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									STUDENT RESEARCH FORUM APRIL 18, 2008

Morning Session 9:30 AM – 10:00 AM Judges and Presenters Registration Poster Set-up Refreshments Poster Viewing Morning Judging Session Lunch

10:00 AM – Noon Noon – 1:00 PM Afternoon Session 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM 3:00 PM – 3:30 PM 3:30 PM – 5:00 PM

Poster Viewing Afternoon Judging Judges Confer Awards Presented Reception

AWARDS First Place Second Place Third Place $300 $200 $100

The UIC Award for Graduate Research in the Environment and Peace $1000

Student memberships in Sigma Xi will be awarded to all science categories winners.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

2008 RESEARCH FORUM COMMITTEE – GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS Brenda Russell Mary Lou Bareither Arlene Norsym Joseph Phillips Lon Kaufman Emilie Sauvee Jacqueline Berger Jonathan Art William Beck Karen Colley Larry Tobacman Faith Davis Matthew Gaynor Jay Lambrecht Dennis McCauley Joe Hoereth Abagail McWilliams Sol Shatz Albert Schorsch Jeremy Teitelbaum Theresa Thorkildsen Giamilla Fantuzzi Carol Ferrans Philip Marucha Sarah Pollema Yachana Kataria Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research College of Applied Health Sciences Alumni Association Alumni Association Honors College Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research Graduate College College of Pharmacy College of Medicine College of Medicine School of Public Health College of Architecture and the Arts University Library Social Work Great Cities Institute College of Business Administration College of Engineering College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs College of Liberal Arts and Sciences College of Education College of Applied Health Sciences College of Nursing College of Dentistry Graduate Studies Committee Undergraduate Student Government

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2008 RESEARCH FORUM SPONSORS Providing funding support for the 2008 Student Research Forum were the following UIC units: Office of the Provost Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research Office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Affairs College of Applied Health Sciences College of Dentistry College of Engineering College of Liberal Arts and Sciences College of Nursing College of Medicine College of Pharmacy Graduate College School of Public Health Alumni Association Department of Chemistry Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology Graduate Student Council Student Activities Funding Committee Sigma Xi – UIC Chapter

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

2008 STUDENT RESEARCH FORUM ABSTRACTS GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL Abstract Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Presenter Anderson, Jennifer Antoniou, Chloe Araya, Alejandra Barwacz, Dariusz Bassam, Seyed A Biehl, Jesse K Boodram, Basmattee Brick, Gail Caballero, Isabel C Carluccio, Guiseppe Chansoria, Parul Chen, Chia-Chen Chipeta, Clara (deceased 3/18/2008) Chung, Peter Collins, John M. Desai, Esha Desai, Vikas Dobria, Lidia D’Souza, Gwendolyn Eapen, Asha Elliot, Esi Englof, Ila Esmailbeigi, Hananeh Fink, Anne M Fossati, Davide Garcia, Rodrigo Gasper, Gerald L Golant, Courtney J. Gursahani, Kunal Habiba, Habiba Halasi, Marianna

Department Psychology Chemistry Nursing Social Work Civil and Materials Engineering, Bioengineering Community Outreach Intervention Projects Nursing Ecology and Evolution Electrical and Computer Engineering Bioengineering Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Nursing Surgery Bioengineering Biopharmaceutical Science Medicine Educational Psychology Biopharmaceutical Sciences Oral Biology Marketing Medicine Bioengineering Nursing Computer Science School of Business, MBA Program Chemistry Educational Psychology Pulmonary Computer Science Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

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Hazra, Saugata He, Jin Holzle, Denise L Iyengar, Veena Iyengarn Neil M. Jaraula, Caroline Jayaraj, Jayashree Jeng, Eric Kanekar, Neeta Kannakeril, Annie J. Keskar, Vandana Kuhr, Frank Lahiri, Mayank Langlois, Marina Lei, Yu Lemmon, Grace Li, Juzheng Li, Weiguo Lim, Sok Bee Luo, Jing Maw, Kyaw Thet Mecum, Rebecca Mitchell, Diane E. Mo, Shunyan Monllor, Javier Murphy, Amanda Nam, Ki-Hwan Oppegard, Shawn C. Ozer, Fusun Petersen, Brett Pollema, Sarah L. Preissner, Curt Ramsey, David Rankin, Kristin M Razzak, Anthony Roy, Nilotpal Rumiche, Francisco Shaibat, Medhat Shehu, Aurora Shekhawat, Vivek K. Shih, Michael J. Singha, Sima Song, Yuanli

Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Physical Therapy Medicine Earth and Environmental Sciences Civil and Materials Engineering Anatomy Physical Therapy Pharmacy Biopharmaceutical Sciences Pharmacology Computer Science Computer Science Chemical Engineering Managerial Studies Computer Science Bioengineering Biopharmaceutical Sciences Medicine Chemistry Bioengineering Educational Psychology Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Marketing History Bioengineering Bioengineering Biological Sciences Kinesiology Research Anatomy and Cell Biology Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Health Policy and Administration Epidemiology/Biostatistics Surgery Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Civil and Materials Engineering Chemistry Physiology and Biophysics Bioengineering Cardiology Chemistry Chemistry 6

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Stoyanova,Tanya Sundararajan, Deepa Tawk, Rima Ter Louw,Mike Tonic, Ivana Tsai, Pei-Yun Tun, Moe Viana, Pricilla Weng, Yang Wilk, John Yang, Shuang Yin, Ke Yuan, Huajun Zhang, Haisu Zhao, Xiuhong Zhu, Hongling

Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Health Policy and Administration Computer Science Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Nursing Chemistry Civil and Materials Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Biological Sciences Electrical and Computer Engineering Civil and Materials Engineering Chemical Engineering Marketing Civil and Materials Engineering Anatomy and cell Biology

59 59 60 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 66 66 67 68 68

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1. Anderson, Jennifer; Levine, Michael; and McAnany, J. Jason Prestidigitation: Easier to Fool the Eye than the Hand Psychology Processing in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways has been studied in brain-damaged subjects. To understand the separate visual processing pathways in the normal human brain, we asked subjects to respond to two visual stimuli in two different ways. A target that emerged from the top or the bottom of the display traversed a field of leftward or rightward moving distracters, which induced an illusory deflection of the target (Duncker illusion). In the hand-eye condition, the display was arranged such that the subject's hand was on the same virtual plane as the target and distracters. The subject's goal was to "stab" the target with a stylus before it reached a horizontal bar spanning the center of the display; we believe the dorsal pathway mediates such hand-eye coordination. In the cognitive condition, the subject saw the same display and decided where the target would have intercepted the central bar. The subject indicated a choice on a virtual keypad that appeared after the display concluded; we believe the ventral pathway mediates such cognitive tasks. We found the effect of illusory motion in the cognitive condition but not in the hand-eye condition. In the cognitive condition, when the distracters were moving leftwards the subject reported the target moving right of the actual location, and vice versa. In the hand-eye condition, the motion of the distracters did not affect the subject's response. These results suggest a way to examine the two visual pathways separately in the normal human brain. 2. Antoniou, Chloe and Fung, L. W.-M. Potential artifacts in using a GST-fusion protein system and spin labeling EPR methods to study protein-protein interactions Chemistry Site directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods have been an important tool in studying protein-protein interactions. Labels are often attached to a cysteine residue side chain. The spectra of labeled proteins with and without binding partner(s) are obtained to provide information on the binding. Interpretation of these spectra requires a knowledge of the location of the label, which is simplified if the label remains faithfully attached to the designated residue in the complex. However, if the location of the labels changes in the complex, the interpretation becomes complicated. We report a system where this is the case, and we suggest that

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this could potentially be a common situation when a GST-fusion protein is used to prepare proteins used as binding partners. The label was extracted by dialysis-resistant glutathione molecules in the unlabeled protein to give an EPR spectrum with a sharp signal component. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that some GSH molecules remained even after extensive dialysis, treatment with dithiothreitol, or elution with gel filtration column. We have observed various amounts of sharp signals in complexes of Spα/Spβ, with labels on Spα at different positions. This is probably due to different accessibility or different pKa values of sulfhydryl-thiolate at different positions. 3. Araya, Alejandra; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Norr, Kathleen; Bernales, Margarita; Irrarázaval, Lisette; and Cabieses, Baltica The Effectiveness of an HIV and AIDS Prevention Training Program for Chilean Health Care Workers Nursing Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) play a critical role in the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the provision of non-stigmatizing care.Aims: Evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS prevention training program for HCWs.Methods: Convenience sample of 288 HCWs were selected from five low-income community clinics in urban Chile. A pre-experimental design (onegroup-pretest-posttest) was employed. Survey Measurement of Stigmatizing Attitudes (four individual items, Yes/No) and three areas of knowledge: General HIV/AIDS facts (score 0-25), HIV Prevention (score 0-7), and Legal Requirements (score 0-9). The intervention included a 4-hour session every week for four weeks taught by nurses using active learning methods. It covered Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment, Crisis Intervention, Legal Requirements, and Prevention Counseling topics. Analysis used Chi-square, and T-student statistics to evaluate program effectiveness.Results: The pre/post education surveys showed significant (p< .05) knowledge changes in three areas of HIV/AIDS knowledge. In relation to stigmatizing attitudes, the HCWs have significantly lowered stigmatizing attitudes (p< .05) for three questions (comfort in shaking hands, comfort and preference for treating HIV/AIDS.Conclusions: This program improved the knowledge and attitudes of HCWs in the community clinics. Further education programs should include a stronger focus on reducing stigma and discrimination among HCWs. HIV/AIDS continuing education with active learning methods should be prioritized as a national health policy.Acknowledgements: Dr. Beverly McElmurry, Dr. Chang Gi Park, and Dr. Pei-Yun Tsai for abstract critique. Research was partially funded by the John E. Fogarty International Center, NIH:R03-TW-006980 and AIDS International Training and Research Program at UIC (AITRP-D43 TW00141).

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4. Barwacz, Dariusz Cultural Competence Among Occupational Therapy Practitioners Social Work Over the last few decades, the demographics of the U.S. population have become increasingly diverse. Unfortunately, multiple research has shown discrepancies in the access to healthcare for people from different racial, ethnic or cultural groups. One of the possible explanations of this situation is the lack of cultural competence among health care professionals. To be able to serve the minority populations to the fullest extent, health care professionals should be aware of their patients cultural differences and beliefs, and to do this, they need appropriate cultural competence training. Although there is an abundance of literature related to cultural competence among physicians or nurses, very few researchers look into the field of occupational therapy (OT). The main aim of the current study is to find the type and level of cultural competence training that OT professionals receive, and their beliefs about the importance of cultural competence training. The study utilized questionnaire data collected from 472 OT practitioners working in the U.S. Based on the data, the researcher found that their coursework and fieldwork experience did not offer sufficient training in cultural competence while in school, and they did not receive formal training in their work settings. However, the majority of the participants recognize the importance of cultural competence, and feel culturally competent to address the specific needs of individuals from different racial and cultural groups. Implications of the data for OT training in cultural competence are discussed. 5. Bassam, Seyed A.; Iranmanesh, Amirhossein; Ansari, Farhad A new damage assessment method for post seismic structural health monitoring of concrete bridges Civil and Materials Engineering This study reports on the development of a new damage assessment method that considers the effect of low cycle fatigue on the state of damage and it is merely based on monitoring the bridge pier deformations. The objective was to develop a practical method for assessing the state of damage in bridge columns following earthquakes. A novel fiber optic displacement sensor serial array was employed for monitoring the dynamic cyclic deformation response of the columns. The sensor arrays were designed to provide high resolution response and a large dynamic range for measuring the crack opening displacement reversals at the

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plastic hinges. The data obtained from the sensors was employed for the evaluation of the proposed methodologies and comparison with the existing damage assessment techniques. The scope of the study included evaluation of the damage assessment method through shake table tests of a four-span bridge subjected to various amplitudes of near source ground motions of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Evaluation of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique involved efficiency in terms of the number of sensors required to investigate the progression of damage, and resolution in terms of capability of the damage stage detection. 6. Biehl, Jesse K.; Yamanaka Satoshi; Boheler, Kenneth R.; and Russell, Brenda Microprojections regulate proliferation and activity of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells Bioengineering The goal was to test if the physical properties of the microenvironment control proliferation and activity of the mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) progeny. Microtopographic features were fabricated by photolithography to create 15μm high projections spaced 80 or 500μm apart tetragonally in polydimethyl-silicone (PDMS) membranes. mESC differentiation began in hanging drops, followed by suspension culture, before the resulting embryoid bodies were disassociated and plated on either flat or the microtextured surfaces. The number of heterogeneous SC derivatives observed with phase microscopy was 60 ± 20% (n=3) on the 80μm microprojections compared to flat PDMS. Similar results were seen for pure cardiomyocytes derived using a puromycin resistant cassette incorporated into the NCX1 promoter. Only 43 ±12% (n=3) and 75 ±16% (n=5) of the cardiomyocytes were found on the 80μm and 500μm spaced microprojections, respectively, compared to the flat PDMS. The beating rate per minute of the cardiomyocytes was recorded by video microscopy and was1.8 ± 0.4 fold higher on the microprojections compared to the flat with surprising changes in coefficients of variance of 0.50 and 0.21 respectively (n=5). Results suggest that microtopography affects both expansion and beating characteristics of mESC progeny. T32HL007692 and HL 62426.

