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					                      Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                       Workshop #2 Notes
                                Wednesday, November 24, 2004

Co-facilitators – Terry Ke Ko’o Lani, Hawai’i Delegation and Gwyn Kirk, US Delegation
Documentor – Karen Trietsch, US Delegation

1. Terry opened us with a prayer for ancestors to join us in this meeting
2. Re-introductions, say name, where from, name of organization, and type of work:
   a. Terry Ke Ko’o Lani, DMZ Hawai’i , working for a nuclear free Pacific, including: New Zealand,
      Solomon Islands, Marshal Islands, West Papua, East Timor, and Hawai’i
   b. Gwyn Kirk, born in England and now lives in US, was part of WNAM since its beginning in
      1997 and is active in Women’s International League for Peace & Freedom in San Francisco,
      California, USA
   c. You, Young Nim, South Korea, Director of Durebang My Sister’s Place which assists survivors
      of military prostitution, this is her second mtg of WNAM
   d. Lee So Seong, Korean Women’s Hotline, Alliance of women, Korean Asian Women’s Center in
   e. Don Mee Choi, Seattle Washington USA, interpreter
   f. Ko, You-Kyoung, Vice-Secretary General of National Campaign for Eradication of Crimes by
      US Troops in Korea
   g. Ahn Il Soon, S Korea, writing a novel combine visual art with novel to educate about this issue
      spiritual/goddess and Americanized culture return to traditional culture
   h. Ellen-Rae Cachola, Hawaii, University of Hawai’i Minoa, making documentary about
   i. Dolly Yanan, Metro Subic Network for Bases Clean up, actively campaigning to clean up
      military toxics left by US
   j. Richie Supan, Task Force Detainees of Philippinees, works with political prisoners and their
   k. Lot-lot Requizo, Kaisa ka National Secretariat, Unity of Women, works with labor, workers,
      peasants advance women’s rights, prostitution, reproductive health, poor people’s issue,
      environmental, energy issues, 6000 people in organization including Mindanau
   l. Ada Estepa, mother, wife, grandmother, works since 17 years old, Mindinau antiwar campaign
      coalition, balikatan US & phil military joint military, moral & indigenous people, professionals
      and academics, TNCs grabbing indigenous lands, guasanars – large deposits of natural gas, land
      is full of natural resources, Exec Dir of Mindinau Resource Center for Development
   m. JJ Joseph, Coordinator of Stop Violence Against Women Division of Amnesty International
      Philippines, women working together to stop violence against women: 1. domestic violence, 2.
      women migrant workers, 3. violence against lesbians, 4. women in conflict situations, 5. women
      human rights defenders
   n. Corazon Valdez Fabros Chair of Pacific Concerns Resource Centre, 13 regions in Pacific, deal
      with decolonization, demilitarization, social development/globalization, environment. Iraq
      Solidarity Campaign and People’s Task force for Bases cleanup, lives in Quezon City, also lives
      in Suva Fiji 4 times a year
   o. Elvia Taruc, Madapdap Resettlement Site, Mabalacat, Pampanga, mother of victim of toxic
      waste, son Abe has CP, is 9 years old; member of People’s Task Force,
   p. Karen Trietsch, Co-coordinator of CodePink Colorado, member of Rocky Mountain Peace &
      Justice Center, Colorado Communities for Justice & Peace; does community education programs
      to provide white antiracism, anti-war and anti-militarism training

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                       Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                        Workshop #2 Notes
                                 Wednesday, November 24, 2004

3. Gwyn: Women’s Network Against Militarism (WNAM) Introduction
    a. WNAM began in 1997 to develop connections among women working at the grassroots level to
       deal with militarism and issues related to US military:
    b. Initial agenda of WNAM:
       1. Violence Against Women
       2. Situation of Amerasian children abandoned by US military fathers
       3. Environmental concerns
       4. Conversion of US bases to civilian use
       5. Laws between nations that affect these issues
    c. Main activity so far has been to share information between country groups
    d. Challenges:
       1. Geographically we are all very distant from each other
       2. Culturally we are all very different and have different political ideas, different meeting styles
           and different languages
       3. Translation and interpretation – even though we’ve been committed to this principle it is
           always a challenge; ALL of us need interpretation; yesterday we slipped away from this so
           today we want to reaffirm it and bring it back into reality
    e. WNAM meetings help support and give visibility to local organizing; one hope is to get media
       attention and to bring in people from different organizations for us all to work together
    f. “Meetings” not “conferences”:
       1. a “meeting” is a 5-day process for people to work together, develop strategy, share
       2. a “conference” is not necessarily committed to doing on-going work
       3. even though “conference” is better understood, more valid, etc, we use “meeting because we
           are striving for a better style of working together
    g. Country Reports and Meeting Statements:
       1. statements and reports from each past meeting are available, and will be provided upon
       2. each meeting presents a country report in Open Session, Friday, November 26
    h. Each country has an organization that is the main connection to WNAM
    i. Philippines’ contacts: WEDPRO-Aida; BUKLOD-Alma; CFAW- Cecilia and Jean
    j. We are resources to each other, we all have much knowledge, experience, information to share
       with each other, we want to be able to continue contacting each other to share information after
       meeting has ended; PWG will put together contact information list – give your info to PWG so
       they can include you
    k. Network has history, structure, accomplishments:
       1. we’ve stayed together for 7 years on small budgets across long distances
       2. we’re proud of our connections
       3. we know we have a lot to learn, and there’s a lot of scope for future collaboration however it
           makes sense to do that

