail Transport
1804 first steam-powered locomotive
Capacity: Ten tons + 70 passengers @ 5 mph
The Rocket (the first steam-powered locomotive) traveled from Liverpool to Manchester
(1830), 16 mph
Railroad produced a ripple effect on industrialization
Railroads stimulated the production of coal and other fuel sources

Also stimulated the steel industry; steel used for railroad tracks

Engineering and architecture also stimulated the steel industry
The Factory System
Early modern Europe adopts “putting-out” system
Individuals work at home and produced finished goods, allowing employers to avoid
wage restrictions of medieval guilds
Rising prices cause factories to replace both guilds and putting-out system
Machines too large, expensive for home use
Large buildings could house specialized laborers
Urbanization guaranteed supply of cheap unskilled labor
Poor working conditions
Dramatic shift from rural work rhythms
Six days a week, fourteen hours a day
Immediate supervision, punishments
Worker reaction in the form of protests
“Luddite” Protest against machines 1811-1816
Name from legend about boy named Ludlam who broke a knitting frame

Leader called “King Lud”

Masked Luddites destroyed machinery, enjoyed popular support
14 Luddites hung in 1813, movement dies out

Spread of Industrialization
Development of technical schools for engineers, architects, etc.
Government support for large public works projects (canals, rail system)
Government demand for industrialization
From England, industrialization spread throughout Europe (i.e., Belgium, France, and
Germany) and to the United States

Mass Production
Eli Whitney (U.S., 1765-1825) invented the cotton gin (1793) and the technique of using
machine tools to make interchangeable parts for firearms
Concept of interchangeable parts later applied to mass goods/products

Applied to wide variety of machines
Henry Ford, 1913, develops assembly line approach
Complete automobile chassis every 93 minutes

Previously: 728 minutes
Industrialization in the United States
1800 US largely agrarian
Population 5 million
No city larger than 100,000
6/7 Americans farmers
1860 US industrializing nation/country
Population 30 million
Nine cities of 100K +
½ Americans farmers
Factory Discipline (Berlin, 1844)
Workday: 6 am to 7 pm
2 hours total for meals
Lateness: 2 minutes late fined ½ hour pay, late more than 2 minutes considered partial
Conversation prohibited in work area
Use of toilets mandatory

The Proletariat
The proletariat is the industrial working class; proletariat another term for
The proletariat worked in disastrous conditions
Coal mines, for example



Nevertheless, most wageworkers enjoyed an increased an increased standard of living
and increased levels of material wealth
Industrial financial wealth, however, was not evenly distributed throughout industrial
The rich get richer, while the poor remain the same or get poorer

Distribution of Wealth in the U.S.
The Industrial Middle Class
The industrial revolution witnessed the development of the modern middle class, a new
class that evolved from guild merchants in cities
Also known as the “bourgeoisie”
And capitalists
The middle class benefited the most from industrialization and began to eclipse the
power and status of the agrarian landed classes
Big Business
Large factories required start-up capital
Corporations formed to share risk and maximize profits
Britain and France laid foundations for the modern corporation, 1850-1860s
Private business owned by hundreds, thousands or even millions of stockholders
Investors get dividends if profitable, lose only investments in case of bankruptcy

Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels
Large   corporations form blocs (monopolies) to drive out competition and keep prices
John D. Rockefeller controlled almost all oil drilling, processing, refining, and
marketing in U.S.
German IG Farben controlled 90% of chemical production
Governments often slow to control monopolies
Monopolies continued into the twentieth century
The Fruits of Industrialization
Technological innovation as a result of industrialization
Improved agricultural tools

Cheap manufactured goods as a result of industrialization
Especially textiles

Travel and transportation innovations as a result of industrialization

Population Growth (millions)
The Demographic Transition
Industrialization resulted in a marked decline of both fertility and mortality
Mortality rates declined due to medical advances, such as immunizations or vaccinations

Mortality rates also declined due to improved diets and sanitation conditions

High birthrates also common in industrial cities

Gradually, however, birthrates declined due to contraception/birth control

Costs of living increase in industrial societies
Upper and middle classes live in affluent or relatively affluent areas

Working and lower classes, however, lived in poor areas (slums, projects, ghettos, etc.)

