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					                                                     Test One
                                       Section I Listening Comprehension
Directions:
     This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a selection of
recorded materials and you must answer the questions that accompany them. There are three parts in this section,
Part A, Part B and Part C.
     Remember, while you are doing the test, you should first answer the questions, in your test booklet, not on the
ANSWER SHEET. At the end of the listening comprehension section, you will have 5 minutes to transfer your
answers from your test booklet onto ANSWER SHEET 1.
     If you have any questions, you may raise your hand NOW as you will not be allowed to speak once the test
has started.
     Now look at Part A in your test booklet.
 Part A
     You will hear an introduction to Florence Nightingale. As you listen, answer Questions 1 to 10 by circling
True or False. You will hear the conversation ONLYONCE.
     You now have 1 minute to read Questions 1 to 10.
     1. Florence Nightingale was from a noble family.
     2. Her parents didn't want her to be a nurse because the pay was low.
     3. Florence failed to get a chance to train herself to be a nurse at first.
     4. Her mother was more willing to accept her career.
     5. Florence first started her formal career abroad.
     6. Service in hospitals was poor at that time though equipment was good.
     7. The work of Florence was effective from the very beginning.
     8. Florence devoted all her time on the care of the iii and wounded.
     9. Honours had been intended on Florence.
     10. Florence spent her last years in loneliness and poor health.
     You now have 20 seconds to check your answers to Questions 1 to 10.
     That is the end of Part A.
   Part B
     You will hear 3 conversations or talks and you must answer the questions by choosing A, B, C or D. You will
hear the recording ONLY ONCE.
     Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following talk on hygiene. You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 11
to 13.
     11. What would happen if you misuse your eyes?
       [A] You may feel uncomfortable in various ways.
       [B] You may have to wear glasses.
       [C] You can let your eyes rest for a while.
       [D] You can go and see a doctor.,
     12. What is said about the best distance between a book and our eyes when reading?
        [A] It is 14 inches.
        [B] It is hard to figure out.
        [C] It varies from person to person.
        [D] It depends on lighting conditions.
     13. What is the talk mainly about?
        [A] Good reading skills.
        [B] Diseases related to eyes.
       [C] Health guides for students.
       [D] Proper eye-use in reading.
       You now have 30 seconds to check your answers to Questions 11 to 13.
       Questions 14 to 16 are based on an interview about planning to picnic. You now have 15 seconds to read
Questions 14 to 16.
     14. What are the speakers trying to do?
       [A] Visit the new restaurant.
       [B] Watch a parade.
       [C] Have a picnic.
       [D] Go to the beach.
     15. How does the man feel about the rain?
       [A] Excited.
       [B] Confused.
      [C] Afraid.
      [D] Surprised.
     16. What will the speakers probably do next?
      [A] Go home.
      [B] Go to a restaurant.
      [C] Unpack the car.
      [D] Put a dry blanket under the tree.
       You now have 30 seconds to check your answers to Questions 14 to 16.
       Questions 17 to 20 are based on the following monologue about energy conservation. You now have
20 .seconds to read Questions 17 to 20.
     17. What is the main topic of this lecture?
      [A] Bicycles and cars.
      [B] Building codes.
      [C] Energy conservation.
      [D] New housing construction.
     18. Why is insulation required in new houses?
       [A] To limit discussion on heating bills.
       [B] To prevent heat loss.
       [C] To determine the temperature in homes.
       [D] To convert homes to electric heat.
     19. What is the purpose of building new houses facing north or south?
       [A] To avoid direct sunlight.
       [B] To limit space used.
       [C] To keep out the cold.
       [D] To conform to other houses.
     20. What has the city of Davis provided for bicycle riders?
       [A] Special paths.
       [B] Resurfaced highways.
       [C] More parking space.
       [D] Better street lighting.
       You now have 40 seconds to check your answers to Questions 17 to 20.
       That is the end of Part B.
 Part C
        You will hear an introduction to Ludwing. As you listen, answer the questions or complete the notes in
your test booklet for Questions 21 to 30 by writing NOT MORE THAN THREE words in the space provided on the
right. You will hear the interview TWICE.
        You now have 1 minute to read Questions 21 to 30.
 21. Where would he stay after his scholarship year in London was over?
 22. Whom would he not fight for in the war?
 23. What would he rather not do by saying that he was not a political animal?
 24. What would he prefer to take away from his parents?
 25. Where was his mother's family?
 26. Why did Ludwig's parents visit England before they emigrated to America?
 27. What nationality was young Ludwig?
 28. What languages could his parents speak?
 29. What was he?
 30. Whom did he disappoint so much that he felt guilty about it?
        You now have 1 minute and 40 seconds to check your answers to Questions 21 to 30.
        That is the end of Part C.
        You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET 1.
