Information Technology

Document Sample
Information Technology Powered By Docstoc
					 Information Technology
       Lecture Outlines Packet #1

FREC 135 – Introduction to Data Analysis
                 Computers in Our Society Today

– Best described as “ubiquitous” – every where!
– Use has grown since the early 1950’s.
– The number of personal computers (micro computers) have gone from zero in the
  late 1970’s to estimates of billions today.




- http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/number_of_personal_computers
– Cheaper, more reliable and easier to use!
                     Computers in our Society Today

•   How have computers (technology) affected you and our society?

•   Positive                       Negative
                   The UD Computing Environment

– Computers used extensively by students, faculty, staff, etc.

– Access is via:

– Extensive “Central” Computing Resources


     • “UNIX systems” -- Copland and Strauss -- are used for many academic
       activities including course work, text processing, and scholarly research.
     • Variety of special purpose computers for administrative and research
       purposes.
     • The University manages these systems and students, faculty and staff are
       allowed to use them provided they follow the rules – a privilege, not a right!

     • Computer technology at UD goes from…….
PC’s to Supercomputer
                          Information Technology
–   “Personal” Computing Resources
     • These are systems (computer, printer, etc.) that students bring to campus.
     • IBM, Dell, Gateway, HP, Mac, etc.
–




– Networks (U of DE Network, Internet and WWW) – access to the world!
     • Computers connected together!
              Implications of Information Technology
– Information Technology, the ability to access, provide, share, and manipulate data
  and information, has changed the way the world functions – it affects us all, either
  positively or negatively. Hastings, 2009.

– “The whole world has been flattened….. global collaboration and competition…..
  have been made cheaper, easier, more friction-free, and more productive for more
  people from more corners of the world than at any other time in the history of the
  world.” Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat, 2005, page 200.

– Regarding the Information Technology Revolution: “Now we are going into the
  main event…..an era in which technology will transform every aspect of business,
  every aspect of life and every aspect of society.” Carly Fiorina, 2004.
                Implications of Information Technology

•   WSJ, 10/28/09
                   Implications of Information Technology
•   “A UC Berkeley study reported that in 2002, …human kind created 5 exabytes of
    stored data – in paper, the equivalent of creating 500,000 new Libraries of Congress
    each year. …..More that 90 percent [of those datum] …. were stored on a hard disk.
    Every day we create and store more information in (digital format) than had been
    stored for most of our history on paper.” (Page 276)

                                 John Battelle, The Search, 2005
•   Exa = 1018



           What does this mean to you as a student
                  and future professional?
               End of an Era!




First phone book printed in 1878 – one page –
   for 50 residents of New Haven, CT.

Source: Yahoo, 11/10/11
The Way We Do Things Have Changed!
           The Challenge of Information Technology

– The challenge today for students, faculty, professionals is to catch-up, if
  necessary and, then, to keep up!

–    You, as a student and future professional, will have to:

     • be computer competent,
     • know and understand the rules of technology, and
     • abide by the rules.
                  Data versus Information
– What is Data?

– What is Information?

– Creating Information from Data

     •   Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

     • Example:
         – Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->
         – Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->
         – Results stored electronically ->
         – Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

– We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

– Desirable Characteristics of Information –
                 Data versus Information
– What is Data? “raw facts”; usually observed and collected

– What is Information? “data that has been organized into a useful and ordered
  form”

– Creating Information from Data

     •   Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

     • Example:
         – Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->
         – Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->
         – Results stored electronically ->
         – Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

– We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

– Desirable Characteristics of Information –
                 Data versus Information
– What is Data? “raw facts”; usually observed and collected

– What is Information? “data that has been organized into a useful and ordered
  form”

– Creating Information from Data

     •   Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

     • Example:
         – Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->
         – Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->
         – Results stored electronically ->
         – Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

– We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

– Desirable Characteristics of Information – accurate, complete,
  organized, consise, easy to use, understand ….
Processing Data in The Old Days
                        Computers are a Tool


- Computers are a, actually “the best”, tool to produce and manage information
– they are fast, accurate and have extensive storage capabilities.

- Think hammer and nails or screw driver and screws!
                       Computer Competency
– Computer Competency (Computing Literacy)

    • Lots of definitions!
    • An individual’s knowledge about computers and their ability to use computers
      to produce and manage information necessary to make decisions and solve
      problems in their student and professional lives.


– What do you need to know?

    • Facebook (social networking)
– Hastings “Big Six” Types of Applications

     •   Word Processing
     •   Spreadsheets
     •   Database Management
     •   Presentation and Analytical Graphics
     •   Communications (E-Mail, Browser, File Transfer), etc.)
     •   Web Page Authoring

     • Beyond these, needs vary by major and profession –
         – Computer Aided Drafting (CAD)
         – Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
         – Statistics (JMP, SAS, etc.)
          Data Representation in Computers
• Computers use language of binary
digits (0’s and 1’s) to store and process data.
• Various ways exist to capture 0’s and 1’s
• Examples:
      – Fixed or Hard Disks use magnetic particles
      – Processors use electric charges (on/off)
      – CDs and DVDs use reflective and non-reflective surfaces
Digital Technology
                           Information System

•   Parts of An Information System (6) – O’Leary and O’Leary, “Computing
    Essentials”.
     – People – users that need information – set goals
     – Data – raw facts
     – Procedures – how to make things work; rules
     – Hardware – monitor, system unit, printer, etc.
     – Software – programs (code) that executes instructions
     – Connectivity – computers communicating to share data, information, etc.
          • The Internet - a network (computers connected together) that
             connects millions of computers world-wide.
          • World Wide Web - a multimedia interface to resources on the
             Internet
Hardware
                     Software


At a minimum – System Software and Application Software
        Connectivity


The Internet and World Wide Web
Access to the Internet
                 Evolution of Computers



– What was the First Computer?
                 Evolution of Computers

– What was the First Computer?




