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					DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




                                LIS1510
    Library and Archives Automation Issues

         System selection and
              installation
                           Andy Dawson
                Department of Information Studies, UCL
                           (University of Malta 2010)
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   What we will be looking at today
   • Rounding off from previously – lifecycle design,
     implementation and maintenance phases
   • Feasibility studies
   • Defining Operational Requirements
   • System selection
        –   Identifying options
        –   Initial review
        –   Shortlisting
        –   Reviewing systems in detail
        –   Methods for comparison
        –   Pitfalls to avoid
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   What we will be looking at today

   •   Planning the installation phase
   •   Physical installation considerations
   •   People considerations
   •   Data entry/conversion
   •   Testing
   •   Training and Documentation
   •   Changeover
   •   …and maybe some discussion at the end!
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   The design phase

   •   After analysis comes design!
   •   Likely to be outside our expertise
   •   Construction of the proposed system
   •   Logical design & Physical design
   •   Transformation of the requirements
       specification
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Implementation
   • In system terms:
        – Create the physical system
        – Code
   • In our terms, managing:
        – Physical installation
        – Changeover concerns
        – Training
        – Startup
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Maintenance

   • “and that’s only the start...”
   • Importance of maintenance
        – Corrective
        – Perfective
        – Adaptive


  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   “That’s all very well, but...”

   • We now understand the development
     lifecycle in theory…
   • …but what do we do in real life?
   • What steps do we take?
   • How do we put the theory into
     practice?
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Establishing needs and objectives
   • Methods:
        – Questionnaires,Interviews,Observation
   • Important to identify VIEWS and OPINIONS
     as well as facts!
   • Get sufficient information.
   • Establish the real problems
        – Symptoms and causes
   • Be aware of real-world constraints
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   The feasibility study

   • Helps us decide where to focus our efforts
   • A study to ascertain the feasibility of a new
     system (!)
   • A study to justify the NEED for a new
     system and clarify potential SOLUTIONS
   • General terms of reference: DEFINITION.
   • Gives management a basis for decisions
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Approaches

   •   Formal vs informal
   •   Objective vs subjective
   •   Logical vs intuitive
   •   Must include cost estimates
   •   Links to analysis

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Report to management
   •   Short description of present system
   •   Problems with present system
   •   Possible solutions
   •   Outline costs of solutions
   •   Likely benefits
   •   Work required to identify solution
   •   Implementation information
   •   Implications
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   The Operational Requirement

   • The next stage!
   • Builds on the FS
   • FULL systems specification for the
     selected option
   • Major basis for selection

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   The Operational Requirement
   • “The statement issued to the supplier giving
     details of a project against which they are
     invited to submit proposals. It is an
     important document which must enable the
     supplier to determine whether or not he
     should invest effort in competing for
     business”. (CCTA)
   • Of use to the supplier as well as to you!
   • A statement of your NEEDS
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   What’s in it?

   • A description of FUNCTIONS
   • WHAT is to be done
   • Levels of need
        – Must-haves
        – Should-haves
        – Nice-to-haves
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   What functions?

   • Technical requirements
   • Other factors:
        – links to existing systems
        – data conversion
        – timetables
        – cost limits

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   System selection - Basic principles

   • Gain a full understanding of the
     REAL NEEDS OF THE
     USERS OF THE SYSTEM
   • Don’t be technology led - do you need
     automation to meet this need?
   • Specify your requirements formally
   • Only then go to selection
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   The basic steps

   •   Specify requirements
   •   Gather information on possibles
   •   Shortlist
   •   Select



  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Specifying requirements

   • Feasibility study identifies direction
   • Analysis and models help to
     understand system and needs
   • Focus on WHAT not HOW
   • Operational Requirement specifies
     parameters
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Identifying suppliers

   •   Limited market?
   •   Bespoke/DIY?
   •   Key players fairly obvious
   •   Directories
   •   Shows

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Initial invitations

   • Don’t prejudge
   • Gathering information on possibles
        – Literature
        – Word of mouth
        – Websites
   • The Invitation to Tender
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Shortlisting