        That is the end of Listening Comprehension.
                                            Section Ⅱ Use of English
     Read the following text and fill each of the numbered spaces with ONE suitable word. Write your answers on
ANSWER SHEET 1.
     Hotels were (31) the earliest facilities (32) bound the United States together. They were both creatures
and creators of communities, as (33) as symptoms of the frenetic quest for communities. (34) in the first
part of the nineteenth century, Americans were already forming the (35) of gathering from all corners of the
nation for both public and (36) business and pleasure purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and
hotels were distinctively American facilities (37) conventions possible. The first national convention of a
major party to choose a (38) for President (that of the Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that
was then reputed to be the best in the country. The presence in Baltimore (39) Barnum's City Hotel, a
six-storey building with two hundred apartments, helps explain (40) many other early national political
conventions were held there.
     In the long run, too, American hotels made other. national conventions not only possible (41) pleasant.
The growing custom of regularly assembling (42) afar the representatives of all kinds of groups — not only
for political conventions, but also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocational (43) —in (44)
supported the multiplying hotels. By mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted (45) over a third of the
yearly room occupancy of all (46) in the nation, about eighteen thousand different conventions were held
annually (47) a total attendance of about ten million persons.
     Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, (48) were no longer the genial, deferential "hosts" of the
eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens. Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised
power to make (49) prosper. As owners or managers of the local "palace of the public", they were makers and
shapers of a principal community attraction. Travelers from (50) were mildly shocked by this high social
position.
                                       Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Part A
     Read the following text and answer the questions which accompany them by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark
your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
                                                      Text 1
      Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity,
distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline, such as theology or science. Such philosophical
concerns as the mind-body problem or, more generally, the nature of human knowledge, they believe, are basic
human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all
other intellectual speculation has rested.
      The basis for this view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past, a projection of modern
concerns onto past events. The idea of an autonomous discipline called "philosophy", distinct from and sitting in
judgement on such pursuits as theology and science turns out, on close examination, to be of quite recent origin.
When, in the seventeenth century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy, they did not think of
themselves, as modern philosophers do, as proposing a new and better philosophy, but rather as furthering "the
warfare between science and theology". They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the
new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy, and envisioned their work as
contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics. This link between
philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical
power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provoked the final-separation of philosophy from
both.
      The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth
century of a new notion, that philosophy's core interest should be epistemology, the general explanation of what it
means to know something. Modern philosophers now trace that notion back at least to Descartes and Spinoza, but
it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century, by Kant, and did not become built into the
structure of academic institutions and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late
nineteenth century. Without the idea of epistemology, the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is
hard to imagine. Metaphysics philosophy's traditional core — considered as the most general description of how
the heavens and the earth are put together — had been rendered almost completely meaningless by the spectacular
progress of physics. Kant, however, by focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, managed to replace
metaphysics with epistemology, and thus to transform the notion of philosophy as "queen of sciences" into the
new notion of philosophy as a separate, foundational discipline. Philosophy became "primary" no longer in the
sense of "highest" but in the sense of "underlying". After Kant, philosophers were able to reinterpret seventeenth
and eighteenth century thinkers as attempting to discover "How is our knowledge possible?" and to project this
question back even on the ancients.
      51. Which of the following best expresses the author's main point?
      A. Philosophy's overriding interest in basic human question is a legacy primarily of the work of Kant.
      B. Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth-century warfare between science and religion.
      C. The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relatively constant since
antiquity.
      D. The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relatively recent development.
      52. According to the passage, present-day philosophers believe that the mind-body problem is an issue that
______ .
      A. has implications primarily for philosophers
      B. may be affected by recent advances in science
      C. has little relevance to present-day philosophy
      D. has Served as a basis for intellectual speculation since antiquity
      53. According to the author, philosophy became distinct from science and theology during the ______ .
      A. ancient period           B. medieval period C. seventeenth century D. nineteenth century
      54. Which of the following does the author of the passage imply in discussing the development of philosophy
during the nineteenth century?
      A. Nineteenth century philospohy took science as its model for understanding the bases of knowledge.
      B. The role of academic institutions in shaping metaphysical philosophy grew enormously during the
nineteenth century.
      C. Nineteenth century philosophers carried out a program of investigation explicitly laid out by Descartes
and Spinoza.