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                       Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                        Workshop #2 Notes
                                 Wednesday, November 24, 2004

                                         Country Presentations

1. Philippines, Ada:
    a. US-Philippines Military Relationships
    b. Subic and Clark, 1992 US troops withdrew, 1992-98/99 US tries to negotiate an access
        agreement, i.e. it’s not a “base” but US can use any part of Philippines for its purpose, 1999 it
        became VFA.
    c. VFA provides “legal” access to Philippines for “joint military exercises” even though the
        Philippines constitution prohibits foreign militaries from having access to Philippine land; also
        gives US personnel immunity from prosecution for crimes and actions committed against local
    d. VFA is a step to greater US access to Philippines land, after 2001; Bush enters Mutual Logistic
        Support Agreement (MLSA) with Philippine president:
        1. All functions of VFA, “temporary” stationing of troops, stockpiling of armaments and
            hardware; is covered in the MLSA
        2. Ostensibly, this is to train Philippines military to fight “terrorists” which includes Moro
            resistance groups, bandits and legitimate terrorists
        3. Before Phil can purchase hardware from any other country besides US, it must first gain
            permission from US government
        4. Those who oppose the MLSA, the Philippine government regards these people are
    e. It’s only a matter of time that these “temporary” bases will become permanent bases
    f. History:
        1. US interest began in 1898 at the Spanish-American war
        2. US “liberated” Philippines from Spain, actually they paid Spain $20 million
        3. Filipinos fiercely opposed US occupation with strong armed resistance and they were
            brutally repressed by US military
        4. US colonization of Philippines amounts to institutionalized land-grabbing
    g. Current issues:
        1. US has special privileges for mining resources in Mindanao
        2. over centuries of struggle billions of lives have been lost over Philippine lands and resources
        3. “Moros and Lumad would rather have guns than rice,” people are arming themselves

2. Philippines, Dolly: Toxic Contamination in Subic Bay
    a. Subic has large amounts of toxics left by US military:
        1. Dreaded chemicals have contaminated and spread across land the US controlled for almost a
        2. Effects have been studied and recorded, these studies are still progressing;
        3. Subic is a ticking time bomb ready to explode at any time; but this deadly bomb has already
            exploded and it has triggered a maddening disaster
    b. Statistics:
        1. 385 leukemia cases recorded at University of Santa Thomas 1990-96, almost all came from
            around Pacific
        2. 218 weak lung cases in one village alone

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                       Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                        Workshop #2 Notes
                                 Wednesday, November 24, 2004

        3. school for special cases has more than 100 cases of Cerebral Palsy, Downs Syndrome and
            autism in one village alone, which is adjacent to Pasia River close to Subic Base
        4. Undocumented cases surpass those reported to Metro Subic because:
            a. Patient’s families have little or no knowledge about toxic contamination or
            b. They were able to take their patients to private hospitals
   c.   Most important issue facing Metro Subic:
        1. Toxic pollution in water, air, land is migrating outside the 24,000 hectares base into
            surrounding areas
        2. People/children are dying without receiving medical attention/medicines; cost of medical
            care drains the budgets of most families = disaster for most families;
        3. mothers suffer most, for example one mother was forced to prostitute herself in order to
            purchase medicine for her child
   d.   What are we doing to change it?
        1. we can’t do anything about the toxics migrating; it requires large expenses
        2. Metro Subic offers services to families empowering the mothers to organize themselves to
            receive group medical services = grassroots organization formed to address the problem in
            their community because that is all we can do to change the situation
        3. we ask the government to do something but they won’t so we are relying on this Network
            meeting to assist them in the future
        4. This empowers the survivors to fight for their rights to be compensated and to push US
            government to clean up their mess for the future of all children
   e.   Call for unity
        1. Metro Subic Network small organization with many limitations
        2. we have an urgent call to be united and work hand in hand to prevent the adverse affects ot
            humanity; organize survivors to force US government to clean up Clark and Subic and to
            compensate the victims
   f.   This report was written by Constantino Dimaano, who died on October 29, 2004 shortly after
        completing the report; he was 42 years old and had committed his life to fighting for social
        justice for victims of US military toxic contamination