                                 Grotte Chauvet (France)

                                 32,000 years old!



    Click on Picture!
                      Other Early “Computers”

• The Abacus – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus

• The Pascaline - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal%27s_calculator

• Difference Engine - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Difference_engine

• Punch cards - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punched_card

• ABC Computer - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABC_computer
• Significant Events in Computer History
      • Computer History Museum - www.computerhistory.org
      • Dotcalm Computing -
       http://www.dotcalmcomputing.com/history.htm

• Key Dates
  – 1947
  – 1958
  – 1971, 1975, 1976, 1979
  – 1990
   The Generations (and Technology) of Modern Computing
                          (1950 - )


– First Generation (1951 – 1957) - Vacuum Tubes




– Second Generation (1958 – 1963) – Transistors

– Third Generation (1964 – 1969) - Integrated Circuits
   The Generations (and Technology) of Modern Computing
                          (1950 - )



– Fourth Generation (1970 – 1990) Microprocessors (integrated
  circuit capable of storage and logic operations)




– Fifth Generation (1990 - ?) – Connectivity (networks, The Web,
  The Internet, wireless connections, etc.)
                         Computers Types



– Hierarchy from most powerful to least powerful:

     • Supercomputers - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer
     • Mainframe Computers - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer
     • Mini or Mid Range – Computers –
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_computer
     • Microcomputers or Personal Computers –
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcomputer
          – Desk Top Computers
          – Notebook or Laptop Computers
          – Palm or Handheld Computers

     • CATEGORIES OVERLAP!
                             Classifying Computers

•   Types of Computer Systems

     – Historically, computers were in distinct categories; those categories are now very
       fuzzy (not distinct).

     – Criteria for Classifying Computers

          • Architecture – design of internal circuitry
               – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_architecture
          • Processing Speed of Central Processing Unit
          • Capacity of Primary (Main) Memory
          • Capacity of External Storage Devices
          • Number of Users (1 to ?)
          • Cost ($100’s to $1,000,000’s)
          • Collectively, these criteria determine “computing power”.
                                  Microcomputers


•   Why least powerful and most used?

     –   Increased productivity
     –   Problem-solving abilities – provide information
     –   Useful to variety of people
     –   Inexpensive – relatively!
     –   Easy to use, inexpensive software

     – Growth of Microcomputer Hardware, Software and Peripheral Markets
            Trends in Microcomputers - 1970’s to the Present


•   Increased “Power” – faster processing, more storage, more fonts, more colors, etc. –
    due to hardware and software

•   Increased Use and Uses – sales of hardware and software

•   Increased number and use of peripherals – printers, scanners, cameras, Ipods, etc.

•   Increased Variety of Types – desktops, laptops, hand helds, PDA’s, etc.

•   Increased merger of computer, telephone, calculator, radio and TV.

•   Decreased Prices - many $1,000’s to $100’s to $10’s
                          Social Issues of
                      Information Technology
– We are all affected by computers on a daily basis.

– Students, faculty, parents, businesses – everyone!

–   Technology affects our lives in many ways – some good, some bad!
Recent Headlines
                       Social Issues of
                   Information Technology

– Major Issues

    • Privacy – everyone has data about themselves stored somewhere!
         – Who has access to information to about you?
         – Is your information accurate?
         – Who owns your data?
         – Largely controlled by ethical behavior by people.
                     Social Issues of
                 Information Technology
• Security
    – Many forms of computer crimes / criminals.
    – Other Risks –
           » Natural Hazards
           » Civil Unrest and Terrorism
           » Technological Failures
           » Human Errors – we do stupid things!




          Source: Newsweek, 12/8/08.
                                 Social Issues of
                             Information Technology

•   Ways to prevent loss of computers, data and information include:

•   locking your door!,

•   encrypting,

•   protecting passwords,

•   firewalls,

•   virus protection,

•   remove spy ware and

•   BACKING UP!
                     Social Issues of
                 Information Technology

• Ergonomics - study of human factors related to computers

     – Physical Heath

          » Eye strain, headaches, RSI, muscle pains, etc.

     – Mental Health

          » Noise, monitoring, technostress, etc.
                     Social Issues of
                 Information Technology

• Environmental Concerns
    – Energy Consumption
    – Use of toxic metals and chemicals
                      Social Issues of
                  Information Technology

• Recycling Electronics – eCycling (recycling of electronic devices)




Source: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/materials/ecycling/manage.htm

• Environmental Impacts of Increased Energy Use

     – Typical Dorm Room – Lamp, Computer, Cell Phone Charger, TV, Fan,
       Microwave Oven, Coffee Pot, etc.
                    Social Issues of
                Information Technology

• Impacts of Technology on Jobs and Economy
                         The Future


– Technology is out-racing social, legal and political institutions.

– Change is continual in our personal and professional world!
                                        Summary
•   Computers have become an integral part of our personal , student and professional lives.

•   With that comes increased benefits, costs and responsibilities for users – like our selves!

•   All technological advances, including computers, have costs and benefits for society.

•   Change is continual!

•   Lecture Sources: O’Leary , Computing Essentials - 2008, 2008 and Miscellaneous
    Personal Materials.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:4/12/2013
language:English
pages:54