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7. Boodram, Basmattee; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Hershow, Ronald; Williams, Chyvette T.; and Ouellet, Lawrence J. Why the large difference in hepatitis C infection prevalence between young injection drug users in Baltimore and Chicago? Community Outreach Intervention Projects Research Aim: Delineate factors associated with hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among non-Hispanic (NH) white IDUs from Chicago (n=586) and Baltimore (n=736). Methods: IDUs 15-30 years old enrolled in the Third Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study/Drug User Intervention Trial through street outreach and respondent-driven methods. Baseline computerized, self-administered interviews and serological data were evaluated. Results: A striking difference in HCV-antibody prevalence (HCV+) exists between NH-white Baltimore and Chicago IDUs (53% vs. 14%, pvalue<0.0001). For each city, HCV+ vs. HCV-uninfected IDUs were significantly (p-value<0.05) more likely to be older, male, engage in higher risk injection practices (i.e. sharing injection equipment), and to be co-infected with hepatitis A, B and HIV. However, compared to Chicago, Baltimore HCV+ IDUs were more likely to obtain clean needles from a syringe exchange program. In multivariable logistic regression, many of these correlates remained modestly significant (p-value<0.05) with odds ratios (OR) between 1.0 and 3.4; however, Baltimore was the strongest correlate of HCV prevalence (OR=5.6, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-5.7). Geospatial analysis revealed that HCV infection in Baltimore clustered in a 10-mile area where 77% of the total HCV positives resided, and where NH-whites were >70% of the population. No such clustering of HCV was found among Chicago IDUs. Conclusion: Differences in injection risk behaviors only partially explain the difference in HCV prevalence between young IDUs in Baltimore and Chicago. HCV clustering in Baltimore but not Chicago suggests that social network and neighborhood characteristics are also key determinants of HCV acquisition and should be examined in future research. 8. Brick, Gail and Fearn, Cindy Pilot Study: Blood Pressure (BP) Knowledge Assessment of Workers in a Midwestern manufacturing Plant Nursing Research has looked at an individual’s knowledge of his or her blood pressure (BP) subsequent to the diagnosis of hypertension (HTN). Research indicates and the hypothesis for this study were that the following individuals:

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older, female, individuals informed of BP by health care providers, and individuals taking BP medication would have an increased knowledge of BP. Unlike other Studies, this study looked at an individual’s BP regardless of a diagnosis of HTN in the specific population of workers in a Midwestern manufacturing plant. The population of the manufacturing plant resembled that of the county and state populations. The most recent guidelines form the revised (May 2003) seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) were used to define BP categories for this pilot survey study. The survey also assessed whether the individual’s knowledge of BP correlated with an increase interest in learning about lifestyle changes that effect BP. The results of the study indicated no statistical differences in knowledge of BP related to gender, age, or individuals informed of BP by health care providers. However, the study did indicate two statistical significant relationships. The first relationship was between knowledge of BP and individuals taking BP medication (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.028, one-sided). Second was between and individual’s knowledge of BP readings and an increase interest in learning about lifestyle changes that effect BP (Fisher’s Exact Test p=0.005, one-sided). Additionally, participants who correctly identified the BP ranges for prehypertension, 94.4% indicated that he or she was interested in learning about lifestyle modifications to improve BP. This pilot study was guided by The Roy Adaptation Model (1991) to assess the stimuli (knowledge of BP), tempered with coping mechanisms that influence physiologic, self-concept, interdependence, and role function modes resulting in either adaptive or ineffective behaviors. To facilitate future development and research of educational interventions that focus on increasing knowledge of BP in individuals leading to adaptive behaviors preventing and/or controlling HTN. 9. Caballero, Isabel C.; Ashley, Mary V.; and Bates, John M. Sibling relationships analyzed using a new set of molecular DNA markers in reintroduced Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) Ecology and Evolution We are studying mating system of Peregrine Falcons in urban ecosystems using molecular tools. The reintroduction and reestablishment of Peregrine Falcons in the Midwestern US represents one of the most compelling examples of a recovered native species. Eleven microsatellite DNA markers were used to establish sibling relationships. A first analysis of 35 unrelated Peregrine Falcons revealed high levels of polymorphism with number of alleles varying from four to seventeen. The markers were used to examine the parentage of peregrine broods from the same nest site from different breeding seasons, and consequently, the nest site fidelity of the breeding peregrines. High nest site fidelity was demonstrated through analysis of 95

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chicks at six Chicago area nest sites during 2000-2007. Our analysis supports the idea that this species is monogamous. However, we came across some cases of extra-pair paternity (EPP). To our knowledge, this is the first report of EPP in reintroduced Peregrine Falcons. The level of EPP reported in this study (10.71%) is similar to the one reported for the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni and the American Kestrel Falco sparverius. These results reveal that these markers can be applied to study population dynamics in this recovering species and their use can be extended for future monitoring and conservation purposes as well. 10. Carluccio, Guiseppe and Erricolo, Danilo Exact analytic 2D solution to obtain optimal B1 excitation field in ultrahigh field MRI applications Electrical and Computer Engineering A current challenge for ultra-high field human brain imaging is the nonuniformity of the excitation B1 field. At high magnetic fields, the required B1 field has a relatively short wavelength. A superposition of such waves results in stationary waves that affects the quality of the final images. One promising technique to obtain a homogeneous B1 field is the RF shimming: it applies concepts from array antenna theory and suggests a different improved design for the RF coil, where the coil is designed as a transmit array with its elements separately controlled by different channels. In this work, we study a 2D geometry where a circular lossy object, representing the brain, is surrounded by a dielectric shell, representing the skull. Both the objects are located in the xy plane. The excitation field is produced by a system of M wires parallel to the z axis and located at the vertices of a regular polygon concentric with the other objects and coplanar with them. The wires represent the legs of the birdcage coils normally used in MRI scanner to produce the B1 RF excitation field. This is a simplified geometry with cylindrical symmetry for which it is possible to obtain an analytically exact solution. The analytic solution is then applied to study the field produced by the birdcage inside the volume of interest and allows to apply optimization methods to compute the best scheme for the current in each individual wire to minimize the spatial fluctuation of the total B1 field.

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11. Chansoria, Parul; Dr. Eddington; and Dr. Kathrin Banach Hypoxia Induced Arrhythmia in Cardiac Preparations Bioengineering Hypoxia causes alterations in the propagation of electrical activity in the cardiac muscle. Potential parameter responsible for hypoxia induced arrhythmia are changes in the cardiomyocytes intercellular communication and ion channels To examine these parameter we use an in vitro cardiac tissue model that is cultured on Micro Electrode Arrays (MEA). A MEA consists of 60 electrodes (diameter of 30 m; spaced 200 ƒÝm) in a culture dish. Cardiomyocytes are grown and plated over MEA, on observation of a spontaneous activity in these cells field potentials (FPs) are recorded online. Parameters analyzed from the recorded FPs are the conduction velocity of the preparation, its frequency, the continuity of excitation spread and arrhythmicity. To introduce hypoxia to the monolayer of cardiac myocytes we have designed and fabricated a “hypoxia device”, consisting of an insert that is custom fit into the MEA culture dish, two gas channels, a micro pattern of equally spaced pores and a thin membrane. The device is made of biocompatible Poly-diMethyl-Siloxane (PDMS) material and sits over the monolayer of cells at a distance of 100 μm. Through the hypoxia device we simulate either control (Balanced air) or hypoxic (1%O2, 94%N2, 5% CO2) conditions and monitor time dependent changes in the cardiomyocytes excitability and conduction velocity which results from changes in cell-cell interaction and electrical activity. Our experiments will provide new insights in the mechanism of hypoxia induced arrhythmias. 12. Chen, Chia-Chen and Hay, Nissim The interplay between FoxO, mTOR, and Akt Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Akt (also known as protein kinase B) is a serine/threonine kinase, which is frequently activated in human cancers. To understand the role of Akt in tumorigenesis, two most evolutionary conserved downstream targets of Akt, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and FoxO (forkhead box transcription factor, O subfamily) are intensively studied. FoxO mediates various functions including gluconeogenesis, longevity, and cell cycle regulation. Upon growth factor stimulation, activated Akt phosphorylates FoxO and therefore inhibits its transcription activity. mTOR (a serine/threonine kinase) exists in two distinct protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 complex regulates protein synthesis in response to

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Akt activity, whereas mTORC2 complex phosphorylates and elevates Akt activity. Here, we found that activated FoxO1 uncouples mTORC1 and Akt activities by reducing mTORC1 activity but elevating Akt activity. Overexpressing FoxO1 markedly elevates the expression of Rictor, an mTORC2 component, which contributes to the inhibition of mTORC1 and activation of Akt, while knockdown of FoxO decreases Rictor expression and increases mTORC1 activity. Increase of Rictor promotes mTORC2 complex assembly which activates Akt but at the same time decreases mTORC1 complex because of competition for mTOR. Moreover, Rictor knockdown attenuates FoxO1 mediated regulation of mTORC1 and Akt activity. We propose that in limited growth factors condition when FoxO activity is elevated, it inhibits mTORC1, and protein synthesis, a major consumer of cellular energy, while activating Akt, which is a major producer of cellular energy. Therefore, FoxO could regulate and maintain cellular energy homeostasis by elevating cellular energy production, and by decreasing cellular energy consumption. 13. Chipeta, Clara (deceased 3/18/2008); Norr, Kathleen (faculty advisor) Factors influencing HIV test acceptance at a prenatal clinic in Malawi Nursing Since the Malawi government introduced routine prenatal testing with an “Opt out” option, the acceptance rate is over 90%. This qualitative descriptive research is the first to explore factors influencing pregnant women’s HIV testing intentions. 21 nulliparous first time prenatal visit attendees who were in a regular relationship, over 17 years old, and never tested for HIV, were interviewed prior to the prenatal visit. Interviews were conducted in Chichewa, audio-taped, transcribed, translated into English and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Partner relationship issues were major factors affecting women’s intention regarding HIV testing. All expressed strong feelings that they should not be tested without partner involvement. Half had already discussed testing with their partners, but the others had not discussed testing and feared negative consequences of testing without partner approval. Most women questioned their partner’s fidelity and wanted the test to resolve doubts about their partners and their own HIV status. Health system factors also affected the women’s decisions; most believed HIV testing was mandatory and refusal would jeopardize their care. Misperceptions affected HIV testing: women believed that if one partner had HIV the other would be infected, and did not understand benefits to the child of prenatal testing. When weighing their perceived HIV testing cost and benefits, half the women intended to be tested and half intended to refuse. Half the women preferred not to test until after discussion with their partners. These results should guide

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clinic workers approach to the “opt out” approach, and women’s concerns regarding partner consultation. 14. Chung, Peter; Qi, M.; Wang, Y.; Strand, B. L.; Chung, P.; and Oberholzer, J. Human Islets Encapsulated in Novel Alginate-Ca2+/Ba2+ Microbeads Survival in Immunocompetent Balb/c Mice Surgery Introduction and hypothesis: Microencapsulation techniques have been extensively studied as a means to facilitate islet transplantation without immunosuppression. Human islets were isolated at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), shipped to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) for microencapsulation, and delivered back to UIC for assessments. In our previous experiments, after intraperitoneal transplantation of these encapsulated human islets in chemically induced diabetic nude mice, long-term normoglycemia was consistently achieved with 3,000, 5,000, and 10,000 IEQ encapsulated human islets. When transplanting 1,000 IEQ, mice returned to hyperglycemia after 30-55 (n=4/7) and 160 days (n=3/7). Approach: In this study, we evaluated the immunoprotective function of microencapsulated human islets by transplanting them intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in Balb/c mice. Microencapsulated human islets were injected intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice and compared to control Balb/c mice injected with human islets free of encapsulation. Blood glucose and body weight of the mice were checked daily. After the experiment was completed, encapsulated islets were removed and the viability and function of islets were evaluated by Sytogreen/Ethidium Bromide staining, dynamic insulin secretion test, and intracellular Ca2+ measurement. Results: All recipient mice reached normoglycemia after transplantation. After a mean follow-up of 136 days (range 45 to 228 days) only 4 of 23 mice presented with recurrence of hyperglycemia after 35, 45 and 204 (n=2) days, respectively. Retrieved capsules from experiment group showed more intact islets with less overgrowth and adherence to peritoneum than control group. Conclusion: This study shows that encapsulated human islets in alginateCa2+/Ba2+ microbeads survived less than previous results of encapsulated islets in nude mice but longer than in control group injected with free islets.