      D. Kan had an overwhelming impact on the direction of nineteenth century philosophy.
      55. The primary function of the passage as a whole is to ______ .
      A. compare two competing models
      B. analyze a difficult theory
      C. present new evidence for a theory
      D. correct an erroneous belief by describing its origins
                                                        Text 2
      In a perfectly free and open market economy, the type of employer — government or private — should have
little or no impact on the earnings differentials between women and men. However, if there is discrimination
against one sex, it is unlikely that the degree of discrimination by government and private employers will be the
same. Differences in the degree of discrimination would result in earnings differentials associated with the type of
employer. Given the nature of government and private employers, it seems most likely that discrimination by
private employers would be greater. Thus, one would expect that, if women are being discriminated against,
government employment would have a positive effect on women's earnings as compared with their earnings from
private employment. The results of a study by Fuchs' support this assumption. Fuchs' results suggest that the
earnings of women in an industry composed entirely of government employees would be 14.6 percent greater than
the earnings of women in an industry composed exclusively of private employees, other things being equal.
      In addition, both Fuchs and Sanborn have suggested that the effect of discrimination by consumers on the
earnings of self-employed women may be greater than the effect of either government or private employer
discrimination on the earnings of women employees. To test this hypothesis, Brown selected a large sample of
white male and female workers from the 1970 census and divided them into three categories: private employees,
government employees, and self-employed. (Black workers were excluded from the sample to avoid picking up
earnings differentials that were the result of racial disparities.) Brown's research design controlled for education,
labor force participation, mobility, motivation, and age in order to eliminate these factors as explanations of the
study's results. Brown's results suggest that men and women are not treated the same by employers and consumers.
For men, self-employment is the highest earnings category, with private employment next, and government lowest.
For women, this order is reversed.
      One can infer from Brown's results that consumers discriminate against self-employed women. In addition,
self-employed women may have more difficulty than men in getting good employees and may encounter
discrimination from suppliers and from financial institutions.
      Brown's results are clearly consistent with Fuchs' argument that discrimination by consumers has a greater
impact on the earnings of women than does discrimination by either government or private employers. Also, the
fact the women do better working for government than for private employers implies that private employers are
discriminating against women. The results do not prove that government does not discriminate against women.
They do, however, demonstrate that if government is discriminating against women, its discriminating is not
having as much effect on women's earnings as is discrimination in the private sector.
      56. The passage mentions all of the following as difficulties that self-employed women may encounter
EXCEPT ______ .
      A. discrimination from consumers and suppliers
      B. discrimination from financial institutions
      C. problems in obtaining good employees
      D. problems in obtaining government assistance
      57. Which of the following conclusion would the author be most likely to agree with about discrimination
against women by private employers and by government employers?
      A. Both private employers and government employers discriminate with equal effects on women's earnings.
      B. Both private employers and government employers discriminate, but the discrimination by private
employers has a greater effect on women's earnings.
      C. Both private employers and government employers discriminate, but the discrimination by government
employers has a greater effect on women's earnings.
      D. Private employers discriminate: it is possible that government employers discriminate.
      58. A study of the practices of financial institutions that revealed no discrimination against selfemployed
women would tend to contradict ______ .
      A. some tentative results of Fuchs' study       B. some explicit results of Brown's study
      C. a suggestion made by the author               D. Fuchs' hypothesis
      59. According to Brown's study, women's earning categories occur in ______ orders, from highest earnings to
lowest earnings.
      A. government employment, self-employment, private employment
      B. government employment, private employment, self-employment
      C. private employment, self-employment, government employment
      D. private employment, government employment, self-employment
      60. Which of the following titles best describes the content of the passage as a whole?
      A. Why Discrimination Against Employed Women by Government Employers and Private Employers Differs
from Discrimination Against Self-Employed Women by Consumers?
      B. How Discrimination Affects Women's Choice of Type of Employment?
      C. The Relative Effect of Private Employer Discrimination on Men's Earnings as Compared to Women's
Earnings.
      D. The Relative Effect of Discrimination by Government Employers, Private Employers, and Consumers on
Women's Earnings.
                                                          Text 3
      It is possible for students to obtain advanced degrees in English while knowing little or nothing about
traditional scholarly methods. The consequences of this neglect of traditional scholarship are particularly
unfortunate for the study of women writers. If the canon — the list of authors whose works are most widely taught
— is ever to include more women, scholars must be well trained in historical scholarship and textual editing.
Scholars who do not know how to read early manuscripts, locate rare books, establish a sequence of editions, and
so on are bereft of crucial tools for revising the canon.
      To address such concerns, an experimental version of the traditional scholarly methods course was designed
to raise students' consciousness about the usefulness of traditional learning for any modern critic or theorist. To
minimize the artificial aspects of the conventional course, the usual procedure of assigning a large number of
small problems drawn from the entire range or historical periods was abandoned, though this procedure has the
obvious advantages of at least superficially familiarizing students with a wide range of reference sources. Instead
students were engaged in a collective effort to do original work on a neglected eighteenth-century writer,
Elizabeth Griffith, to give them an authentic experience of literary scholarship and to inspire them to take
responsibility for the quality of their own work.