3. Terry, Hawai’i:
    a. www.nohohewa.com for military facts and maps of US military locations:
        1. Hawai’I is one of the most militarized groups of islands in the world
        2. US military controls over 20% of all land in the Hawaiian Island chain
        3. The US military population makes up over 11% of the state of Hawai’i, as opposed to less
           than 1% of the overall US population
        4. US Army secretly tested chemical and biological weapons and deadly nerve gas agents
           (Sarin) in Hawai’i watershed and forest reserve areas, facts which were repeatedly denied but
           later confirmed through the Freedom of Information Act
        5. Currently 7.1 million live rounds of various weapons are fired annually on sacred Hawaiian
           lands at Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) on the Big Island of Hawai’i
        6. More than 400 square miles (250,000 acres) on Hawai’I Island may contain live arms and
           other military toxins and should be considered military hazard areas
        7. In 1995, there were 405 toxic sites in 122 military facilities state-wide

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                   Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                    Workshop #2 Notes
                             Wednesday, November 24, 2004

b. Video:
    1. 1960s US conducted illegal and secret tests of nerve/Sarin gas poisoning the people of the
    2. US military seized the Kamaka family land and returned it contaminated, US military
        solution to this is build a fence around it, offer to put a fence; family doesn’t want a costly
        fence they just want their land to be cleaned up
    3. Makau Valley has more than 40 endangered species, Creation started at Makua, the people
        struggle to have the land returned to them
    4. US military wants these stories kept secret
    5. Navy has contaminated the air, drinking water, land,
    6. 1893 Hawai’i was invaded by US, Hawai’i is an illegal occupation of a sovereign nation
    7. US military controls almost 25% of land in Hawaii, encroaches on nature preserves
    8. Hawai’i has the native species capitol of the world, US military violates the Endangered
        Species Act
    9. US military controls 109,000 acres in Pohakuloa
    10. US spent $400 million to clean up this area but they only cleaned up 10%
    11. “Star wars” is not really missile defense, it is for first strike weapons
    12. US military makes people more vulnerable because when you take away things the people
        need to leave they are less secure, not more; so the US military is not here to protect
        Hawaiian people
c. Hawai’i Copy Packet:
    1. Hawai’i is linchpin of US military strategy in the Asia-Pacific region; CINCPAC governs a
        “transnational garrison state” of 105 million square miles from the eastern coast of Africa to
        Mexico, 43 countries and over 60% of the world’s population from Honolulu; Pacific
        Command has 300,000 military personnel in the theater, including 100,000 forward deployed
        troops in the western Pacific
    2. Combined military branches in Hawai’i have 21 installations, 26 housing complexes, 8
        training areas, 19 miscellaneous bases and operating stations; military controls 5% of the
        land in Hawai’i and 22.4% of the land on O’ahu; 54% military’s land holdings are so-called
        “ceded” lands, the occupied national lands of the Hawaiian Kingdom; active military
        personnel and their dependents make up 13% of the population; combined with veterans and
        military reserves, the total military population is nearly 25% of the total population, nearly
        eclipsing the native Hawaiian population
    3. Hawai’i has become dependent on military spending; military claims to generate 1/7th of the
        gross state product; this dependency stifles economic diversification and sustainability, and
        thereby maintains the military’s dominance in the islands
    4. Environmental costs are profound: military is the largest polluter in the state, with over 400
        toxic sites identified thus far for clean-up at an estimated cost of over $1 billion; many of
        these sites are located near poor Kanaka Maoli and immigrant communities
    5. People have consistently resisted the oppressive military presence in Hawai’i, including
        protesting against STARS missile launches on Kaua’i, fighting to repatriate thousands of
        ancestral burials removed from the Kane’ohe Marine base and opposing the military funded
        H-3 freeway and its destruction of sacred sites; two important struggles that closely resemble
        the resistance movements in Vieques are Kaho’olawe and Makua
d. Hawaiian Independence Movement:

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                Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                 Workshop #2 Notes
                          Wednesday, November 24, 2004

1. Ceded lands were taken by the American-backed military invasion of the sovereign kingdom
    of Hawaii
2. Sovereign kingdom was overthrown by US military in conjunction with US business interests
3. US wanted a treaty of annexation, but Hawaii never signed a treaty of annexation, Hawaii
    refused to sign this treaty
4. Terry’s great great grandfather signed petition to President McKinley stating 40,000 people
    did not want their country annexed; only 3 years ago this petition was found in national
    congressional library
5. Once the petition was found, several Hawaiin women copied them and distributed them to
    the community; this gave the movement a smoking gun proving the people resisted
6. In 1890’s Hawaiian women went throughout the kingdom to gather the petition signatures
    traveling by canoes and steam ships and gathering the signatures from many regions of
7. Since Hawaiians have never relinquished their sovereignty they feel they are being occupied
    by a foreign govt and military
8. Statehood took place after WWII; Pearl Harbor attacked by Jap Imperial forces; but Hawaii
    was a territory not a state at the time of the attack; the statehood came as a result of all the
    people who migrated to Hawaii and people became colonized; these immigrants and military
    personnel voted for statehood but not the native people of Hawaii
9. From statehood to now, the military has gradually developed their stronghold and today they
    want even more, i.e. the Stryker Brigade
10. Strykers are 300 urban assault vehicles on Oahu and main island for training in urban assault;
    these vehicles this will also be used in Philippines, Korea, Okinawa, Indonesia; therefore the
    Hawaiian resistance Stryker Brigade also helps the other members of WNAM
11. DMZ brochure: goals, strategies: military just compensation for use and damage of Hawaiian
12. Independence movement has many factions:
    a. Those who want to restore kingdom of Hawaii
    b. Those who want constitutional form of government
    c. Those who want to not sever ties with US, but to become one of the sovereign native
        American Indian tribes: Colonization began in 1700s so patriotism to US is very high; eg.
        Veterans who fought at Pearl Harbor have high allegiance and patriotism to US flag
    d. Some have renounced US citizenship so they can’t travel outside of US
    e. In Hawaii they are going into their communities to talk about nationhood, the native
        Hawaiians must decide what kind of govt they will have, they want to have self-
        determination, and right now they are building the foundations to do that
    f. 1970s = renaissance of culture and language of native Hawaiians so they managed to
        resurrect some of their language and culture, mainly their language this is how people
        conceptualize their relationships and environment; charter schools take children to teach
        them native culture and language young Hawaiians in 30s and 40s who are teaching this
        to their children. Govt throws money at these schools but they are refusing it so they can
        remain independent from govt. agenda.

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                       Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                        Workshop #2 Notes
                                 Wednesday, November 24, 2004

       13. Poverty is high among native people, men in resistance are imprisoned; so far resistance has
           been peaceful; many native Hawaiians are also homeless, displaced by military occupation of
           lands and also displaced by travel industry

4. Korea, Ko, You-Young:
    a. 4 main issues:
       1. nuclear weapons situation with North Korea
       2. US relocation of military bases within South Korea
       3. military draft and national security law used to suppress resistance of people
       4. military prostitution
    b. US base relocation:
       1. US alliance in S Korea exists because of North Korea
       2. this is why US has been in S Korea for over 50 years
       3. more recently because N & S Korea have been holding summits to discuss reunification
       4. in order to justify US troops in S Korea US is trying to find different reasons for staying there
       5. Previously US has been there to confront N Korea but now US is expanding their influence
           into China and Iraq as well
       6. In S Korea US military is trying to recreate the same situation in N Korea as they did in Iraq
           so they can justify invading N Korea the way they did to Iraq
       7. US is changing concentration from border of N Korea but now they are moving it to the
           southwest so they can be ready to invade China as well
       8. 37,000 troops in S Korea now, 3600 S Korean troops sent to Iraq, US will reduce troops in S
           Korea by 12,500; so 25,000 US troops will remain stationed in S Korea
       9. plan is to carry out war simulation/practice, so if US wages war on N Korea and China US
           will bring 600,000 troops from Guam, Hawaii, Okinawa, Japan, Philippines into S Korea,
           they are practicing/simulating this right now
       10. The way to solve this dangerous situation is to reunify N & S Korea and to oppose all wars
           US are involved in so with a strong anti-war movement they can hope to prevent this
           dangerous situation
    c. Environmental contamination is not like Philippines, Hawaii or Puerto Rico but sometimes there
       are accidents during military training and also oil spills which causes toxic pollution
    d. S Korea has a SOFA that allows presence of US military in S Korea; first created in 1967,
       revised in 1991, revised again 1991, and in 2 001 have a new article concerning environmental
       contamination; specific ways to deal with environmental issues in 2002 & 2003:
       1. when US causes toxic contamination they are required to inform SK government within 48
       2. also supposed to carry out a collaborative investigation between SK & US government
       3. if US government is found responsible then US is responsible for clean-up
       4. for first time provincial local governments can have voice in how US & SK government deal
           with contamination; is not an active role, but a voice whereas before they had no
           representation at all
       5. when a base is returned to SK a collaborative investigation is carried out and the base
           collaboratively cleaned up