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15. Collins, John M.; Goldspink, Paul; Geenen, David; Desai, Tejal; and Russell, Brenda Microdomain stiffness affects mesenchymal stem cell proliferation Bioengineering The Russell lab has shown that proliferation of neonatal rat ventricular fibroblasts (NRVF) is inhibited by shallow 3D surface topography (Boateng, 2003) or rod shaped microstructures (microrods) distributed in deep (~1mm) slabs of Matrigel (Norman, 2007). Therefore, the hypothesis is posited that stem cells are also dependent upon physical cues of the microenvironmental niche. This is tested by distributing stem cells in 3D Matrigel with stiff microrods and assessing cell function. It is specifically hypothesized that proliferation of stem cells is blunted due to the microdomains of stiffness introduced by microrods of 15µm diameter and lengths up to 100 µm. Mouse bone marrow stem cells (mBMSC) are plated in Matrigel with or without microrods. Phase contrast images show mBMSC migrate and aggregate around microrods of higher stiffness than the surrounding gel by a process termed mechanotaxis. Morphology of mBMSC attached to microrods is different from those in gel alone. The WST-1 assay determines the mean relative absorbance and thus, cell number after 1 and 5 or 7 days of culture. By day 5, 100 µm microrods blunt mBMSC proliferation and by day 7, both 50 µm (17%, p<0.05) and 100 µm (33%, p<0.001) microrods in Matrigel blunt proliferation versus cells cultured in Matrigel alone. The conclusion is that mBMSC proliferation can be controlled by microrods of various lengths. Optimization of the size and stiffness of these microrods may induce differentiation of the mBMSC along multiple lineages and could be helpful in understanding physical cues useful for regeneration of various tissues. 16. Desai, Esha and Gemeinhart, Richard A novel platform for cell encapsulation in regenerative medicine Biopharmaceutical Sciences RESEARCH AIMS: Cell survival during encapsulation within MPH was investigated systematically with the long-term goal of developing porous polymer scaffolds. Each component and step in the scaffold design process was investigated for cell survival. METHODS: In order to determine the toxicity of each component and pH, cells (105 cells/mL) were plated on 48 well plates and were allowed to adhere overnight. Cytotoxicity of PEGDA,

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F-127, ammonium persulfate (APS), N,N,N',N'Pluronic® Tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED), citric acid, sodium bicarbonate crystals and pH(3-9) was observed over 10 minutes at pH of 5 and 24, 48 and 72 hours at pH of 8. by MTS and LIVE/DEAD cell assay. To determine the cell survival during the foaming process, cells (105 cells/mL) were suspended in media in a centrifuge tube containing the precursor solution used in fabrication of MPH. The cell viability was determined by MTS and LIVE/DEAD cell assay. To determine the survival during the encapsulation process, cells (2 X 106 cells/mL) were encapsulated within MPH during polymerization. Cell viability was observed by LIVE/DEAD assay. RESULTS: Each of the components of MPH had an impact on cell viability. We observed no toxicity at pH used during the fabrication of MPH. However, we observed significant toxicity associated with the foaming technique. Cells were alive when encapsulated within MPH at 10 minutes, 24, 48 and 72 hours. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of toxicity associated with the components of MPH and foaming technique, cells survived within MPH. Thereby, MPH should be further investigated for cell proliferation and differentiation. 17. Desai, Vikas Prevalence of Obesity among Children and/or Grandchildren of Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients Medicine Objective. This study examined the prevalence of obesity among children and grandchildren 12 years old of adult bariatric surgery patients. Methods. Adult bariatric surgery patients enrolled in co-author Nagle's study titled "Long-term Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery Patients" were recruited over the phone and in the bariatric surgery follow-up clinic. Patient information (e.g., BMI at surgery) was obtained from the parent study database. Each enrolled patient was presented with a survey that included their children/grandchildren's weight and height. Child obesity was defined as BMI percentile 95th percentile. Chi-square test was used to identify associations between patient/child/grandchild characteristics and child/grandchild obesity. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Of 402 eligible patients, 321 (89%) were reached. Of the 126 reached with children/grandchildren 12 years old, 122 (97%) were enrolled in this study. Among enrolled patients, 77% were female; 49% were Caucasian, and 37% African-American. Pre-surgery BMI ranged from 34-77. Information was collected on 233 children/grandchildren: 59% female, BMI percentiles 0>99 (maximum BMI was 53). Of the children/grandchildren with complete height and weight information (n=134), 41% had a BMI percentile 95. Only 29% of these obese children were so identified by the adult respondents. A significantly higher proportion of biological children/grandchildren were obese

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(45%), as compared to non-biological (13%) (p=0.013). Significantly more biological children were obese (53%) than biological grandchildren (32%) (p=0.027). Of the 2-5 year olds, 49% were obese, >3 times the national average of 14%. Of the 6- to 11-year olds, 33% were obese, well above the national average of 19%. Conclusions. This sample of bariatric surgery patients had a high proportion of obese preteen children/grandchildren who may merit intensive intervention efforts. Obesity was most prevalent among biological children. The youngest children were the most affected. Patients often do not recognize the degree of overweight in their children/grandchildren. Family-oriented obesity management and prevention care may be warranted for all members of bariatric surgery families. 18. Dobria, Lidia Monitoring rater performance with a hierarchical generalized linear model Educational Psychology A defining feature of performance assessments is that they rely on expert judgment obtained from raters to determine measures of the quality of responses. As a result, in addition to being subject to violations of reliability present in other assessments forms, performance assessments also introduce rater-related errors into the system. This study proposes to examine the rating behavior of a group of raters (N = 30) who scored essays written for an English compositing exit examination. The major purposes of the study are to determine to what extent raters differ in the levels of severity they exercise when scoring the essays, and to detect the potential presence of rater bias (i.e., interactions between rater severity and student characteristics such as gender and native language). Data were analyzed using a rater hierarchical generalized linear model. Results showed significant disparity between the levels of severity exercised by the raters. The study also detected the presence of rater bias, with some raters exhibiting different levels of severity when scoring students of particular gender or native language. Approaches to minimizing the impact of rater severity differences on student scores are proposed. Advantages and feasibility issues of the statistical model used to analyze the data are also discussed. 19. D’Souza, Gwendolyn, Rizzo, Paola and Miele, Lucio A novel therapeutic combination of Tamoxifen and a new orally active Gamma-secretase inhibitor for ERalpha-positive breast cancer.

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Biopharmaceutical Sciences Aims: The purpose of the study was to determine the mechanism by which estradiol regulates Notch signaling in ER-positive breast cancer cells and to test a combination of Tamoxifen and a new orally active GSI invivo. Methods: Expression of Notch-1, Notch-4, ADAM17 was determined by Western blot. mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR. Transcriptional activity was determined by luciferase assays. Total cellular Notch was visualised by confocal. Notch on the cell surface was determined by cell surface biotinylation. Nuclear fraction of Notch was measured quantitatively using a full length Notch-Renilla construct which is activated by ligand. Cleavage of Notch was measured quantitatively using a Gal-4 luciferase reporter and Gal4VP16-Notch1E plasmid which lacks the ligand binding domain of Notch. Knockdown of Notch-1 was attained by siRNA or a new orally active gammasecretase inhibitor from Merck. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by crystal violet. Results: Our data indicate that estradiol, via ER, inhibits Notch-1 activity at least in part by altering the cellular distribution of Notch-1 and inhibiting its cleavage. Estradiol inhibits the expression of ADAM17, the second cleavage enzyme of Notch. Importantly, clinically relevant agents such as 4hydroxytamoxifen antagonize this effect. Therefore, it is important to use a Notch inhibitor in combination. Growth inhibition assays and our invivo animal study confirm that the new orally active Merck GSI greatly potentiated the effects of tamoxifen. Conclusions: Our preliminary studies indicate that the combination of Tamoxifen and Merck GSI would be a good candidate for clinical investigation as a choice of treatment in ER-positive breast cancer. 20. Eapen, Asha; Ravindran, Sriram; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; and George, Anne Signaling function of Phosphophoryn activates osteoblast differentiation Oral Biology Objective: A major non collagenous protein in dentin and also present in low amounts in the bone matrix, is a highly acidic protein called dentin phosphophoryn (DPP). DPP has been attributed to play a regulatory role in the extracellular matrix during dentin mineralization. Another function attributed to DPP is its signaling function. As DPP contains an integrin binding RGD domain, we hypothesized that DPP might activate integrin mediated adhesive signaling events during the differentiation of undifferentiated embryonic mesenchymal cells to an osteoblast lineage. Methods: Mouse embryonic mesenchymal cells (C3H10T1/2) cells were cultured in BME medium supplemented with 10% FBS. Non-tissue culture

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grade 6 well plates were coated with recombinant DPP (500ng/ml) in carbonate buffer. The cells were seeded at 80% confluency. RT-PCR, real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. C3H10T1/2 cells seeded on plates coated with carbonate buffer served as control. Results: Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR in the presence of DPP showed the up-regulation of matrix genes such as Collagen X , Collagen I, Osteocalcin and Biglycan, transcription factors such as Cbfa1 and proteases like MMP2. Real-time time PCR confirmed a 9 fold increase in COL X expression in DPP treated samples. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin localized at focal adhesions. Blocking integrin with RGD blocking peptide confirmed the activation of the different components of the adhesive signaling pathway. Conclusion: DPP can induce osteoblast differentiation by activating intergrin mediated signaling pathway. Supported by NIH grant DE 11657 & 16533. 21. Elliot, Esi; and Zhang, Haisu Knowledge Sharing: The Catalyst for Innovation in Supply Chain Marketing The research investigates effects of knowledge acquisition and dissemination on innovation within a supply chain context and in particular. It explores the moderating effect of technological and market turbulence on innovation. We extend existing frameworks of knowledge sharing by exploring the tacit and explicit knowledge acquisition and dissemination dynamics amongst a trio of manufacturer and upstream and downstream relationship. Innovation, being the outcome, is discussed with a strategic orientation focus. The discussion of the dynamics of knowledge dissemination and acquisition amongst this trio supply chain relationship is important for a number of reasons. First, it extends the current literature with respects to supply chain management to include strategic orientation in a turbulent market and technological environment. Second, it captures ‘push’ and ‘pull’ perspectives and acknowledges the importance of these perspectives to understanding supply chain management relationships. Third, it suggests that both a comprehensive and internal and external technology-/customer-/competitororientated architecture exert different impacts relevant innovation. We conclude our discussion with an experiment to buttress the highlights of our investigation.

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22. Englof, Ila The effect of antenatal global hypoxia at various gestational ages on fetal demise and stillbirth in rabbits Medicine Objective Fetal hypoxia results in significant mortality and morbidity in newborns. Our hypothesis was that fetal hypoxia at preterm gestation would cause less mortality than at near-term gestation. A secondary objective was to investigate the timing of fetal deaths following hypoxia. Methods A rabbit model of sustained uterine ischemia to cause global fetal hypoxia was used (J-Neurosci 2004, 24:24-34) at various gestational ages. We compared live births, early intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and term stillbirths in pregnant rabbits that were subjected to 40 minute sustained fetal hypoxia at 22, 25 and 29 days gestation (70, 79 and 92% term). Results We found that the newborn rabbits that were subjected to hypoxia at 22 days gestation had significantly fewer IUFD and stillbirths than those that had hypoxia at E25 or E29. Newborn rabbits in the E29 hypoxic group also showed a significant increase in IUFD compared to E25. A weight curve was generated for control rabbit fetuses and based on the regression line, estimated times of death of IUFD and stillbirths were calculated. Most of the IUFD fetuses appeared to have died at or close to the time of hypoxic insult while stillbirths died throughout late gestation or around the time of birth. Conclusion This data shows that there is an increasing vulnerability to hypoxia with increasing gestational age. Because fetal death can occur after a time following hypoxia, this study also suggests that it is impossible to time the intrauterine hypoxic event from the initial detection of IUFD or stillbirth. 23. Esmailbeigi, Hananeh; Thulborn, Keith R.; Rousche, Patrick J. An fMRI study: Optimal electrode design for an Auditory Cortical Prosthesis Bioengineering Patients with neurofibromatosis2 after under going tumor removal surgery will no longer have an intact auditory nerve, there for they can not relay on cochlear implants to restore their hearing. These subjects can take advantage of Auditory Cortical Prostheses (ACP) that directly stimulates the cortex. Electrode design and location are the key parameters in an ACP

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performance. Our goal is to design an efficient method for optimal electrode design for an ACP that would enable these deaf subjects to hear speech again. Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is our target of interest; it is located in the downstream of the primary auditory cortex and is accessible via Sylvain fissure which provides a minimally invasive implantation path. To understand the functional and anatomical structure of HG we use fMRI. Images were obtained using a surface coil and the acquisition parameters (TR=2.5s, TE= 30ms, acquisition matrix=64x64, slice thickness=3 mm) were chosen for the small field of view of the coil (10x10cm2) to optimize BOLD contrast. 8 block design paradigms consisting of two phonemes, their formant frequencies and sinusoidal addition of the formants were used. Our results prove that HG does not process frequency in a linear form there for unlike general beliefs tonotopical maps of the HG are not enough for designing an ACP. We propose that for a precise functional electrode we need to map phonemes in HG. Using the phoneme maps and the anatomical data we construct 3D models of the HG that utilize a patient specific electrode designs for an ACP. 24. Fink, Anne M.; Eckhardt, Ann L.; Fennessy, Michelle M.; Jones, Jessica; Kruse, Donna; Tucco, Laura J.; VanderZwan, Kathryn J.; Ryan, Catherine J.; and Zerwic, Julie J. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Fatigue with AMI Nursing Purpose: To evaluate the psychometric properties of three instruments to measure fatigue during and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Subjects (n = 112) were recruited from six Midwestern hospitals. Diagnosis of AMI was confirmed by Troponin I > 0.05. While hospitalized, subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Index (FSI), Profile of Mood States (POMS), and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The researchers completed a medical record review. Thirty days after hospital admission, subjects were mailed the instruments again. Results: Measures were internally consistent: α = .83 - .90. Moderate correlations were noted between the instruments. We hypothesized that women would report more fatigue than men and that subjects would report less fatigue 30 days after hospitalization. These hypotheses were supported. Women reported less fatigue (FSI, t = 3.4, ρ < .05; POMS, t = -5.4, ρ < .01) and more vigor/vitality (POMS, t = -3.1, ρ < .05; SF-36-V, t = -3.0, ρ < .05). Men’s scores did not change significantly over the 30 days. Conclusions: The instruments were internally consistent. The instruments were only moderately correlated, indicating that they addressed different dimensions of fatigue. Gender differences were noted: women reported a

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decline in fatigue and an increase in vigor/vitality after AMI; men reported no significant changes. This finding may indicate that fatigue is only a symptom of AMI for women or is a more significant symptom for women, or that the measures were not sensitive to detecting changes in the fatigue experience for men. 25. Fossati, Davide; Di Eugenio, Barbara; Ohlsson, Stellan; and Cosejo, David The role of positive feedback in Intelligent Tutoring Systems Computer Science The focus of this study is positive feedback in one-on-one tutoring, its computational modeling, and its application to the design of more effective Intelligent Tutoring Systems. A data collection of tutoring sessions in the domain of basic Computer Science data structures has been carried out. A methodology based on multiple regression is proposed, and some preliminary results are presented. A prototype Intelligent Tutoring System on linked lists has been developed and deployed in a college-level Computer Science class.