      Griffith's work presented a number of advantages for this particular pedagogical purpose. First, the body of
extant scholarship on Griffith was so tiny that it could all be read in a day, thus students spent little time and effort
mastering the literature and had a clear field for their own discoveries. Griffith's play—The Platonic Wife exists in
three versions, enough to provide illustrations of editorial issues but not too many for beginning students to
manage. In addition, because Griffith was successful in the eighteenth century, as her continued productivity and
favorable reviews demonstrate, her exclusion from the canon and virtual disappearance from literary history also
helped raise issues concerning the current canon.
      The range. or Griffith's work meant that each student could become the world's leading authority on a
particular Griffith text. For example, a student studying Griffith's Wife in the Right obtained a first edition of the
play and studied it for some weeks. This student was suitably shocked and outraged to find its title transformed
into A Wife in the Night in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica. Such experiences, inevitable and common in working on
a writer to whom so little attention has been paid, serve to vaccinate the student — I hope for a lifetime — against
credulous use of reference sources.
      61. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with ______ .
      A. revealing a commonly ignored deficiency
      B. proposing a return to traditional terminology
      C. describing an attempt to correct a shortcoming
      D. assessing the success of a new pedagogical approach
      62. It can be inferred that the author of the passage expects that the experience of the student mentioned as
having studied Wife in the Right would have which of the following effects.
      A. It would lead the student to disregard information found in the Bibliotheca Britannica.
      B. It would teach the student to question the accuracy of certain kinds of information sources when studying
neglected authors.
      C. It would teach the student to avoid the use of reference sources in studying neglected authors.
      D. It would enhance the student's appreciation of the works of authors not included in the canon.
      63. The author of the passage suggests which of the following is a disadvantage of the strategy employed in
the experimental scholarly methods course.
      A. Students were not given an opportunity to study women writers outside the canon.
      B. Students' original work would not be appreciated by recognized scholars.
      C. Most of the students in the course had had little opportunity to study eighteenth-century literature.
      D. Students were not given an opportunity to encounter certain sources of information that could prove useful
in their future studies.
      64. Which of the following best states the "particular pedagogical purpose" mentioned in paragraph 3?
      A. To minimize the trivial aspects of the traditional scholarly methods course.
      B. To provide students with information about Griffith's work.
      C. To encourage scholarly rigor in students' own research.
      D. To reestablish Griffith's reputation as an author.
      65. Which of the following best describes the function of the last paragraph in relation to the passage as a
whole?
      A. It summarizes the benefits that students can derive from the experimental scholarly methods course.
      B. It provides additional reasons why Griffith's works raises issues having to do with the canon of authors.
      C. It provides an illustration of the immediate nature of the experiences students can derive from the
experimental scholarly methods course.
      D. It contrasts the experience of a student in the experimental scholarly methods course with the experience
of a student in the traditional course.
Part B
      In the following article some paragraphs have been removed. For Questions 66-70, choose the most suitable
paragraph from the list A,F to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There is one paragraph which does not fit in
any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
      No one had ever believed him, that one summer evening he had wandered on to the docks, under the legs of
the biggest crane, and climbed the steel ladder, up, up, and up into the swaying heights of the counterweights and
control house.
       The view over the city had been inspiring — the smoking derelict docklands, with miles of kingfisher —
walled warehouses; the sun-tinted towers of distant churches; the cars, like insects, creeping one after the other
along expressway. Clinging to the drifting girders, he felt like the most successful man in the world.
       66. ______
       It was so perfect that he could do it. He stood up, balancing against the breeze, feeling on top of the world.
Slowly he raised his hands above his head, cast a glance upwards into the icy sky, then, just before he lost his
balance, he chose to rise on tiptoe and launch himself into a taut dive. He tipped off the jib and began to tilt
through the sunset.
       The sound which came from him was an involuntary shrink of pure joy—he cared neither if he lived nor if he
died. His body, pointed like a shuttle, wove a slow circle through the air, hurtling ever downwards to the peaky
grey surface.
       67. ______
       The shock of the water stopping his flight, and of the vicious cold, prevented him from realising immediately
that he was still alive. His clothing dragged in the dark water and he started to fight his way upward to the dull
light above. Disbelieving and stunned, he gasped as he broke the surface, returning to an almost unchanged
peachy evening.
       The impetus of his dive still with him, he floundered in his shoes and jacket to the nearest quayside ladder
and clambered up the vertical green wall. Once on the quay, he squeezed the edges of his jacket and emptied his
shoes. He looked up to the monstrous structure towering above him and scarcely believed that he'd actually dived
from that threadlike piece of lattice-work.
       68. ______
       Consequently, when he told anyone he'd dived off the biggest of the dockland cranes into the Clyde, and just
for fun, no one believed him.
       69. ______
       But this time he was afraid. The metal seemed hostile as he hand-over handed his way up. The evening was
still and thundery He had to get it over. Below, the river lay like sheet steel.