   • Use of the OR
   • Approaches
        – Formal vs informal
        – Objective vs subjective
        – Logical vs intuitive
   • Must include cost estimates
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Detailed System evaluation

   •   Using the OR (again)
   •   Importance of accurate specification
   •   Subjective vs Objective
   •   Qualitative vs Quantitative
   •   Multiplicity of view
        – Yours
        – Others
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Criteria for evaluation
   •   Functionality
   •   Performance
   •   Hardware requirements
   •   Integration & modularity
   •   Customisation
   •   Multi-use & networking
   •   Support & upgrading
   •   Price
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Evaluation at a supplier
   demonstration
   •   Be a sceptic
   •   Have a checklist
   •   Salespeople will be salespeople
   •   Competence and willingness?
   •   See what you want
   •   See, don’t hear
   •   Interrupt handling
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Evaluation at a supplier
   demonstration
   •   Operational conditions?
   •   Functional blindness
   •   Interface and integration
   •   Configurability/parameterisation
   •   Origins

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Onsite visits & demonstrations
  •   Supplier selection and representation
  •   Double up!
  •   Match your needs if possible
  •   The embarrassment factor
  •   Who’s at fault?
  •   Follow the workflow
  •   Keep an open mind
  •   Use the user groups
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Final selection

   • The OR again
   • Feelings and “facts”
   • Paralysis by analysis




  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Coffee break!




  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Importance of planning the
   installation phase
   • As ever - planning brings
        – control
        – efficiency
        – helps us get it right first time
   • Preparation practicalities
   • Preventing errors
   • Isolating problems
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   What does Installation cover?
        • For us vs for systems people
        • H/W & S/W vs S/W only
        • Preparation issues
                – Physical area
                – Cabling
                – Testing
                – Delivery
                – Security
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Change management

   • People are part of our systems!
   • Resistance to change
   • Damage done by resistance
        – short term
        – long term
   • The S-curve view
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Change management
  • Importance of communication & people
    skills
  • Need to:
       – Manage the process
       – Raise awareness of benefits
       – Prepare expectations
       – Support
       – Bring people on board
       – Engender commitment and ownership
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Never forget at the end of the day:
         • People make the system work!

         • Consider and manage expectations of
                – Staff
                – Users

         • Don’t expect people to change
           overnight
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Data loading/conversion
   • A major consideration!
        – cost
        – time
   • Problems
        – Accuracy
        – Retro conversion
        – Archival data/systems
        – Criticality of current data
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Data loading/conversion

   • Conversion vs loading
   • Use of Bureaux
   • Split systems and cutoffs




  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Commissioning and Testing
  • Importance of testing
  • Difficulties of testing
  • Levels of testing
       – Unit testing
       – Integration testing
       – System testing
            • performance/volume testing
       – Acceptance testing
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Commissioning
   • Takes place after installation
   • Checks for discrepancies between accepted
     and delivered system
   • More testing!
   • “Live” commissioning
        – benefits
        – drawbacks
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Fixing the bugs

   •   Bugs vs design failures
   •   Replication
   •   Importance of documentation
   •   Prioritisation of fixes



  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   User training

   •   Importance of training
   •   Need for clear definition
   •   Need for reasonable timescale
   •   Who should train?
   •   When?
   •   Training and learning
   •   Support for learning
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Documentation
   • Importance of good documentation
   • Problems with documentation
        – Development
        – Accuracy
        – Useability
   • Reference vs training documentation
   • Generic vs local documentation
   • Online and hardcopy
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Changeover
        • Direct changeover
                – High-risk, high-return option
                – “clean break”
                – Need for contingency
        • Parallel running
                – Expensive
                – Benefits:
                   • validation
                   • security
  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   Changeover
        • Phased installation
                – Functional
                – Geographic
                – Beneficial compromise?
                  • Core systems earlier
                  • Easier learning curve
                  • Spreads cost
                – But not always possible!

  Andy Dawson
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES




   That’s it for today…

   • Tomorrow:
        – Systems Management
        – Digitisation and Optical systems
   • Any questions?
   • Anything anyone wants to discuss?

  Andy Dawson

				
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posted:4/12/2013
language:English
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