Urbanization proceeds dramatically in industrial cities
1800: only 20% of Britons live in towns with population over 10,000

1900: 75% of Britons live in urban environments

Ancient and medieval methods:
Egypt: crocodile dung depository

Asia: oral contraceptives (mercury, arsenic)

Elsewhere: beeswax, oil paper diaphragms

Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) predicts overpopulation crisis, advocates “moral restraint”
or abstinence
Condoms invented in England as the first effective means of contraception
Made from animal intestines in 17     century, latex in 19th century
In addition to being a means of contraception, the condom was also a means to prevent

the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Development of Slums
London: population of 1 million in 1800, 2.4 million in 1850
Wealthy classes move out to suburbs
Industrial slum areas develop in city centers
Poor urban environments in industrial cities
Poor or lack of proper urban amenities
Open gutters used as sewage systems in urban cities
Poor urban areas, therefore, were ripe for the development and perpetuation of disease

First sewage systems and piped water only in 1848
Transcontinental Migrations
           th         th
In the 19 -early 20 centuries, rapid population growth drove Europeans to the
50 million Europeans cross the Atlantic
Britons immigrate to avoid urban slums, Irish immigrate to avoid potato famines of
1840s, Jews immigrate to abandon Tsarist persecution (and other anti-Semitic
United States favored destination for European immigrants
Increased industrialization and population growth in the U.S.
Development of ethnic neighborhoods in U.S. urban cities
New Social Classes
Economic factors result in decline of slavery
For example, it was less expensive to pay wageworkers a low wage than it was to

purchase and maintain slaves
Capitalist wealth brings new status to non-aristocratic families
New urban classes of professionals
Part of the bourgeoisie

Blue-collar factory workers
The proletariat

Urban environment and increased levels of income also create new types of diversions
Sporting events


Frequenting bars/pubs

Women in the Workforce
Agricultural & cottage industry work involved women: natural transition as women

worked with agriculture and cottage sectors prior to the industrial revolution
But with the development of men as the primary breadwinners, women were relegated

to the private sphere working as cheap labor (usually as domestic servants)
Double burden for women: women expected to maintain home as well as work in

Industrialization separated children from their parents as children also entered in

industrial work
Many children had to work as their families depended on their wages

Children also faced harsh working conditions

Overtime, however, industrial societies removed children from the workforce and placed

them in schools for education
Child Labor
Easily exploited
Low wages: 1/6 to 1/3 of adult male wages
High discipline demanded
Advantages of small size
Children worked in coal tunnels
Gathered loose cotton under machinery
Cotton industry in 1838: children 29% of workforce
Factory Act of 1833: 9 years minimum working age
The Socialist Challenge
Definition: political and economic theory of social organization based on the collective
ownership of the means of production
Socialism sought to eliminate the social and economic problems caused by

industrialization and capitalism (such as economic inequality and exploitation of the
Desired for a slow or moderate change in society

However, there were different articulations of socialism in the 19th century

Socialism first used in the context of Utopian Socialists Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
and Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Opposed competition of the market system (Capitalism)
Attempted to create small model communities based on equality
Inspirational for larger social units
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
The Communist Manifesto (1848)
Two major classes:
Capitalists, who control means of production

Also known as the Bourgeoisie

Proletariat, wageworkers who sell labor

Exploitative nature of capitalist system
Religion: “opiate of the masses”
Argued for an overthrow of capitalists in favor of a “dictatorship of the proletariat”
Ideology known as Marxism
Later known as communism

Social Reform and Trade Unions
Socialism had major impact on 19 century reformers
Reduced property requirements for male suffrage
Addressed issues of medical insurance, unemployment compensation, retirement
Trade unions form for collective bargaining
Strikes to address workers’ concerns
Industrialization in Russia and Japan
Slower starts on industrial process
Russia constructs huge railway network across Siberia under finance minister Count
Sergei Witte
Russia also developed significant oil, steel, coal, iron, and weapons industry
Japanese government takes initiative by hiring thousands of foreign experts in
Reformed iron industry
Opened universities, specializing in science and technology
Global ramifications
Global division of labor
Rural or agricultural societies (countries that did not experience the industrial
revolution) produce raw materials
Urban societies (industrial countries) produce manufactured goods

Uneven economic development for non-industrial countries
Some countries were able to develop by exporting raw materials and attracting foreign

investment/capital (i.e., Argentina, Australia, Canada, & New Zealand)
Other countries did not attract foreign investment/capital (i.e., Latin America, Africa,

south and southeast Asia)
Developing export dependencies of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south and
south-east Asia
Low wages, small domestic markets

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