       The angle of the jib was changed automatically along the arm until he reached the end. He could barely make
out their pinpoint pale faces, upturned. He just wanted to get it over. Careless, he repeated the movements of the
first time, toppling headfirst towards the grey below. He felt no inclination to make a sound, not even when he
realized there was no reflection expanding to meet him.
       70. ______
       Two weeks later, a fifteen-foot fence with angled rows of barbed wire at the top prevented further
unauthorised access to the crane.
       A. His last thought was, "They'll still never believe me, damn it."
       B. He crawled, monkey-fashion along the steel lacework of the jib until he crouched, hundreds of feet up,
above the wrinkling khaki river. A flock of sunstruck pigeons whorled in harmony around the control house roof.
       C. So, tonight, he'd told them to come and watch him do it again.
       D. Yet, he was certainly soaking and he remembered the exhilaration of his descent. He looked around to see
if there had been any witnesses to his dive. The docks remained silent and deserted as rustcoloured sunlight
flooded the area.
       E. By chance, his dive had him angled perfectly to enter the water with a splashless "gulp" at some
dangerously high speed.
       E He took a last look at the city where he had lived more than 20 years.
Part C
      Answer Questions 71-80 by referring to the events which happened during the terms when 3 American
presidents held office in the following article.
      Note: Answer each question by choosing A, B or C and mark it one ANSWER SHEET 1, Some choices may
be required more than once.
      A=During Roosevelt's presidency
      B=During Taft's presidency
      C=During Wilson's presidency
      In whose presidency ...
      ·a national commission was organized to crack down on unfair competition in business and trade.
      ·the postal-savings bank was established.
      ·sailors' rights were protected by law.
      ·a national commission was established for the sake of conserving natural resources.
      ·it was ruled that Senators should be elected by people rather than by state legislatures.
      ·the power was transferred from Democrats to Republicans.
      ·the Reclamation Act was passed to authorize the construction of large dams and reservoirs.
      ·people's cost of living was lowered as a result of the reduction of taxes.
      ·the banking and currency system were reformed.
      ·the president could have held office for three terms.
      71. ______
      72. ______
      73. ______
      74. ______
      75. ______
      76. ______
      77. ______
      78. ______
      79. ______
      80. ______
      In 1970, Roosevelt appointed an Inland Waterways Commission to study the relation of rivers, soil, and
forest, waterpower development and water transportation. Out of the recommendations of this Commission grew
the plan for a national conservation conference, which focused the nation's attention upon the need for
conservation.
      The commission's declaration of principles stressed the conservation of forests, water and minerals, and
addressed itself to the problems of soil erosion and irrigation. Its recommendations included the regulation of
timber-cutting on private lands, the improvement of navigable streams, and the conservation of watersheds. As a
result, many states established conservation commissions, and, in 1909, a National Conservation Association was
formed to educate the public on the subject. In 1902, the Reclamation Act was passed, authorizing the creation of
a number of large dams and reservoirs.
      Roosevelt's popularity was at its peak as the campaign of 1908 neared, but he was unwilling to break the
tradition by which no President had held office for more than two terms. Instead, he supported William Howard
Taft, who won the election and sought to continue the Rooseveltian program. Taft made some forward steps. He
continued the prosecution of trusts, further strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, established a
postal-savings bank and a parcel-post system, expanded the civil service, and sponsored the enactment of two
amendments to be Constitution.
      The Sixteenth Amendment authorized a federal income tax; the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913,
substituted the direct election of Senators by the people for the requirement that they be elected by state
legislatures. Yet, balanced against these achievements was Taft's acceptance of a tariff with protective schedules
that outraged liberal opinion; his opposition to the entry of the state of Arizona into the Union because of its
liberal constitution; and his growing reliance on the ultraconservative wing of his party.
      By 1910 Taft's party was divided, and an overwhelming vote swept the Democrats back into control of
Congress. Two years later, Woodrow Wilson, governor of the state of New Jersey, campaigned against Taft, the
Republican candidate, and against Roosevelt who, rejected as a candidate by the Republican convention, had
organized a third party, the Progressives.
      Wilson, in a spirited campaign, defeated both rivals. Under his leadership the new Congress proceeded to put
through one of the most notable legislative programs in American history, Its first task was tariff revision. "The
tariff duties must be altered," Wilson said. "We must abolish everything that bears any semblance of privilege."
The Underwood tariff, signed on October 3, 1913, provided substantial rate reductions on importance raw
materials and foodstuffs, cotton and woolen goods, iron and steel, and it removed the duties from more than a
hundred other items. Although the act retained many. protective features, it was a genuine attempt to lower the
cost of living.