26. Garcia, Rodrigo Sukuk: An Islamic Financial Instrument Liautaud Graduate School of Business, MBA Program Islamic law or Sharia’ah prohibits the charging or payment of interest, gambling, and the use of unethical goods and services, among others. These particular restrictions have motivated many banks and investment companies to establish a number of financial products tailored to Islamic investors. The rapid rise and evolution of these financial products have become important academic and business specialties (innovations) in the growing global economy. The Sukuk, an Islamic bond, has come to the forefront of Islamic finance in recent times. In March 2006, the Dow Jones Citigroup Sukuk Index (DJCS) was launched to evaluate and profile its gains and losses. Recent Sukuk movements have triggered a great deal of interest not only among investors in the Middle East, but also investors in the Western countries. The primary objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate various Sukuk issues by analyzing their prohibitions, structure, duration, and total rate of return over a given time period. The profile and performance of the Dow Jones Citigroup Sukuk Index will be compared to recognized tracking indices such as the US Broad Investment Grade Bond Index (US BIG) and the Euro Broad Investment Grade Bond Index (Euro BIG). I expect to discover recent Sukuk issues not only offer a competitive structure, but its tracking index

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(DJCS) will surpass the US and Euro Broad Investment Grade Bond Index in total portfolio performance. The key question that this study attempts to address is whether Sukuks are a viable and dependable financial instrument that will be of interest to Muslim as well as non-Muslim investors. This study will concentrate on the potential, structure, portfolio performance and the ability of Sukuks to deliver sound and consistent results. 27. Gasper, Gerald L.; Akhmetov, Artem; Hanley, Luke; Carlson, Ross; and Moore, Jerry F. Laser Desorption 7.87 eV Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotics in S. epidermidis Bacterial Biofilms Chemistry Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common Gram-positive bacterium that resides on human skin. Treatment of biofilm infections is hindered by the limited ability of antibiotics to kill biofilm associated microbes. Prior work detected a known quorum sensing peptide within intact Bacillus subtilis biofilms using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). LDPI-MS employs 7.87 eV vacuum ultraviolet radiation to detect the abundant gaseous neutrals ejected into vacuum during laser desorption. This work presents the use of LDPI-MS to detect several antibiotics with low ionization potentials within intact S. epidermidis biofilms. LDPI-MS was performed using a 355 nm Nd:YAG desorption laser (0.8 - 11 MW/cm2 ) and a 157 nm molecular fluorine postionization laser (7.87 eV, ~1 MW/cm2). Tetracycline, sulfadiazine, and novobiocin were deposited on separate porous silicon oxide substrates and detected neat with LDPI-MS in linear time-offlight mode. LDPI-MS of novobiocin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine all displayed intact radical cations at m/z 612, 444, and 250, respectively. Use of the relatively low 0.8 MW/cm2 power density for laser desorption suppressed direct ion formation. LDPI-MS was used to detect these antibiotics within intact biofilms without significant interference from other biofilm chemical constituents. Sulfadiazine was detected in the biofilm at a concentration of 11 mM using ~3 MW/cm2 laser desorption power density, postionization, and reflectron time-of-flight mode detection. Tetracylcine was detected similarly from biofilms doped with this antibiotic at a near clinical, 8 μM concentration. LDPI-MS achieved sensitive detection of antibiotics within intact bacterial biofilms without addition of any matrix compound, indicating imaging MS potential.

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28. Golant, Courtney J. and Thorkildsen, Theresa A. Relations Between Young Adults’ Civil and Professional Selves Education Success in a career involves the coordination of societal expectations with personal preferences and talents. In addition to verifying the assumption that individuals construct internally consistent job preferences and vocational interests, we expanded on this to include moral virtues and civil identities. Young adults (n=209) responded to survey items assessing their career pathways, moral virtues and civil identities. Young adults reporting communication/social service job preferences also reported artistic and social vocational interests. Young adults reporting business/manufacturing job preferences also reported realistic and conventional vocational interests, and those reporting a preference for science/medicine also reported investigative interests. These professional identities were not associated with individuals’ preferences for moral virtues or their civil identities. Nevertheless, young adults reporting pluralistic and community outsider identities reported stronger commitments to each set of moral characteristics. Individuals reporting strong civil commitments also reported a commitment to prosocial moral characteristics. Although young adults’ professed moral traits were independent of their professed professional talents, their civil identities included profiles of both moral and professional capacities. Achievement in most disciplines requires sustained interest and effort over time and productivity is likely to be more meaningful when individuals can integrate their moral and professional selves. Understanding how young adults coordinate their moral and professional selves may allow their mentors to facilitate opportunities that foster sustained commitments to a worthwhile career pathway. 29. Gursahani, Kunal; Epshtein, Yulia; Singh, Dev K.; Chopra, Arun; and Levitan, Irena The impact of low- and high-density lipoproteins on inwardly-rectifying K+ channels in macrophages Pulmonary Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for macrophage dysfunction, including release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we address a hypothesis that changes in the activity of K+ channels is one of the mechanisms contributing to lipoprotein-induced macrophage dysfunction. Our earlier studies showed that an increase in cellular cholesterol suppresses inwardly-rectifying K+ channels (Kir) in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

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Here we show that Kir current is also suppressed by cholesterol in alveolar and in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Specifically, we show that macrophage Kir are suppressed by enriching the cells with cholesterol using methyl-b-cyclodextrin or by exposing them to acetylated LDL. In contrast, HDL results in a decrease in the level of cellular cholesterol and induces an increase in Kir. Furthermore, unexpectedly, exposing macrophages to OxLDL also significantly increases the amplitude of the current. In this case, however, the level of membrane cholesterol is not affected. We suggest, therefore, that the similarities between the effects of cholesterol depletion, HDL and OxLDL may be due to their effects on lipid packing. Finally, we show that OxLDL has the same impact on bone-marrow derived primary macrophages, and the role of OxLDL-induced changes on the Phagocytosis activity of macrophages. 30. Habiba, Habiba; and Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y. Maximizing the Extent of Spread in a Dynamic Network Computer Science Dynamic population phenomena, such as spread of diseases, opinions, and behavior, can be modeled as processes that propagate in a network of interacting individuals. In this research, we consider the problem of identifying a set of individuals to initiate a spreading process in a social network so that the eventual extent of the spread is maximized given a fixed time T to spread. Kempe et al. have solved the no time constraint variant of this problem for the aggregate representation of the population networks. Yet, real populations are inherently dynamic, that is, individuals as well as interactions change over time. We in our work focus on explicitly dynamic population networks. For our experiments we consider two propagation models extensively studied in the context of social networks, viral marketing, and epidemiology - Independent Cascade Model and Linear Threshold Model. We show that for both models maximizing the extent of spread in a dynamic network is NP-hard and present a greedy (1-1/e)-approximation algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm experimentally on real datasets and compare the algorithm on the dynamic and the aggregate network representations both in terms of the resulting extent of spread and the actual set of selected initiating individuals. We show that there are significant differences in both cases. Thus, ignoring the dynamic aspects of data may result in extremely inaccurate answers.

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31. Halasi, Marianna Thiazole antibiotics that inhibit FoxM1 are potential anticancer drugs Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics The oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, whereas its expression is turned off in terminally differentiated cells. Consequently, FoxM1 could be an attractive target for anticancer therapy. In this study, using a cell-based assay system, we screened for and isolated the thiazole antibiotic Siomycin A as an inhibitor of FoxM1 transcriptional activity. Interestingly, we observed that Siomycin A downregulated not only exogenous and endogenous FoxM1 transcriptional activity but it also reduced endogenous FoxM1 mRNA and protein levels. Since the induction of exogenous FoxM1 protein led to a significant increase in the endogenous FoxM1 mRNA and protein levels, we propose that FoxM1 may be involved in a positive autoregulatory loop. If this positive feedback loop is required for the expression of FoxM1, then the decrease in endogenous FoxM1 mRNA and protein levels observed after Siomycin A treatment could be a direct effect of inhibition of FoxM1 transcriptional activity. We also found that Siomycin A inhibited FoxM1 binding to target promoters and repressed the expression of these downstream target genes. In addition, we learned that another thiazole antibiotic thiostrepton had very similar properties to Siomycin A. Like Siomycin A, thiostrepton downregulated the transcriptional activity of exogenous FoxM1 but neither of the antibiotics reduced Tcf/Lef or GLI transcriptional activity suggesting that both antibiotics may be specific inhibitors of FoxM1. Furthermore, we found that the thiazole antibiotics inhibited the growth of a panel of human cancer cell lines of different origin in low micromolar concentrations. Treatment of these cancer cells with the thiazole antibiotics resulted in FoxM1 downregulation and induction of apoptosis, which was suppressed by the overexpression of FoxM1. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiazole antibiotics that inhibit FoxM1 activity could represent promising candidates for the development of anticancer therapeutics against human neoplasia. 32. Hazra, Saugata and Arnon, Lavie Mutational analysis of enzyme Deoxycytidine Kinase shows very high reactivity towards silent prodrugs, An excellent candidate for cancer therapy Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Enzymes are generally stereo selective, so are most kinases.Physiologically,

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nucleoside kinases convert D-nucleosides to their corresponding mono phosphates, which in their triphosphate form acts as DNA/RNA precursors. Lnucleoside analogs represent an important class of small molecules for treating both viral infections and cancers. These prodrugs achieve pharmacological activity only after enzyme-catalyzed conversion to their triphosphorylated states. Given the stereo selectivity of normal cellular enzymes, L-nucleosides can only be converted into their mono-, di- and hence tri-phosphorylated forms by some special kinases. My research project involves the study of one of these kinases, human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) which is characterized by broad stereo selectivity. dCK is able to convert some L-nucleoside analogs into their corresponding mono phosphates. My work involves enzymatic and structural characterization of dCK in complex with these pro drugs with the goal of enlightening the basis of the broad stereo specificity of the enzyme. This is the first analysis of the structural basis for activation of L-nucleoside analogs and it provides further impetus for discovery and clinical development of new agents in this molecular class and for the engineering of dCK for protein therapy applications. 33. He, Jin and Lilley, Carmen Influence of surface effect on bending nanowires with different boundary conditions Mechanical and Industrial Engineering One application of nanowires (NWs) is as a mechanical component in actuators such as Nanoelectrical mechanical systems (NEMS). The elastic modulus is a critical design parameter for NEMS. However, the elastic modulus of NWs appears to be size dependent for many materials as found in experiments. Although a surface effect has been widely attributed to this size dependency of materials in nanoscale, how a surface effect affects the mechanical behavior of NWs is still not well understood. In this research, a continuum mechanics-based approach has been adopted to study the influence of the surface effect on the bending nanowires with different boundary conditions. The physical origin of the surface effect is that bulk atoms impose a stress constraint on the surface atoms due to uncoordinated surface atoms of nanoscale materials. The influence of surface stress on the bending elastic behavior of NWs has been studied by incorporating the Young-Laplace equation into Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. For the static bending, concise expressions for the force-displacement relationship of the NWs under a concentrated load are derived. For the dynamic bending, the natural frequencies of NWs are presented. According to our theoretical results, the surface stress causes NWs to behave as stiffer/softer materials and vary with boundary conditions, when compared to

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the calculations without surface stress. These results agree with the experimentally measured size dependent overall Young’s moduli of NWs in bending as reported from literature. The research outcome is a validated theoretical hypothesis on the physical origin of size dependent NW bending behavior. 34. Holzle, Denise L.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gaysina, Irina; Gallier, Franck; Mahesh, Aruna; and Blond, Sylvie Y. Neuronal protection provided by novel benzofuran maleimides, which selectively inhibit GSK3β activate β-catenin, a potential downstream neuroprotective pathway. Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology GSK3β is involved in the phosphorylation of a variety of targets including tau and β-catenin, both being aberrantly phosphorylated in neurodegenerative disorders. Lithium, a low affinity GSK3β inhibitor has been used for decades for the treatment of bipolar disorders. However, because of numerous side effects provoked by prolonged exposures to Lithium, it became urgent to design novel, more potent and less toxic neuroprotective GSK3β inhibitors. We characterized 38 benzofuranyl compounds against human recombinant GSK3β using a radiometric in vitro kinase assay. These were then assayed for their ability to provide neuroprotection in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with a PI3K inhibitor, i.e. LY294002. The most potent compounds were then tested in a β -catenin-dependent luciferase reporter assay. All the inhibitors displayed moderate to sub-nano molar affinity towards GSK3β. Of the thirty-eight inhibitors tested, sixteen exhibit a Ki of less than 25 nM for GSK3β. Twenty-three of benzofuran-derived maleimide GSK3 inhibitors are neuroprotective. Two inhibitors significantly increased the expression of a β-catenin-dependent reporter gene in HEK293 cells. We successfully designed novel potent, selective, non-cytotoxic and neuroprotective GSK3β inhibitors based on the structure of a benzofuran maleimide. One compound provides neuroprotection and is not cytotoxic in SH-SY5Y cells, this correlates with the activation of β-catenin observed in HEK293 cells thus, allowing expression of genes that are important for cell survival. Such a compound is a promising neuroprotective agent that could be further developed into a drug that will alleviate some of the symptoms associated with neurodegenerative disorders associated with hyperactivity of GSK3β.