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                   Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                    Workshop #2 Notes
                             Wednesday, November 24, 2004

e. Problems with SOFA:
   1. US doesn’t have to publicize how much contamination has occurred or how much they’ve
       had to clean up so they don’t really have public accountability
   2. activists are pushing that the US has to make this information public, for public
       accountability and that what they return to SK is completely cleaned up
   3. firing range will be returned in Aug 2005; this will make a good case in learning how the
       new SOFA will apply, i.e. if they really de-contaminate the area
   4. 101 US bases and facilities on 74,000,000 kun/59,940 miles in S Korea
   5. Plan is to return 50,000,000 kun/40,500 miles to S Korea but they will also appropriate new
       lands: 3,620,000 kun/2932.2 miles
   6. Lands being returned are not useful but the new lands are currently occupied by families and
       is fertile farm land
   7. so people are holding vigils and protests so new lands will not be appropriated by US
       military; these actions will occur everyday starting on Nov. 26 2004
f. Things movement is doing:
   1. watch that US military will really clean up returning lands
   2. stop appropriation of base expansion
   3. land was taken away by force a long time ago so they are also pushing for people who had
       their land taken away so they can get it back from US military (SK government took lands by
       force, tanks demolished houses or sometimes gave very small amount of compensation and
       then SK government gave it to US military)
   4. SK Ministry of Defense plans to sell land that is being returned (the portion that they own)
       and give proceeds of those sales to help US buy new land
   5. but residents and local governments that will be affected by sold lands want the land to create
       new schools and parks so this is the tension between local governments and Defense Ministry
g. At the governmental level all these issues will take place this November; the land conversion
   will take place this November so the people’s resistance movement will be very busy and will
   have to be strategic to prevent dangerous situations
h. Stryker Brigade: they have already begun bringing Stryker tanks into S Korea, they need our
i. Why does SK government cooperate with US plans? This is rooted in history that goes back to
   Korean war and is also economic: US has made SK wealthy and manyh politicians are pro-US so
   they maintain pro-US position; and people believe if US doesn’t stay in US then there will be
   war between NK & SK, about 50% believe a war is possible but 50% don’t believe that
   anymore; main reason is that a lot of people believe that if US isn’t there then a lot of foreign
   investments will leave SK, this is one of the most important reasons why SK sent troops to Iraq
j. What percentage of SK population is fully aware about these issues? not answered

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                      Group 2 Conflict, Environment and Natural Resources
                                       Workshop #2 Notes
                                Wednesday, November 24, 2004

                               End of Day Workshop Summary:
                    Themes/Issues Common to Philippines, Hawai’i and Korea

Issues and Challenges:
     US disregard for people’s human rights & human rights violations; US total disregard for all
       forms of life
     US military installations, bases and occupations; these are the root of many disasters and
     US non-accountability for toxic contaminated sites of former military bases
     US military occupation strategies follow predictable common patterns
     US grabbing of land, theft of local people’s lands
     US military aid to host countries
     Military Industrial Complex (MIC) is primary tool for economic & cultural domination
     Multi-national military & economic collaboration
     Host nations’ governments unaccountability & irresponsibility
     Military Madness (M&M)
     Globalization
     Further victimization of poor people
     Privatization of property, community lands
     Proliferation of sex industry
     Extinction of indigenous peoples, cultural genocide, and destruction of diverse cultures

Demands and Goals:
   US: Give back our lands
   US: Stop further acquisition of our lands for military and business purposes
   US and Host Nation Governments: compensate victims for the health problems caused by
     military toxics
   US and Host Nation Governments: convert bases to uses that benefit local communities, not
     foreign business investments

Common Strategies and Methods for Resolving Issues:
   Importance of grassroots movement in pursuit of environmental justice
   Predominance of women in resistance movements

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