      The second item on the Democratic program was a long-over-due, thorough reorganization of the inflexible
banking and currency system, which had limped along on emergency currency issued by stopgap legislation.
"Control," said Wilson, "must be public, not private, must be vested in the government itself, so that the banks
may be the instruments, not the masters, of business and of individual enterprises."
      The Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913, satisfied Wilson's requirements. It imposed upon the
existing banks a new organization that divided the country into 12 districts, with a Federal Reserve Bank in each,
all supervised by a Federal Reserve Board. These banks were to serve as depositories for the cash reserves of
those banks that joined the system. To assure greater flexibility in the money supply, provision was made for
issuing federal reserve notes to meet business demands.
      The next important task was trust regulation and investigation of corporate abuses. Experience suggested a
system of control similar to that of the Interstate Commerce Commission over the railways. A Federal Trade
Commission was authorized to issue orders prohibiting "unfair methods of competition" by business concerns in
interstate trade. A second law, the Clayton Antitrust Act, forbade many corporate practices that had thus far
escaped specific condemnation—interlocking directorates, price discrimination among purchasers, and ownership
by one corporation of stock in similar enterprises.
      Farmers and labor were not forgotten. A Federal Farm Loan Act made credit available to farmers at low rates
of interest. One provision of the Clayton Act specifically prohibited use of the command in labor disputes. The
Seamen's Act of 1915 provided for improving employees' living and working conditions on oceangoing vessels
and on lake and river craft. The Federal Workingman's Compensation Act in 1916 authorized allowances to civil
service employees for disabilities incurred at work. The Adamson Act of the same year established an eight-hour
day for railroad labor.
                                                Section Ⅳ Writing
      You have read on article in a magazine which states, "The rise of the crime rate in many cities results from
viewing violent TV programs, so violent programs should be taken off the air. Do you agree?"
      Write an article entitled Violent Programs Should Be Taken off the Air to clarify your own points of view
towards this issue. You should use your own ideas, knowledge or experience to generate support for your
argument and include an example.
      You should write no less than 250 words. Write your article on ANSWER SHEET 2.
                                                        Test One
                                        Section Ⅰ Listening Comprehension
        1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F
  11. A 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. D 16. B 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. A
  21. in England         22. the United States               23. waste his talents
  24. take (that awful) uncomprehending misery                               25. in Germany
  26. improve their English.                     27. English/(British).
  28. French, German, English. 29. a historian.                         30. the USA.
                                               Section Ⅱ Use of English
      31. among/once/probably 32. that                    33. well                  34. Even/Early
      35. habit                    36. private              37. making               38. candidate
      39. of                       40. why                41. but                  42. from
      43. ones                      44. turn                 45. for                  46. hotels
      47. with                     48. who                49. it                  50. abroad
                                         Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
      51~55. D D D D D           56~60. D B C B D 61~65. C B D C C 66~70. B E D C A
      71~75. C B C A B            76~80. B A C C A
                                                  Section Ⅳ Writing
                                    Violent Programs Should Be Taken off the Air
      I read an article in a magazine. The author of the article believed that violent TV programs were the cause of
real crime. I share the same viewpoint with the author for the following reasons.
      In the first place, violent TV programs do great harm to children. It is self-evident that many viewers are
children who are unable to distinguish between right and wrong. They blindly imitate what they see. If a person on
TV gets what he or she wants by stealing, robbing or other unlawful ways, a child may readily copy this behavior.
For instance, two pupils at an elementary school kidnapped one of their classmates, whose family was believed to
be rather wealthy. After failing to get the large ransom from the family, they cruelly killed their classmate. When
later on questioned by the police why they did so, they replied, "Many people on TV get money in this way."
      In the second place, many heroes in today's programs achieve their goals by violent means. Unfortunately,
viewers may use similar means to achieve their own objectives. It is somewhat safe to say that the notion of
earning good money through illegal means rather than through hard work is being nurtured in some people's mind.
This abnormal phenomenon may account for the rise of crime rate.
      Finally, people can have ideas about how to commit crimes from watching TV. Many techniques of
committing crimes have been transplanted deep into the mind of the audience, which cater particularly to the
needs of some potential criminals.
      To sum up, effective measures should be taken to strengthen the censorship of TV programs. Violent
programs should be taken off the air.

                                                 听力部分录音稿
Section I Listening Comprehension
Part A
  W: You will hear an introduction to Florence Nightingale. As you listen, answer Questions 1 to 10 by circling
True or False. You will hear the conversation ONLY ONCE.
     You now have 60 seconds to read Questions 1 to 10.
         Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 while her parents were on a visit to Italy. Her parents were rich,
and when she was young, Florence was much admired in London society for her beauty and her wit. Even so,
from the time when she was 17, she was determined that her life would be devoted to the care for the sick.