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35. Iyengar, Veena; Santos, M.J.; and Aruin, A. Grip force control in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: effect of contralateral finger touch. Physical Therapy Research Aims: Very little is known about grip force control in Multiple sclerosis (MS). It was recently shown in healthy individuals and patients with stroke that the grip force decreased while manipulating a hand-held object when a light finger touch was provided. Thus, the two aims of this study are: 1) to investigate grip force control in patients with MS 2) to examine the effect of light touch on grip force in these patients. Methods: Eight patients with MS (48.2±8.5 years) and 8 controls (49.4±9.4 years) performed a task of lifting and transporting an instrumented object on a shelf while the grip forces and movement accelerations were recorded. The task was carried out with and without provision of light touch to the wrist with the contralateral index finger. ANOVA was performed to compare peak (PGF) and efficiency (EGF) of grip force and time of anticipatory grip force (TAGF) between and within groups. Results: The mean of PGF and EGF were significantly higher for MS patients than for the controls (p=0.03, p=0.04). With the application of the light touch, the PGF reduced significantly in patients and CT (p<0.01). The EGF improved with the application of light touch in both groups(p<0.01). The TAGF was not significantly different between the groups and was not modified with the application of light touch. Conclusion: Our results indicate that patients with MS applied larger grip forces than controls while manipulating an object. Additionally, this excessive grip force was reduced with the application of light touch. 36. Iyengarn Neil M.; David, Michael Z.; Mawdsley, Emily L.; and Weber, Stephen G. Blindness as a result of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN): A clinical vignette Medicine Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis is a destructive chorioretinitis that falls within the spectrum of necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. Typically associated with the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and almost exclusively found in people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), PORN has also been reported in association with other herpes viruses and found in other immunocompromised individuals.

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A seventy-two year old HIV-negative man with recently diagnosed metastatic neuroendocrine tumor presented to the emergency room with sudden onset loss of visual acuity for one day. His pupils were fixed and non-reactive to light. He was able to distinguish some light, but could not discriminate objects or figures. Two days prior to admission, he received his first session of chemotherapy with carboplatinum, VP16, and decadron, which he tolerated well. MRI of the brain was negative for acute stroke or cortical abnormalities and MRA of the intracranial circulation was unremarkable. Initial ophthalmological examination did not reveal any findings to explain his presentation. On the third day after admission he became neutropenic as a result of recent chemotherapy and he developed right-sided cranial nerve seven palsy. His speech became mildly dysarthric, but remained intelligible. Repeat MRI of the brain was again unremarkable. By the ninth day of admission, he developed vesicular lesions on the palate and chest. Lumbar puncture revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis consistent with aseptic meningitis. CSF cytology was negative for malignant cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was detected in the CSF by PCR and viral culture of a skin lesion revealed HSV-2. Ophthalmological examination at this time revealed extensive necrosis of the peripheral retina with a cherry-red macula – findings consistent with PORN. Parenteral high-dose acyclovir was initiated. This case highlights the importance of considering intraocular infection as a cause of acute visual loss. While HSV-2 related PORN is rare, it is an important part of the differential diagnosis particularly in the setting of other manifestations of herpes. The cranial nerve palsies characteristic of basilar meningitis in this case point to additional diagnoses in the differential including syphilitic, tuberculous, and fungal CNS infection. While PORN carries a devastating prognosis, early recognition and aggressive treatment may potentially preserve remaining vision. 37. Jaraula, Caroline; Brassell, Simon C.; Doran, Peter T.; and Kenig, Fabien Novel penta-unsaturated alkenones from Lake Fryxell, East Antarctica Earth and Environmental Sciences Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of bottom sediments from perennially ice-covered Lake Fryxell in the Dry Valleys of East Antarctica have allowed tentative identification of previously unrecognized pentaunsaturated alkenones, octatriaconta-pentaen-2-one (C38:5Me), nonatriaconta-pentaen-2 and 3-one (C39:5Me and C39:5Et), as well as tetradecpentaen-2-one (C40:5Me). These compounds comprise 15%, 28% and 12% of the total C38, C39 and C40 alkenones, respectively, which also include di-, tri-, and tetra-unsaturated ketones. Isochrysis sp. are the likely source organisms biosynthesizing the novel alkenones. The suite of alkenones produced may be a response to extremely cold temperatures year-round (~1 ºC average)

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and oxygen supersaturation, as well as phosphate-and light-limited conditions of the upper water column. 38. Jayaraj, Jayashree; Ke, Yin; Granberg, Kelly; and Rockne, Karl Rapid and Extensive Debromination of Brominated Flame Retardants in Thermophilic Municipal Wastewater Digesters Civil and Materials Engineering Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants used in electronics, plastics and textiles and typically end up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Given that arguments in favor of continued BDE209 use hinge on its non-toxicity, it is imperative that we understand whether BDE-209 can be debrominated to more toxic and bioavailable congeners in WWTPs. We measured PBDEs in various stages during the sludge digestion process in the Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP) in Chicago and Woodridge-Greene Valley waste treatment facility (WGV). CWRP receives extensive input from surrounding heavy industry whereas WGV receives exclusively domestic wastewater. PBDEs in WGV were significantly greater than those in CWRP. BDE-209 is debrominated at the highest reported rates with the production of lower brominated homologs within the 10 d hydraulic residence time in the thermophilic digesters at WGV. In contrast, BDE 209 is not extensively removed in the standard rate digester at CWRP, even with a 30 d residence time. These results indicate that domestic wastewater is much higher in PBDEs and are the first to demonstrate extensive debromination during actual digester operation. 39. Jeng, Eric; Tang, Xao; and Ikegaki, Naohikeo Molecular therapeutics of neuroblastoma Anatomy Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric cancer derived from primitive nerve tissue. It is a unique cancer in its strikingly bipolar prognosis as some tumors undergo spontaneous regression, while others rapidly proliferate and cause great morbidity and mortality. NB is broadly categorized into two groups, favorable NB, and unfavorable NB, associated with spontaneous regression or maturation, and unrestrained growth, respectively. Favorable NB genes are defined as genes whose high-level expression predicts good NB disease outcome. Accordingly, the forced expression of these genes in unfavorable NB results in tumor growth suppression. It has been shown that the attenuation of expression of favorable NB genes in unfavorable NB is due to

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both epigenetic (DNA methylation and histone deacetylation) and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Thus, chemotherapeutic agents which reactivate favorable NB genes can theoretically shift the malignancy of unfavorable NB to the benign counterpart. This study was undertaken to determine the ability of Trichostatin A or TSA (a histone deacetylase inhibitor), in combination with Epoxomycin (a proteasome inhibitor), and/or 5aza-2’-deoxycytidine or 5AdC (a DNA methylation inhibitor) to inhibit growth of unfavorable NB. It was found that the combination therapies (TSA and epoxomycin) do in fact effectively suppress growth of the most aggressive unfavorable NB cells. 40. Kanekar, Neeta; Santos, M.J.; and Aruin, A. Effect of muscle fatigue on anticipatory postural control Physical Therapy Research Aim: The maintenance of vertical posture is a challenging task, since it varies as a function of age and health status. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are essential in balance maintenance and are affected by several factors. For instance, the elderly and patients with muscle fatigue as a primary impairment are at an increased risk of loss of balance and experiencing falls. However, the effect of muscle fatigue on anticipatory postural control has not received adequate attention. The aim of this study was therefore, to investigate the effect of fatigue of postural and focal muscles on APAs. Methods: Nine healthy adults performed rapid bilateral arm raising movements before and immediately after isometric hamstring (postural) and deltoid (focal) muscle fatigue. Muscle force and peak acceleration of the arm movements were recorded to assess the presence of fatigue. Ground reaction forces, EMG activity of trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Results: Early APA onset was seen in erector spinae and semitendinosis muscles post deltoid fatigue. Anticipatory EMG integrals were reduced in the semitendinosis muscle post hamstring fatigue and increased in the gastrocnemius muscle post deltoid fatigue. No changes in COP displacement were observed following fatigue of both muscle groups. Conclusions: A common pattern of APA adaptations seen following fatigue of either muscle groups, along with no changes observed in COP displacements emphasizes the efficiency of the CNS in maintaining dynamic postural stability in the presence of fatigue.

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41. Kannankeril, Annie J.; Calip, Gregory S.; and Chan, Juliana Hepatitis B vaccination rates among adult liver disease patients in an outpatient clinic Pharmacy The Hepatitis B vaccine has been available since 1982, and universal childhood vaccination has been recommended since 1991. The vaccine is also recommended for high-risk adults, including those with liver disease. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that patients with chronic liver disease be vaccinated against hepatitis B. In a clinic setting where patients are seen by appointment it may be easier to administer vaccines. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine hepatitis B vaccination rates among patients seen at a university outpatient liver clinic. Adults with liver disease seen from September 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007 in the liver center were included in this IRB approved study. Hepatitis B serologies were analyzed for immunity or susceptibility to infection. Medical charts were then reviewed to determine if hepatitis B vaccine was offered and administered. All data was entered into a SPSS database and descriptive statistics were used to determine outcomes. Six hundred seventy-one patients met inclusion criteria and 482 were eligible for vaccination. Of those eligible, 121 (25.1%) received at least 1 dose of vaccine. Only 59 patients (12.2%) received the entire 3-dose series. Of the 361 eligible patients who were not vaccinated, 310(85.9%) were not offered vaccine. Various barriers existed, such as insurance not covering the vaccine, patients lost to follow-up, and assumed immunity without serologic verification. Hepatitis B vaccination rates were lower than should be expected. Implementing guidelines and providing education to those caring for liver disease patients is necessary to improve vaccination rates. 42. Keskar, Vandana and Gemeinhart, Richard A. Superporous Hydrogels: Novel Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Biopharmaceutical Sciences Aims: The purpose of the study was to develop a tissue engineering scaffold that will enable stem cell infiltration and differentiation. Superporous hydrogels (SPH) or macroporous hydrogels with highly porous interconnected structure that exhibit rapid fluid uptake were synthesized. The osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded within the scaffold’s porous structure was investigated.

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Methods: Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) SPHs were synthesized by a `gas foaming technique’. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface and interior morphology. MSCs seeded within the dehydrated SPH sections were cultured in basal and osteogenic media. Cell viability was assessed by the MTS assay. Osteogenesis within the scaffold was confirmed by von Kossa histologic staining for mineralized matrix and by the presence of biomarkers for osteogenesis like alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium. Quantification of ALP was by p-nitrophenol assay and calcium quantification by phenolsulphonepthalein assay. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine atomic composition of deposited mineral. Results: PEGDA-based SPHs are capable of rapid MSC uptake. The MSCs stay alive in the pores of the hydrogels for over 7 weeks. Hydrogels seeded with MSCs and cultured in osteogenic media show visible calcification on the exterior surface. The calcium to phosphorous ratio of the deposit is similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, the amorphous biological precursor of bone. Conclusion: Stem cells seeded within hydrogels can, under the appropriate conditions, differentiate towards mineralizing cells. The SPHs thus meet the unmet need of a biomimetic 3-D scaffold that supports easy cellular uptake, distribution, attachment, survival and differentiation. 43. Kuhr, Frank; Zhang, Yongkang; Brovkovych, Victor; Tan, Fulong; and Skidgel, Randal A. The Role of β-Arrestin in B1 Receptor Dependent Activation of iNOS. Pharmacology Kinins and their metabolites have wide ranging effects on vascular homeostasis, especially in inflammatory conditions. The kinin metabolites des-Arg9-bradykinin and des-Arg10-kallidin (DAKD) are B1 receptor (B1R) agonists. Our lab discovered that activation of the B1R in cytokine-stimulated human endothelial cells generates “super-high output” nitric oxide (NO) by activating the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which then phosphorylates the inducible form of the nitric oxide sythase (iNOS). Although β-Arrestins (βarrs) are well known to mediate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization, they can also function as scaffolding proteins in the MAPK pathway to enhance efficiency of phosphorylation of cytosolic substrates. To better understand how the B1R signal is transduced, HEK-B1R stable cells were transfected with iNOS cDNA and βarr2 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and NO production in response to B1R activation was measured in real time with a porphyrinic electrode. The siRNA to βarr2 inhibited NO production stimulated by 100nM DAKD up to 85% in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine whether the B1R interacts with βarr, HEK cells stably co-expressing functional B1 receptor fused to CFP

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at the c-terminus and βarr2 fused to YFP were established. Control cells or cells stimulated with 100nM DAKD were analyzed for FRET using confocal microscopy. Preliminary FRET data show that βarr2 interacts with the B1R in response to B1 agonist treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that βarr2 transiently interacts with the B1R and could be the first step in bringing the downstream components of the MAPK cascade together in a signalsome to activate iNOS and produce “super-high output” NO. 44. Lahiri, Mayank and Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y. Detecting Periodically Recurring Patterns in Dynamic Social Networks Computer Science Periodically recurring behavior is inherently present in many types of social systems, and can shed insight into what drives the dynamics of the system. For example, employees of corporations may conduct weekly meetings, certain species of animals exhibit seasonal mating patterns, and covert terrorist cells may communicate periodically by phone or e-mail in a specific pattern. By virtue of being periodically recurring, these patterns tend to be predictable and therefore useful for a variety of applications. Recent technological advances, such as GPS tracking collars for animals and the large-scale monitoring of phone and e-mail logs, have enabled continuous and automated recording of such social interaction data on a massive scale. We now have access to far more data than can be analyzed manually, which necessitates the use of ‘data mining’ algorithms to find interesting patterns. We provide the first formal mathematical proof that discovering all periodically recurring patterns in social interaction data can be performed far more efficiently than other related data mining problems, even when the patterns are only approximately periodic. We demonstrate this principle by developing a single, highly efficient algorithm for mining all periodically recurring patterns in different types of social systems. We show that large datasets, such as email traffic between employees of the former Enron Corporation, do indeed contain periodically recurring patterns. Furthermore, our algorithms extracts these patterns quickly and reliably. 45. Langlois, Marina; Mubayi, Dhruv; Sloan, Robert H.; and Turan, Gyorgy Combinatorial problems for Horn clauses Computer Science Given a family of Horn clauses, what is the minimal number of Horn clauses implying all other clauses in the family? What is the maximal number of Horn

