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Lesson 8

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					Pre-Solo Training Program


            Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
               Ground Reference
                   Maneuvers



            In cooperation with Mid Island Air
            Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY
            (Michael Bellenir, CFI)
Lesson 8 Objectives

   During this briefing, you will learn how to perform
    ground reference maneuvers.
   These maneuvers will increase your
    understanding of wind correction, develop your
    ability to multi-task, and develop your flying skills.
   Upon completion of this briefing, you will practice
    flying a rectangular course, turns around a point,
    and S-turns, demonstrating proper wind
    correction techniques.

                              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Effect of Wind on Ground Track



                             We’ve already
                             seen that wind
                             can have an
                             affect on the
                             airplane’s track
                             over the
                             ground.


                  Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turning Radius

   Airplane speed affects its ability to turn.
   A faster speed requires more distance to
    accomplish a turn than a lower speed.
   Because wind affects the groundspeed of the
    airplane, it also affects the radius of turns
    over the ground.



                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turning Radius




                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Wind Correction

   To fly the airplane relative to fixed points on the ground
    you must correct for winds.
   Ground reference maneuvers develop your skill to correct
    for drift and varying turn radius caused by the wind.
   Three specific maneuvers have been developed to
    develop and test your knowledge and skill of wind
    correction techniques.
    –   Rectangular course
    –   Turns around a point
    –   S-Turns

                                Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Rectangular Course

   Objective: to fly a course that results in the
    ground track being shaped like a rectangle.
   The wind component is different on each leg
    and must be properly corrected for.
   Used in the traffic pattern; runway is the
    reference on the ground.



                             Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Rectangular Course




                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turns Around a Point

   Objective: To fly a turn with a constant radius
    relative to a fixed point on the ground.
   The wind component will be constantly changing,
    affecting the radius of the turn relative to the
    point on the ground.
   To compensate for changes in turn radius, the
    bank angle will need constant adjustment
    throughout the maneuver.

                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Turns Around a Point




                  Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
S-Turns

   Objective: To fly two identical half circles along a
    straight line on the ground and arrive at specific
    headings over specific points.
   The wind component will be constantly changing,
    requiring changes in bank angle to maintain the
    desired track.
   The turn rate must be adjusted to arrive at
    certain headings over certain points during the
    maneuver.
                              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
S-Turns




          Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Flying Ground Reference Maneuvers

   To fly a ground reference maneuver
    successfully, it is important to pick a ground
    reference point that is suitable and appropriate.
   Rectangular Course: At least one straight line or
    rectangle pattern on the ground (farm field,
    intersection of roads, etc.).
   Turns Around a Point: One small but easily
    visible point, viewable from all directions.
   S-Turns: A long, straight line oriented
    perpendicular to the wind direction.
                               Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Reference Point Selection

These maneuvers are performed low to the ground. When picking
  a reference point, keep in mind the following factors:
 Avoid selecting a point near high terrain or obstructions.
 Avoid selecting a point over a congested area. Be considerate
  of people on the ground.
 Be mindful of surrounding airspace and air traffic.
 Select an area that provides a suitable emergency landing area
  within gliding distance.
 Pick points that don’t move. In perfectly calm conditions, a
  point moving at a steady speed and direction could simulate
  wind, but using moving points for reference generally defeats
  the purpose of the maneuver. Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Flying Ground Reference Maneuvers

   You must divide your attention appropriately between monitoring
    your ground track, maintaining your altitude and airspeed,
    maintaining your awareness of your position, and effect of wind, all
    while looking for other traffic.
     –   Priority One: Keep airplane under control
     –   Priority Two: Maintain separation from other aircraft.
     –   Priority Three: Fly the maneuver
   Enter the maneuver downwind (with tailwind-highest ground speed).
    This will allow you to make your steeper banks first (while altitude
    and airspeed are under best control), and get a feel for the wind
    strength.
   Avoid staying over one location for extensive periods of time. Don’t
    annoy people on the ground any more than necessary.

                                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
Review Questions
   How do you correct for a crosswind when flying a rectangular course?

   How do bank and groundspeed vary when turning into a headwind?

   What flight operation do ground reference maneuvers prepare you for?

   What are the considerations in choosing a reference point for ground
    reference maneuvers?

   Where should you enter a ground reference maneuver? Why?



Write down your answers before
continuing to next slide                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
 Review Answers
   How do you correct for a crosswind when flying a rectangular course?
     – Turn the nose of the plane slightly into the wind, to track straight.
  How do bank and groundspeed vary when turning into a headwind?
     – Both decrease.
  What flight operation do ground reference maneuvers prepare you for?
     – Flying the traffic pattern.
  What are the considerations in choosing a reference point for ground
    reference maneuvers?
     – Avoid high terrain, obstructions, congested areas; be mindful of airspace
        and traffic; choose an emergency landing area within gliding range; pick
        points that do not move.
  Where should you enter a ground reference maneuver? Why?
     – Enter downwind. Gives you maximum bank and groundspeed at start of
        maneuver, to get a feel for winds.
Review any missed questions before
continuing to today’s flight.              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
On Today’s Flight

   Be as precise as possible while en-route to the
    practice area, hold altitudes and headings exactly.
   Be smooth, maintain coordination and positive
    airplane control.
   Maintain orientation and track with ground
    reference points.
    –   If you get too far away, turn steeper to get back on
        course
    –   If you are too close, turn shallower or level off to get
        back on course.              Flight Briefing: Lesson 8
 Today in the Pattern

    Wind correct the pattern legs properly and
     also wind correct the turns.
     –   Shallower turn with headwind
     –   Steeper turn with tailwind
    Keep in mind the wind direction at all times.




Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc.
Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)   Flight Briefing: Lesson 8

				
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posted:4/12/2013
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