     Her parents were shocked when she asked for permission to enter a hospital for training, because the
hospitals at that time were unhealthful places and most of the nurses were ignorant and drunken. It was something
unheard of for an educated young woman to wish to be a nurse. Florence had to give up her wish to train. But she
did whatever nursing she could in the villages near her home, and studied hospital reports when she could get
them. She travelled abroad with friends, visiting hospitals in many places, and in 1851 she managed to train for 3
months in a hospital.
     When Florence had refused a most suitable proposed marriage simply because she wanted to be a nurse, her
parents learnt that nothing could keep her from her career and they unwillingly accepted the fact. Her formal
career thus began. That was in 1853.
     In 1854, when Britain was having a war with Russia, Florence got a letter from the Secretary of State for War,
an old friend of hers. He asked if she would take a party of nurses to the front in Turkey. This letter actually
crossed with one from her offering to go.
     When Florence arrived at the hospital in the front with about 30 nurses in November 1854, she was shocked
by the terrible conditions there: there was almost no supply of medical equipment and basic facility, the
environment was frightful, and, worst of all, the doctors had no authority to make the government departments
provide what they needed.
     With the supplies and fund she brought with her, and especially, with the confidence in herself and her career,
Florence started to work. The environment and facilities were greatly improved with her management. She
worked day and night, nursing the worst cases herself. Soon she won the respect, love and worship of her patients:
they called her" The Lady with the Lamp, "as she made her night rounds with a lamp.
     Later, Florence travelled through that area organizing hospitals, though too much physical strain and too
much work made her desperately ill and her friends urged her to go home. She extended her activities by
providing recreation rooms, books, and lecture for the patients, and in time for soldiers who were not ill. Though
with great obstacles at. the beginning, the general situation became greatly improved.
     By the time the war finished, she became widely admired. Yet she allowed no honour. She set out for a new
target-the improvement of conditions in the army. For that purpose, she again worked night and day. In 1857, her
health became so poor, but after a short rest she was back at work again. In about 4 years, most of her new target
was achieved.
        During the second half of her life Florence Nightingale was always in poor health, often staying in bed for
months at a time. She continued to work for many years, nevertheless, until first her eyesight faded, and then her
memory. In 1910, she passed t/way, leaving nursing almost what it is today.
  W: You now have 20 seconds to check your answers to Questions 1 to 10.
  W: That is the end of Part A.
       Part B
  W: You will hear 3 conversations or talks and you must answer the questions by choosing A, B, C or D. You will
hear the recording ONLY ONCE.
  W: Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following talk on hygiene. You now have 15 seconds to read Questions
11 to 13.
     Good evening, everyone. Welcome to this lecture on reading hygiene. Perhaps you would ask what is reading
hygiene? Well, hygiene tells us how to live comfortably and healthfully; it helps us to make the best use of our
bodies. Reading hygiene, then, tells us how to make the use of our eyes-how to prevent eyestrain and how to read
more comfortably.
     First and foremost, let us see what would happen if you misuse your eyes. When your eyes are not used
properly, they let you know in various ways. Your eyes may hurt and your eyelids become red. You may not be
able to see clearly. You may have headache, feel dizzy, or be uncomfortable in other ways. The human eye will
stand hard use, but not abuse.
     Every day you have many opportunities to use your eyes wisely and well. Here are some good hints for good
eye health that everyone can follow:
     Rest your eyes before they get tired. If you are reading for a long time, you can just close your eyes from
time to time or look off at some distant object. You will find that doing this relaxes your eye muscles, just as a
good stretch relaxes your body.
     Never be careless about lighting. Do not read in either too dim a light or a glare. Be careful not to read in the
twilight or in direct sunlight. Have the kind of light in which you see most clearly and comfortably.
     Hold the book the distance from your eyes at which you can read most easily and comfortably. Many
people read comfortably with the book about fourteen inches from their eyes. But each of us must find the
distance that is best for him.
     Try not to read much while traveling on a moving train or bus. That causes eyestrain for many people. You
can use the time doing other things, or thinking about what you've read.
     Your eyes are your most faithful servants. Like friends, if treated well, they will help you for many years.
  W: You now have 30 seconds to check your answers to Questions 11 to 13.
  W: Questions 14 to 16 are based on an interview about planning to picnic. You now have 15 seconds to read
Questions 14 to 16.
   W: Did you know it was going to rain today?
  M: Absolutely not. This comes as a big shock to me, especially since the paper says mostly sunny.
  W: Well, I guess the paper must have meant mostly sunny somewhere else. But since we've come out this way,
why don't we just move the blanket under that tree?
  M: That's a good idea. It looks like it's still dry there. So as long as it doesn't start to come down any harder.
  W: You didn't happen to bring us a space blanket, did you? Because this one is all wet now.
  M: No. But I do have some folding stools in the car. Will they do?