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clauses from the family without having resolvents of a certain kind? We consider various problems of this type, and give some sharp bounds. We also consider the probability that a random family of a given size implies all other clauses in the family, and we prove the existence of a sharp threshold. 46. Lei, Yu; Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Sonke; Elam, Jeff; Pellin, Michael; Meyer, Randall; Winans, Randall; and Vajda,Stefan Epoxidation of Propylene on Alumina Supported Ag3 Clusters Chemical Engineering The epoxidation of propylene by molecular oxygen over size-selected Ag3 clusters has been investigated under realistic reaction conditions involving the application of technologically relevant oxide support. The samples of the Ag3 cluster-based catalysts were produced by size-selected clusters deposition on amorphous Al2O3 coated SiO2/Si(111) substrate. The catalytic properties of Ag3 catalysts were studied by means of temperature programmed reaction (TPR) combined with in situ grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) at atmosphere pressure and temperatures up to 200°C. Ag3 clusters showed increase in catalytic activity with increasing temperature. The highest product propylene oxide to acrolein ratio achieved was 3:1 in the temperature regime between 75°C and 100°C. GISAXS data showed an onset of the sintering of clusters around 120°, leading to the formation of 2 nm size aggregates. The reactivity of the 2 nm size silver aggregates will be discussed as well. 47. Lemmon, Grace Boundaries of the Utility of Workplace Political Behavior Managerial Studies In his classic works, Mintzberg (1983; 1985) proposed that because organizations are inherently political, political skill is necessary for an employee to obtain organizational resources and positively perceive the organizational environment. However, little progress has been made in empirically testing this hypothesis or extending theory to account for conditions when political skill is most effective. Drawing on balance theory (Heider, 1958), this paper revisits Mintzberg’s work and test the interactive effects of subordinate political skill and manager-rated growth-need on subordinates’ resource-related outcomes (mentoring, receipt of challenging assignments, salary) and attitudinal outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover intentions, managerial aspirations) with a sample of 139 subordinate-manager

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dyads. Contrary to Mintzberg’s propositions, results indicate that rather than growth-need supplementing political skill in relationship to outcomes, either growth-need or political skill is a necessary precondition to resource acquisition and positive attitudes about work. 48. Li, Juzheng and Shatz, Sol M. A Coordination Mechanism for Mobile Devices to Gather and Share Sensor Data Computer Science Introducing mobile devices into wireless sensor network has attracted significant attention in recent years. However, one fundamental problem with this type of heterogeneous network that has not yet been well investigated is how to effectively coordinate mobile device applications specifically intended to gather and share sensor data. In this literature, we adopt the general idea from publish/subscribe mechanism and refine it to better serve our scenario. We view the mobile devices as subscribers and employ a server named the interest-management server to manage the mobile devices’ subscribed interests (represented by queries issued targeting certain sensor nodes). Mobile devices that have a common interest toward some specific sensors can be formed into one group. To efficiently share information and overcome the inherent disadvantages of conventional publish/subscribe mechanism, two key categories of cooperative behaviors among mobile devices are developed: inter-group cooperation and intra-group cooperation. For inter-group cooperation, a device shares common-interest sensor data directly with other devices that are interested in this same data. For intra-group cooperation, a device sends sensor data that it happens to know about, but is not currently interested in itself, to other devices that have expressed an interest in this data. This research is especially challenging, but of significant value, in the context of applications that impose high-volume data-retrieval requests. Our proposed technique can considerably explore the query overlaps and query correlations so that will coordinate the sensor-data requests in a way that avoids unnecessary interactions with sensors, thus conserving sensor-node energy consumption. 49. Li, Weiguo; Hong, Liu; Zhang, Guoquan; and Magin, Richard Evaluating the Growth of Tissue-engineered Cartilage Using MRI Bioengineering

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Purpose: To test the hypothesis that quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (QMTI) can reflect the change of extracellular matrix (ECM) during tissue-engineered cartilage development and the bound proton faction (BPF) from QMTI can be used as a marker for evaluating cartilage development. Background: MRI techniques are amenable to the assessment of early stages of cartilage disease. As a relatively new contrast mechanism in MRI, magnetization transfer (MT) is sensitive to the density of macromolecules in tissue structures. To our knowledge, however, there is no report of the use of QMTI to monitor the growth of the tissue-engineered cartilage. Methods: In this study, measurements of the development of tissueengineered cartilage with QMTI, MR relaxation times (T1 and T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were conducted over a 4-week growth period. These MR results were correlated with subsequent biochemical analysis for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. Results: The BPF and cross-relaxation rate (k) of the constructs cultured in the chondrogenic differentiation medium showed a significant difference (p<0.05, n=6) at all stages of development and were highly correlated (0.98 and 0.93, respectively) with the increase of GAG content in the constructs. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the QMTI can be used to access the changes of the ECM during tissue-engineered cartilage development, as reflected in BPF. Thus BPF can be used as a marker for evaluating the cartilage development process. 50. Lim, Sok Bee; Rubinstein, Israel; and Önyüksel, Hayat Lyophilization of Self-associated Peptide Therapeutics with Sterically Stabilized Phospholipid Nanomicelles. Biopharmaceutical Sciences Purpose: Sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles (SSM) are long-acting biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarriers for various therapeutic peptides.1 However, SSM are composed of DSPE-PEG2000 which is susceptible to hydrolysis and oxidation. This will pose stability problem during storage of the product. Therefore, in this study, feasibility of preparing lyophilized peptide associated SSM was investigated. Methods: SSM were prepared as previously described at 5, 10, 15 and 20mM.2 The nanomicelles were frozen at -20oC overnight, followed by 3min incubation in liquid N2 and then overnight lyophilization in Labconco® FreezeDry System. The products were evaluated for the appearance of the lyophilized cakes, particle size and viscosity of SSM dispersions pre and post lyophilization after reconstitution with water. To prepare peptide associated SSM, VIP, GLP-1(7-36) or GIP (each, 67 μM) was added to SSM (10 mM), lyophilized as above and analyzed by QELS, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy.

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Results: SSM at 10 and 15mM were the optimum lipid concentrations for lyophilization with lyophilized cakes of the most elegant appearance. Particle sizes and viscosities of SSM solutions were not significantly different before and after lyophilization. Ten mM of lipid was subsequently chosen for followon study of peptide associated SSM. Our results indicated similar peptidemicelle interaction pre and post lyophilization. Likewise, peptide secondary structures and particle sizes of the peptide-micelle dispersions were not significantly different before and after lyophilization. Conclusions: Under the lyophilization conditions used, 10mM lipid is the minimum concentration required to produce lyophilized SSM. Adequate lyoprotection is provided to various peptide therapeutics using this approach. Acknowlegements: Supported by VA Merit Review and NIH grant R01 AG024026. References: 1. Krishnadas A, et al. Curr Pharm Des. 2003 ; 9(12) :100512. 2. Ashok B, et al. J Pharm Sci. 2004; 93: 2476-2487.
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51. Luo, Jing Social Environmental Conditions that Contribute to Increased HIV Risk Among Male Migrants in Tajikistan Medicine Introduction: Previous studies from South African mines found that “powerlessness” due to harsh working conditions shaped a miner’s sexual identity and resulted in decreased self-efficacy regarding HIV prevention. To investigate the role of powerlessness and its responses, we compared internal with external migrants from the Central Asian Republic of Tajikistan. Methods: Minimally structured interviews and focused field observations were conducted with 30 married male internal migrants in Regar, Tajikistan and 30 married external migrants in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Transcripts from interviews and field notes were coded and analyzed using ATLAS-Ti software. Results: “Powerlessness” alone fails to explain HIV-risk taking in terms of condom use. Both internal and external migrants report regularly having unprotected sex with sex workers when working away from home. Internal migrants calculate their risk of acquiring STIs by selecting workers that appear to be clean. External migrants join support networks in response to harsh living conditions, have parties with heavy alcohol use, and practice concurrent unprotected sex with sex workers. Conclusions: Successful interventions aimed at reducing HIV risk among migrants must take into account different patterns of migration.

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52. Maw, Kyaw Thet Method for Finding Potential Peptide Biomarkers from Volume-limited Biological Samples Using MALDI-TOF-MS Chemistry The identification of disease biomarkers may be helpful in understanding pathological mechanisms or for diagnostics. One of the most powerful methods for peptides and proteins biomarker detection is mass spectrometry. This work presents an assay for finding potential peptide biomarkers for biological sample with limited volume availability. Biological samples as small as 500 nL were dialyzed using nanoliter dialysis device to remove abundant large proteins and microspot technique was used to concentrate the sample as well as remove interfering salts to enhance MALDI-MS detection. In house developed MATLAB script was also introduced to find significant peptide peaks from case samples compared to control samples in a qualitative approach. The algorithm utilizes differential MS technique where the peaks represent up regulated peaks and the dips represent down regulated peaks. MATLAB extracted percent frequencies were used as the criteria for selecting potential peptide peaks. The possibility of this technique as a tool for biomarker discovery was presented using simulated MS for simplicity and validation purposes then applied to complex human vitreous (HV) samples. The mass spectra of 500 nL HV samples from diabetic related eye disorder patients (proliferative diabetic retinopathy, PDR) and epiretinal membrane (control, ERM) patients were collected. After analyzing mass spectra from 8 PDR samples and 8 controls, 21 peaks were found to be more abundant and 4 peptide peaks were found to be less abundant compared to controls in more than 50 % of the difference spectra. Overall, this assay provides ease and short analysis time as well as suitable with volume limited samples. 53. Mecum, Rebecca; Huq, Jameela; Sun, Shan; Vishnubhotla, Ramana; Bulic, Marinka; Perrault, Cecile M.; Quraishi, Hanzla; Metlushko, Vitali; Cho, Michael; Tran Son Tay, Roger; and Glover, Sarah C. RHOming the Extracellular Matrix Microtopography in Colon Cancer Medicine Topographical features including surface roughness, rigidity, and porosity have been recently identified as playing an important role as mechanical regulators of cell behavior both in development and in malignancy. While matrix rigidity or stiffness has been well studied, surface roughness or the microtopographical features created by the proteins and fibers underlying cells is less well studied. We have shown that the microtopography (mT)

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underlying colon cancer cells changes as a tumor de-differentiates, such that well-differentiated tumor mT has more “pits” and poorly differentiated mT has more “posts.” To show that these changes in mT alter cell behavior, we evaluated activities associated with Rho A in less tumorogenic (Caco-2 E) and more tumorogenic (SW620) colon cancer cell lines on microfabricated “pit” and “post” PDMS microtopographies. We observed that Rho A activity was greatest in SW620 cells plated on “posts” and led to increased cell motility and changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Cell proliferation, however, was only impacted in Caco-2 E cells. This data suggests that the ECM mT acquires a greater ability to modulate Rho A as cells become more tumorogenic. These findings are important because they provide an explanation for the seemingly conflicting data regarding the role of Rho A in cancer and in particular, its role in colon cancer. 54. Mitchell, Diane E. and Thorkildsen, Theresa A. Educators’ Predictions of Disengaged Students’ Academic Beliefs Education Learning disabled high school students with criminal or chronic misconduct usually are not included in research regarding educational standards and expectations. The present study directs inquiry toward three issues: • Can educators accurately predict the civil identities of their students? • Do educators and students agree on how often students use positive and negative excuses during academic interactions? • Do students’ beliefs about an ideal school match educators’ predictions? Educators and adolescents in an alternative high school completed parallel surveys about students’ civil identities, beliefs about an ideal school, and uses of positive and negative excuses. Adolescents generally reported more positive civil identities and complex conceptions about an ideal school than educators predicted. Educators also assumed that adolescents used negative excuses more often whereas students reported using positive excuses more often. Adolescents and educators shared equally negative views regarding the quality of their school. The findings suggest that, like other adolescents, individuals with chronic or criminal misconduct have positive expectations and complex beliefs about how school ought to be organized. Misjudging students’ needs and wants, educators predict according to student negative behavior (the primary reason for being referred to the school). When educators infer from student behavior that students’ beliefs and goals are more negative than students report, potential miscommunication exists. This may imply that educators need to talk more often with students regarding their expectations and standards.

