# Lesson 8 by pptfiles

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```									Pre-Solo Training Program

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Ground Reference
Maneuvers

In cooperation with Mid Island Air
Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY
(Michael Bellenir, CFI)
Lesson 8 Objectives

   During this briefing, you will learn how to perform
ground reference maneuvers.
   These maneuvers will increase your
understanding of wind correction, develop your
   Upon completion of this briefing, you will practice
flying a rectangular course, turns around a point,
and S-turns, demonstrating proper wind
correction techniques.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Effect of Wind on Ground Track

seen that wind
can have an
affect on the
airplane’s track
over the
ground.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8

   Airplane speed affects its ability to turn.
   A faster speed requires more distance to
accomplish a turn than a lower speed.
   Because wind affects the groundspeed of the
airplane, it also affects the radius of turns
over the ground.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Wind Correction

   To fly the airplane relative to fixed points on the ground
you must correct for winds.
   Ground reference maneuvers develop your skill to correct
for drift and varying turn radius caused by the wind.
   Three specific maneuvers have been developed to
develop and test your knowledge and skill of wind
correction techniques.
–   Rectangular course
–   Turns around a point
–   S-Turns

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Rectangular Course

   Objective: to fly a course that results in the
ground track being shaped like a rectangle.
   The wind component is different on each leg
and must be properly corrected for.
   Used in the traffic pattern; runway is the
reference on the ground.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Rectangular Course

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turns Around a Point

   Objective: To fly a turn with a constant radius
relative to a fixed point on the ground.
   The wind component will be constantly changing,
affecting the radius of the turn relative to the
point on the ground.
   To compensate for changes in turn radius, the
bank angle will need constant adjustment
throughout the maneuver.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turns Around a Point

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
S-Turns

   Objective: To fly two identical half circles along a
straight line on the ground and arrive at specific
   The wind component will be constantly changing,
requiring changes in bank angle to maintain the
desired track.
   The turn rate must be adjusted to arrive at
certain headings over certain points during the
maneuver.
Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
S-Turns

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Flying Ground Reference Maneuvers

   To fly a ground reference maneuver
successfully, it is important to pick a ground
reference point that is suitable and appropriate.
   Rectangular Course: At least one straight line or
rectangle pattern on the ground (farm field,
   Turns Around a Point: One small but easily
visible point, viewable from all directions.
   S-Turns: A long, straight line oriented
perpendicular to the wind direction.
Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Reference Point Selection

These maneuvers are performed low to the ground. When picking
a reference point, keep in mind the following factors:
 Avoid selecting a point near high terrain or obstructions.
 Avoid selecting a point over a congested area. Be considerate
of people on the ground.
 Be mindful of surrounding airspace and air traffic.
 Select an area that provides a suitable emergency landing area
within gliding distance.
 Pick points that don’t move. In perfectly calm conditions, a
point moving at a steady speed and direction could simulate
wind, but using moving points for reference generally defeats
the purpose of the maneuver. Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Flying Ground Reference Maneuvers

   You must divide your attention appropriately between monitoring
while looking for other traffic.
–   Priority One: Keep airplane under control
–   Priority Two: Maintain separation from other aircraft.
–   Priority Three: Fly the maneuver
   Enter the maneuver downwind (with tailwind-highest ground speed).
This will allow you to make your steeper banks first (while altitude
and airspeed are under best control), and get a feel for the wind
strength.
   Avoid staying over one location for extensive periods of time. Don’t
annoy people on the ground any more than necessary.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Review Questions
   How do you correct for a crosswind when flying a rectangular course?

   How do bank and groundspeed vary when turning into a headwind?

   What flight operation do ground reference maneuvers prepare you for?

   What are the considerations in choosing a reference point for ground
reference maneuvers?

   Where should you enter a ground reference maneuver? Why?

continuing to next slide                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
  How do you correct for a crosswind when flying a rectangular course?
– Turn the nose of the plane slightly into the wind, to track straight.
 How do bank and groundspeed vary when turning into a headwind?
– Both decrease.
 What flight operation do ground reference maneuvers prepare you for?
– Flying the traffic pattern.
 What are the considerations in choosing a reference point for ground
reference maneuvers?
– Avoid high terrain, obstructions, congested areas; be mindful of airspace
and traffic; choose an emergency landing area within gliding range; pick
points that do not move.
 Where should you enter a ground reference maneuver? Why?
– Enter downwind. Gives you maximum bank and groundspeed at start of
maneuver, to get a feel for winds.
Review any missed questions before
continuing to today’s flight.              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
On Today’s Flight

   Be as precise as possible while en-route to the
practice area, hold altitudes and headings exactly.
   Be smooth, maintain coordination and positive
airplane control.
   Maintain orientation and track with ground
reference points.
–   If you get too far away, turn steeper to get back on
course
–   If you are too close, turn shallower or level off to get
back on course.              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Today in the Pattern

   Wind correct the pattern legs properly and
also wind correct the turns.