  W: They'll be just fine. I'm really hungry. So while you're there, how about bringing the food?
  M: I thought you were bringing the food.
  W: This is unbelievable. Just I went so hungry, this would be really funny. So what now?
  M: What's the name of the restaurant which you like so much?
  W: You now have 30 seconds to check your answers to Questions 14 to 16.
     Questions 17 to 20 are based on the following monologue about energy conservation. You now have 20
seconds to read Questions 17 to 20.
     For the past few weeks we've been discussing national energy conservation alternatives for the future. Today
I'm going to talk about what one community is presently doing to conserve energy. The people of Davis,
California have succeeded in cutting their energy consumption by one third since 1973. The first energy saving
action that was taken in the early 70's was the Legislation of Brick Building Codes. All new houses in Davis must
have the proper heat insulation so that heat will not escape unnecessarily during the winter. New houses must also
face north or south so that they will not be overheated by the sun in the summer. The law has had a definite effect.
Since 1976 there has been a 50 percent savings in the amount of natural gas and electricity used in heating and
air-conditioning.
     There were other energy saving features about Davis: buses partially supported by the city, transporting
university students throughout the area. There are 24 miles of bicycles paths and today there are twice as many
bicycles as cars in the city. By reducing the available parking space, the city council has succeeded in reducing the
number of cars in the city every day. Another benefit of the reduced parking is the greater number of small cars,
People are saving gas because they are preferring not to drive, or because they ale driving fuel-economic cars.
Davis, California has become an energy-saving model for other cities.
        Time is up for today. Next week we'll return to our regular topic of national energy alternatives.
  M: You now have 40 seconds to check your answers to Questions 17 to 20.
  W: That is the end of Part B.
 Part C
  W: You will hear an introduction to Ludwig, As you listen, answer the questions or complete the notes in your
test booklet for Questions 21 to 30 by writing NOT MORE THAN
      THREE words in the space provided on the right. You will hear the interview TWICE.
      You now have I minute to read Questions 21 to 30.
      Anxiety about the university job in Oxford had contributed to Ludwig's torment; he wanted that job so
dreadfully. Of course, whatever happened now he would stay on in England after his London scholarship year was
over. He had no more doubt about the rightness of his decision. The war was a piece of absolute wickedness in
which he would take no part. He would not fight for the United States of America in that war. But neither was it
his task to make politics, to shout and specify and martyr himself. I am not a political animal, he told himself
repeatedly. He was a scholar. He would not waste his talents. He would stay in England, where by a pure and
felicitous accident he had been born. To regret that his role was in so many ways an easy one was surely
sentimental.
      The analysis was clear and the decision was made. Only his Protestant conscience, like a huge primitive
clumsy processing machine, obsolete but still operational, continued to give him trouble. If only he could take that
awful uncomprehending misery away from his parents. He dreaded their letters, in which they begged him to
come home and get himself "straightened out". Old European terrors, inherited from generations of wandering
ancestors, coursed in their blood and made them shudder from breaking the laws of the United States and
evading its decrees.
      His father's family was from Alsace. His mother's were German. Ludwig's parents had met soon after the war
in France. They soon decided to emigrate to America, but while waiting for their visas went first on a brief visit to
England so as to improve their English. Here young Ludwig had achieved an English birth, and with it the right to
British nationality, al though before his first birthday he was already in the U. S. A. He grew up happily enough,
normally enough, as an American child, his parents' joy. Yet in his blood, too, old European things lived and
waited, and as he became an adult and an intellectual he found himself an unidentified person. His parents
perfectly bi-lingual in French and German, spoke only English at home, laboriously conversing even when they
were alone together, in this language which they never fully mastered. Ludwig learnt his French and German at
school.
      When he came at last to Europe no blood relations awaited him. All had oiled or scattered. What mainly
confronted him was the ghost of Hitler. This and many other things needed to be exercised. As a historian and as a
man he needed somehow in thought to undergo the whole passion of recent history, but he could not do it. Faced
with what he had so significantly missed, his intellect became hazy and faint. He remained outside it all and yet
burdened by it as by something heavy forever trailing behind him, a part of himself that he could never properly
see. In America he felt European, in France he felt German, in Germany American. Only in England, which he
found in some ways most alien of all, could he somehow forget or postpone that problem of who he was. The
company of other historians suited him, jokey unexcited men who just took him for granted and assumed quietly
that of course he would stay and become British. He was so grateful for that.
      Meanwhile he knew that he did not feel guilty only because he was disappointing his parents. He felt guilty
exactly as they did because he was disappointing the U. S. A., because he was breaking the law, because he had
decided not to return, because he feared death and would not be a soldier, because he was behaving as cowards
and traitors behave. He accepted the guilt as a punishment for what was happening right now to his parents.

				
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