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55. Mo, Shunyan; Chlipala George E.; Krunic, Aleksej; Sturdy, Megan; Bazarek, Stanley; and Orjala, Jimmy Antibacterial Hapalindole-Type alkaloids from cultured Cyanobacterium Fisherella ambigua Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been shown as a potential source of secondary metabolites with diverse chemical structures and biological activities. In our studies the crude extract of Fischerella ambigua showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chemical investigation of the crude extract using bioguided fractionation afforded the isolation of four new penta- or hexacyclic hapalindole-type alkaloids (1-4) as well as twelve previously described indole alkaloids. The structures of these new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods including MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR and X-ray crystallography. High field (900 MHz) cryoprobe NMR was used to identify the minor substances. The structural determination and biological activities of the compounds will be presented.
R
14 13 12 22 11 10 3 9 2 24 28 6 7 8 25 19 21 20

Cl

17 18

OH
16 15

NC 23
26

OH

NC
25 24

26

OH

NC
25 24

26

O

4 5

N H

1

27

N H 3

N 1 H 4

1 R= Cl 2 R= H

56. Monllor, Javier Regulatory focus, opportunity recognition and creativity: an experimental Marketing After Shane and Venkataramans (2000) seminal article, the field of entrepreneurship has increasingly turned its eyes toward understanding entrepreneurial opportunity recognition (OpR). It is now widely accepted that entrepreneurship entails the examination of how, by whom and with what effects opportunities are discovered, evaluated and exploited. Despite its

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notable importance and the interest it has garnered, the state of current research on OpR suggests that little understanding has been developed. This dissertation fills this important gap in the entrepreneurship literature by looking at the subject through a creativity lens. By combining creativity and entrepreneurship literature, this study brings a fresh and unique perspective to the study of OpR. For our purposes, creativity is defined as the creation of products that are both novel and useful. Employing regulatory focus theory, this thesis will attempt to discover how motivation affects an entrepreneurs ability to generate and evaluate creative (e.g. novel and useful) business ideas. To accomplish this, it will rely on an experimental methodology that will manipulate the subjects motivation and measure their creative output. 57. Murphy, Amanda Canadian Symbols: Public, Private, Political, and Pedagogic Representations of the Great White North History My presentation discusses the impact of Canadian public symbols, including aboriginal artwork, commercial icons, and national emblems. Examples of politicized Canadian iconography include: the adoption of an inukshuk (an Inuit symbol) for the 2010 Olympics logo; the appeal to Canadian exclusivity by the sales industry; and nation-building symbols like the Canadian maple leaf flag. Such iconography attempts to eliminate divisions within Canadian society, but accepting these symbols at face value disregards the underlying uncertainty about the definition of a true Canadian. The tensions in the usage of allegedly Canadian symbols reflect the divisions in Canadian society. Aboriginal artwork is used to promote the Vancouver Olympics despite unresolved native land claims in the region. Companies such as Canadian Tire, Tim Hortons, and Molson exploit their "Canadian"ness freely in advertisements, though US companies now own two of the three corporations. The Canadian flag claims to embody the patriotism of all Canadians, but its use at the federal level is contrasted by a recent proliferation of provincial flags and separatist movements. Quebec has a separatist provincial party, the Maritime provinces (especially Newfoundland) have new flags and grassroots independence movements, and First Nations resistance continues in many forms and under different banners, but perhaps most famously under the Mohawk Warrior flag. Despite the supposedly inclusive nature of Canadian icons and the multicultural society found above the 49th parallel, Canadian symbols are exclusive tools used by a certain component of North American society. The variations in Canadian society and the political tensions manifest in the iconography allow for an analysis of the cultural phenomena on a quest to define the true "Canadian.”

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58. Nam, Ki-Hwan; Oppegard, Shawn C.; and Eddington, David T. Independent Control of Oxygen Concentration for Cell Culture in an Add-on Insert Platform for Multi-well plates Bioengineering Oxygen is a key modulator of many cellular pathways and current laboratory techniques for probing this important variable lack precise control. Several conditions within the same incubator can be generated through the use of hypoxic chambers, however only 4 chambers generally fit within a standard incubator. In this study, a microfabricated add-on insert for multiwell plates has been developed to control the gas concentration of each well independent of the global incubator’s condition. In this simple and efficient platform the cells can be grown and visualized under culture conditions through an inverted microscope. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) of which the multiwell platform is made is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide and allows them to permeate through a thin 100μm membrane quickly. The gases diffuse across the thin membrane, and the cells are exposed to the gases directly. Additionally, gradients in local oxygen concentration can be generated within each well to mimic those found in vivo for more biomimetic cellular models which are impossible to implement in standard culture models. The overall goal of this study is to optimize and disseminate a high throughput hypoxia add-on for a standard multiwell plate as a simple yet powerful technique to explore this vital yet largely ignored metabolic variable in cell biology. This platform will break down experimental barriers to impose these oxygen gradients and independent control of oxygen concentration in standard cell culture materials to improve cellular assays. This research will ultimately improve the efficiency of high-throughput systems for development of cellular microenvironmental models. 59. Oppegard, Shawn C.; Anderson, Peter A.; and Eddington, David T. Cnidarian Nematocysts as Microscale Drug Synthesis and Delivery Modules Bioengineering Nematocyst organelles, isolated from cnidarian organisms, are attractive as a drug-delivery platform due to their fast, efficient delivery of toxins. The nematocyst could be utilized in a drug-delivery “patch.” Additionally, the drug could be synthesized by engineered nematocyst to accomplish an all-in-one microscale synthesis and delivery platform. Nematocysts can be induced to

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discharge in a number of ways, including electrical, mechanical, and chemical stimulation. As a first step in using nematocysts as a functional component of a drug delivery system we must first characterize the puncture mechanics of the thread. Tentacle-contained nematocysts were used as a “best-case scenario” due to physical immobilization of the nematocysts. Ex vivo nematocysts from Physalia possessed an elastic modulus puncture threshold of approximately 1-2 MPa, based on puncture tests of materials with a gamut of hardness. Preliminary lectin-binding experiments were performed using fluorophore-conjugated lectin (Con-A) as a possible means to immobilize the isolated nematocyst capsule, preventing reorientation. Promisingly, Con-A binding was localized to the apical surface of Physalia nematocysts. Additionally, optical tweezing was utilized and provided precise spatial positioning of individual nematocysts. The information gained from this preliminary work will aid in determining the materials and design of the patch. 60. Ozer, Fusun and Ashley, Mary Conservation Genetics of Anacapa Island deer mice Biological Sciences Invasive rodents (e.g. rats, house mice) have been a great threat to island species. This was the case on Anacapa Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park (CINP), off the coast of California. The native species of Anacapa Island, including the endemic Anacapa deer mouse, were threatened by black rats (Rattus rattus) that had been introduced to the island. In 2002, CINP began a program to eradicate black rats from Anacapa. The program included the capture and reintroduction of deer mouse on three Anacapa islets. Our objective was to monitor deer mouse demographic and genetic recovery pre and post-reintroduction. DNA microsatellite genotyping was used to compare genetic variability levels and population differentiation. Measures of genetic variation were fairly high among founders and remained at similar levels during the recovery. The exception is East population where heterozygosity and allelic diversity increased as a result of mixing founders. Despite high levels of variation in recovered populations, shifts in allele frequencies indicate genetic drift occurred during the recovery phase, suggesting only a subset of reintroduced mice reproduced. The recovered populations do not, however, show evidence of inbreeding. FST values indicated that the three islands were genetically different before reintroductions. After reintroductions, East population became more similar to Middle and West populations, again as a result of mixing founders. P. m. anacapae is highly differentiated from mainland deer mice. Our results show that the reintroduction plan has been successful in terms of reestablishing genetically diverse populations of Anacapa deer mice.

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61. Petersen, Brett Effect of Cadence on Lactate Threshold and Peak Power Output Kinesiology Research Previously, a cyclist's cadence has not been taken into account during lactate threshold testing procedures; however, research has shown that cadence affects cycling efficiency, thus one would expect cadence to influence power output at lactate threshold. The power output at lactate threshold is a strong predictor of cycling performance and lactate threshold testing is a popular means of assessing a cyclist's endurance performance. Lactate threshold testing is also frequently used to develop training programs. In the present study, seven cyclists performed four graded exercise tests at 70 RPM, 80 RPM, 90 RPM, or their freely chosen cadence. Heart rate and power output were determined at lactate threshold (measured as lactate deflection point and onset of blood lactate accumulation [OBLA]: 4 mmol • L -1) and peak power output (PPO) in each trial. It was found that 1) a cadence of 70 RPM yielded greater power output at OBLA compared to the other three trials, 2) cadence did not affect HR at the lactate deflection point or OBLA, 3) cadence did not affect peak power output, though there was a trend of higher PPO at 70 RPM, and 4) cadence did not affect rating of perceived exertion (RPE), though there was a trend towards lower RPE at 80 RPM. The results from this study suggest that cadence should be taken into account when performing a graded exercise test for determining lactate threshold and that cadence may affect cycling performance. 62. Pollema, S.L.; You, Y.; Nwabuisi, E.; Wang, B.; Pigino, G.; Morfini, G.; and S. T. Brady Inhibition of Fast Axonal Trasport by Polyglutamine Huntingtin Protein Anatomy and Cell Biology Huntington’s disease (HD) is a dominant genetic disorder with midlife onset of selective neuronal degeneration and death. Caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the Huntingtin (Htt) protein past a critical number, no clear pathological mechanism has emerged to explain how this expansion confers a toxic, gain of function to the Htt protein. Although the mutant Htt protein is expressed ubiquitously, only neurons are affected; this suggests a process particularly critical to neurons must be compromised in HD. One such process is fast axonal transport (FAT). The extreme length of axons relative to the cell body places a huge demand on neurons for efficient transport of cargoes. We hypothesized the Htt protein may be affecting FAT. To test this, a prep involving the giant axon from the squid (Logio pealii) was used. This

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was viewed on a Zeiss Axiomat with DIC optics and a video enhanced screen. We measured real time movement of anterograde and retrograde FAT. Recombinant N-terminal fragments of both WT and the expanded PolyQ-Htt proteins were perfused into the axon prep and their effect on FAT measured. WT-Htt had no effect while PolyQ-Htt significantly inhibited FAT. Biochemical and pharmacological experiments mapped a pathway whereby PolyQ-Htt activates JNK in the axon, which in turn phosphorylates kinesin-1 heavy chains, inducing its detachment from microtubules. Recent data revealed a critical role for the polyproline domain of Htt in activating the JNK pathway in the axon. This suggests that JNK represents a promising therapeutic target in HD. 63. Preissner, Curt; Royston; Thomas J.; and Shu, Deming Improved revolute-joint robot modeling through the application of a high fidelity harmonic drive model Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Through this study, the researchers sought to improve the modeling of revolute-joint robots. State-of-the-art revolute-joint robots, also known as armtype robots, have high static positioning accuracy (20 μm). The trajectory accuracy of these revolute-joint robots, however, is limited by uncontrolled dynamics caused by nonlinearities and compliance in the robot transmission, compliance in the cross-roller support bearings, and compliance in the robot structure. The robot trajectory inaccuracy prevents these devices from being used in trajectory-sensitive applications such as x-ray detector manipulators and robotic surgical assistive devices. Typical control schemes do not compensate for the transmission hysteresis and kinematic error nonlinearities, nor are sufficient transmission models found in the literature. The researchers have developed a novel transmission model that captures the hysteresis phenomenon in a causal manner, which is not apparent in the literature. In addition, this work aims to clarify inconsistencies in the literature as to whether the transmission compliance is linear or nonlinear. The improved transmission model has been incorporated into a simulation of the complete robot. If the transmission behavior is accurately captured, it is expected that the simulation results will compare favorably with the empirically measured trajectory data. The model can then be used to improve the performance of revolute-joint robots. This work is supported by The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

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64. Ramsey, David; Wolfe, Gregory; and Guerrero, Christopher. Treatment Of Presbyopia In An Indigenous Filipino Population Health Policy and Administration Purpose: Presbyopia is the diminished ability of the eye to focus on near objects. The loss of accommodation begins between the ages of 40-50 and the process accelerates with age. The present project was undertaken to treat presbyopia in an aged Filipino population in the rural province of Nueva Vizcaya in the Philippine Islands. An intervention strategy was developed to educate patients about eye disease and dispense reading glasses. Methods: Patients were recruited to a medical and dental outreach sponsored by the Global Medical Foundation (Chicago, IL) and St. Mary University School of Health Sciences (Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines) in February of 2008. Patients over the age of 40 were invited to undergo a near visual acuity exam and be fitted with reading glasses (supplied by Partners in Restoring Vision and Improving Lives, San Rafael, CA). Results: More than 300 patients received reading glass at no cost. The average age of patients who presented themselves for vision screening was 52 9 years old. Women represented 70% of the study population. The average uncorrected near visual acuity was 20/50-. Upon the application of reading glasses most patients achieved a visual acuity of 20/25+ or better (n=168; p<0.001). Conclusions: Uncorrected presbyopia is a significant cause of visual impairment in this indigenous Filipino community. Reading glasses are a simple and effective intervention strategy to improve near visual acuity. Future studies should expand this work by examining secondary outcomes, such as the effect on individual productivity and household income. 65. Rankin, Kristin M.; Rosenberg, Deborah; and Freels, Sally Using average population attributable fractions to provide a new perspective on overweight in white and African-American adolescents Epidemiology/Biostatistics The population attributable fraction (PAF) estimates the proportion of cases of a disease that could potentially be prevented by eliminating a risk factor in the population. Previously, methods for adjusting the PAF in a multifactorial context did not account for the overlap of risk factors in the population. The average PAF (avgPAF) has recently given epidemiologists a tool for producing mutually exclusive PAFs that can be used to order a series of risk factors according to their impact on disease and therefore inform the prioritization of risk factor reduction strategies. To demonstrate an application of this method, data from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health were

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used to examine childhood overweight. Summary and average PAFs were calculated for modifiable risk factors. Analyses were performed separately for African-American and non-Hispanic white adolescents (age 12-17) to examine whether the racial disparity in overweight can be explained by differences in exposure and determine if risk factor reduction strategies would benefit from a targeted rather than universal approach. Factors also differed by gender so separate models were run for boys and girls. The summary PAF for overweight was 0.29 and 0.51 for white males and females, respectively, and 0.15 and 0.39 for African American males and females, respectively. Lack of physical activity and more hours of screen time had high avgPAFs in all groups except African-American males. Not being on a sports team was important only among females (avgPAF=0.09). Average PAFs can provide a new perspective on childhood overweight and other health issues. 66. Razzak, Anthony; Saied, Abdul; Hering, Justin; Trevino, Jose; and Espat, Joseph Comparative Genetic Expression Profile of Gemcitabine Sensitivity in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Surgery BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer remains a highly aggressive, metastatic malignancy inadequately treated with current therapies. In this study, we examine the genetic expression profile of gemcitabine (current gold standard chemotherapy) treated pancreatic cancer cell line L3.6pl, considered a gemcitabine sensitive cell line (GEM SENS), and compare it to a cloned variant selected for experimentally acquired gemcitabine resistance, L3.6 Clone (GEM RES). METHODS: GEM resistance was induced by exposure to 500 ng/ml of GEM, 5x greater than the IC50, for 48 hours, and increased to 3000 ng/ml in 500 ng/ml increments. Resistance was confirmed by sustainment when returned to maintenance GEM (125ng/ml). Cells were treated with 100μM GEM for 12 hours. Microarray analysis was performed using Agilent 44K whole human genome oligoarray and analyzed using Agilent software on all normalized background corrected signal intensities. Significant differential expression (SDE) was defined as ≥ 2 fold difference between GEM and media-only controls. RESULTS: 3352 SDE genes in GEM SENS vs. 3274 genes in GEM RES were identified. By gene ontology: GEM SENS revealed 225 SDE genes that regulate transcription, 32 regulating apoptosis, 29 regulating cell proliferation, 21 regulating cell cycle, 20 involved with inflammation and 13 regulating cell cycle arrest. GEM RES data revealed 118 SDE genes regulating transcription, 9 regulating apoptosis, 19 regulating cell proliferation, 16 regulating cell cycle, 10 involved with inflammation and 8 regulating cell cycle arrest. (Table 1. is representative) CONCLUSION: This data offers insight into the molecular level events

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defining chemoresistance and the paradoxical chemotherapy-induced chemoresistance that complicates pancreatic cancer treatment. 67. Roy, Nilotpal Role of DDB2 in Replicative Senescence Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics DDB2 was identified as a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Deficiency of DDB2 leads to Xeroderma Pigmentosum, a human genetic disorder characterized by sun sensitivity and high incidence of skin tumor. We developed a mouse model to study the functions of DDB2. The DDB2 -/- mice recapitulate the human disease phenotype, as they develop skin cancer following exposure to UV irradiation. The fibroblasts derived from DDB2 -/embryos are clearly deficient in NER. Surprisingly, we observed that the DDB2 -/- MEFs are deficient also in replicative senescence. The DDB2 -/MEFs continue to divide over 40 passages in culture, whereas the MEFs from the wild type embryos senesce at passage 5/6. Interestingly, in the wild type MEFs, expression of DDB2 coincides with the expression of p19ARF, a major regulator of "culture shock" induced senescence in MEFs. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is an important factor in senescence, increases the levels of DDB2. To investigate the mechanism, we compared the levels of the cell cycle proteins. In that analysis, we found that the level of p19ARF is lower in DDB2-/- MEFs compared to the wild type MEFs. We show that DDB2 is critical for expression and maintenance of the p19ARF-mRNA in late passage MEFs. We propose that, in addition to its role in NER, DDB2 has a role in transcription that is particularly important for p19ARF expression in senescing MEFs. Moreover, we think that the impairment in the senescence pathway contributes to tumor development in DDB2-deficiency. 68. Rumiche, Francisco; Wang, Hsien-Hau J.; Indacochea, Ernesto; and Wang, Ming L. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) based nanostructured hydrogen sensor Civil and Materials Engineering Recent research thrusts for alternate methods of power generation has turn to production and storage of H2 as alternative fuel, as it is the most environmental friendly fuel. It is foreseen that H2 will become a basic energy infrastructure to power future generations; however it is also recognized that if it is not handled properly (e.g. transportation, storage), it is as dangerous as

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any other fuel available. It can be said that H2 sensors are essential to achieve a H2 economy. In this investigation, a nanostructured sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanowells was fabricate and assessed for hydrogen gas sensing. AAO nanowells with an average diameter of 73 nm and depth proportional to the anodization time were immersed in a surfactant solution and coated with an 8 nm film of palladium nanoparticles. The electrical resistance change of the nanostructure with hydrogen gas exposure was used as the sensing parameter. The AAO nanowells-Pd nanostructures were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and contact angle test. Hydrogen concentrations as low as 0.05 vol% (500 ppm) can be detected at room temperature. Response times as fast as 1.15 seconds were obtained. Compared to current devices and nanostructures in development, the AAO nanowell-Pd nanostructure is found to be considerably fast without compromising sensitivity and selectivity.

69. Shaibat, Medhat and Ishii, Yoshitaka Using of paramagnetic ion doping to obtain structural information and sensitivity enhancement of Aβ(1-40) intermediates and fibrils by solidstate NMR Chemistry Amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer’s b-amyloid peptides (Ab) are primary components of senile plaque of Alzheimer’s disease. Unstructured monomeric Ab self –assembles into fibrils in which the later exhibit more neurotoxicty. On the other hand, evidence suggests that early-stage aggregates of Ab exist in fibril formation and that these diffusible intermediates are more toxic than fibrils and may be responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. Despite many studies on structural analysis of these Ab(1-40) fibrils and intermediate, the supermolecular structure of these fibrils and intermediate Ab(1-40) is not yet completely understood. Our group has recently demonstrated the use of paramagnetic ion doping to obtain structural information and sensitivity enhancement for large microcrystalline proteins. In this study, we will demonstrate the possibility of using paramagnetic copper ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (CuEDTA) doping to obtain supermolecular structural information for fibril and intermediate Ab(1-40) amyloid peptide. In addition to that, we will show a sensitivity enhancement by using very small amount of CuEDTA in solid samples.

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70. Shehu, Aurora Y.; Devi, Sangeeta; Stocco, Carlos; Mao, Jifang; Halperin, Julia; Le, Jamie; Binartm, Nadine; and Gibori, Geula Repression of SP1 mediates inhibition of FOXO3 transcriptional activity by PRL signaling through PRL-RS Physiology and Biophysics Prolactin (PRL) plays a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy in rodent, due in large part, to repression of genes detrimental to pregnancy in both the corpus luteum and decidua. Prolactin has been shown to bind to two distinct receptors; long (PRLRL) and short (PRL-RS) in both tissues. Very recently, we have shown that the expression of Foxo3, a transcription factor known to regulate follicular development, is profoundly down regulated by PRL signaling through PRL-RS. To gain insight into the mechanism of regulation of Foxo3 by PRL signaling through PRL-RS, we have isolated Foxo3 promoter and found in the 1578 bp upstream region several putative Sp1 binding sites. To determine whether these Sp1 sites play a role in Foxo3 gene expression, we transfected the luteal GG-CL cells with the full length Foxo3 promoter together with either Sp1 expression vector, a dominant negative Sp1, or empty vector. We found a significant upregulation of Foxo3 promoter activity in the cells transfected with wild type Sp1 and a down regulation of Foxo3 transcriptional activity with dominant negative Sp1. We examined whether the repression of Foxo3 by PRL through PRL-RS involves down regulation of Sp1. We found that PRL treatment of transgenic mice expressing only PRL-RS causes a severe down regulation in Sp1 mRNA both in the ovary and decidua. This inhibition is accompanied by a decrease DNA binding activity of Sp1, which was confirmed by EMSA analysis using decidual tissue and GG-CL cell expressing PRL-RS. Immunocytochemical analysis further established that PRL treatment depletes nuclear expression of Sp1. Furthermore, CK2, a kinase known to phosphorylate and inhibit DNA binding activity of Sp1 is not upregulated by PRL through PRL-RS. This indicates that decrease in Sp1 protein expression but not the level of phosphorylation is responsible for inhibition of PRL mediated Sp1 DNA binding activity. Indeed, we found that PRL reduces markedly levels of Sp1 protein in GGCL and UIII cells transiently transfected with PRL-RS. This inhibition was not seen in cells expressing PRL-RL, making Sp1 a unique target of PRL signaling through PRL-RS. Taken together, our results revealed that PRL signaling through PRL-RS represses Sp1 and Foxo3 transcription factors in the ovary as well as in the decidua, two of the known targets of PRL. Our results further indicate that repression of Sp1 may be a mechanism by which Foxo3 expression is inhibited by PRL signaling through PRL-RS. Supported by NIH HD12356, HD11119, U54HD40093 and the American Physiological Society.

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71. Shekhawat, Vivek K; Pacione, Carol; and Wimmer, Markus A Secondary joint motions play a vital role in mechanical stimulation of articular cartilage explants Bioengineering Diarthrodial joints move the contact point between articulating surfaces and regulate the loading of cartilage [Li 2004]. This study evaluated the effect of moving contact point on the biochemical response of viable cartilage explants. Materials and Methods: Full thickness cartilage explants, procured from six 6-8 months old calf knees, were divided into three groups: free-swelling control, moving contact point, and stationary contact point. A joint simulator [Wimmer 2004], hosted inside an incubator, was used to impart compressive loading and articular motion to the contact-point groups for four days. A counter-acting alumina ball applied this load-motion combination to the explants for two 1-hours periods per day. The conditioned medium was collected and replaced daily. All explants were analyzed for surface integrity, and cell viability and the collected medium was examined for proteoglycan synthesis. Statistics were performed using ANOVA. Results: On histological examination of surface integrity, only the stationary group explants showed surface fissures. Comparing the cell viability numbers: the moving explants were not different from the controls; however the stationary explants were significantly lower than both controls (p=0.011), and moving explants (p=0.004). No difference was seen among the groups for proteoglycan synthesis. Discussion: Moving the contact point has shown either a significant increase or a strong trend towards better response of cartilage explants. One study showed that this moving helps cartilage sustain a low coefficient of friction [Caligaris ORS2006]. Moving the contact point increases nutrition, shortens loading time, sustains a low coefficient of friction and is essential for in-vitro cartilage articulation. 72. Shih, Michael J. Medicolegal Implications of Aortic Stenosis Litigation Cardiology There are no studies assessing outcome patterns of medicolegal cases involving cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine patterns of liability and medical outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). This data could assist cardiologists in taking care of AS patients, because outcomes in ASrelated litigation may profoundly impact patient finances and quality of life. All

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available legal cases involving “aortic stenosis” were obtained from LexisNexis. We reviewed 166 legal cases for common characteristics, litigation outcomes, and medical outcomes. The reviewed cases consisted of 12 % medical malpractice cases, 8 % military service connection cases, 24 % workmen’s compensation cases, and 25 % disability claims; of these lawsuits 43% were judged in the patients’ favor. Mean age was 50 ± 20 years and 79 % were male. Most common etiology was rheumatic (40%), followed by calcific (36%), bicuspid/congenital (34%) and subaortic (4%). Most common co-morbidities were aortic insufficiency, mitral regurgitation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension and diabetes. Most common presentations were precordial pain, shortness of breath, syncope/dizziness and death. Valve replacement was most common form of treatment; death was most common medical outcome. Patients with AS involved in litigation follow usual patterns of the disease, and a minority of AS litigation cases are due to medical malpractice. Majority are due to those seeking workmen’s or disability compensation. Cardiologists treating patients with AS should be cognizant of these patterns in AS litigation and proactively document medical findings since resulting court decisions profoundly affects the patients’ financial means and quality of life. 73. Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan, Liu; Yaoming; and Gordon, Robert J. Ablation of Materials with Dual Femtosecond Laser Pulses Chemistry Abstract: Pairs of 45fs, 800nm laser pulses were used to ablate Si, Cu, and CaF2. The spectrally resolved plasma fluorescence was measured as a function of laser fluence and pulse delay. The fluorescence from Si and Cu was found to increase monotonically with pulse delay, reaching an asymptotic value at approx. 100ps. The enhancement ratio for Si initially increased with fluence and then declined, but was always greater than unity. The enhancement ratio for Cu showed a similar decline with fluence above threshold. Qualitatively different behavior was observed for CaF2. The enhancement ratio increased monotonically with fluence, having a value less than unity near threshold. Using reflectivity and AFM measurements as additional diagnostics, we interpreted the Si and Cu behavior in terms of a two phase mechanism, in which the first pulse melts the surface of the crystal and the second pulse ablates the resulting liquid film. In the case of CaF2, multiphoton excitation produces a seed electron, which initiates avalanche ionization and plasma etching of the crystal.

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74. Song, Yuanli; Pipalia, Nina; and Fung, L. W.-M. Fluorescence Studies of Erythroid Spectrin at the Tetramerization Site Chemistry The structure of the first 156 residues of the alpha erythroid spectrin (SpaI) was determined by NMR previously (PDB code 1OWA). This region of the spectrin fragment consists of the binding site to beta spectrins, Helix C’. It has been suggested that two putative helices in beta spectrin (Helix A’ and Helix B’) associate with Helix C’ in SpaI to form a triple helical bundle. A pair of this association between two spectrin alpha-beta dimers leads to a functional form of spectrin tetramer. Recombinant SpaI proteins consisting of the first 368 residues of alpha erythroid spectrin were expressed and prepared. Residues 21 to 52, spanning the partial domain (residue 21 to 45) and the junction region (residue 46 to 52), were replaced by cysteine residues individually and then labeled with monobromobimane (mBBr). Steady state fluorescence spectra were measured to study conformation of SpaI partial domain and the junction region with and without a beta erythroid spectrin recombinant protein (SpbI). For each mBBr labeled protein, the polarity indexes were converted from lmax of fluorescent spectra with and without SpbI. These polarity indexes were then plotted as a function of residue positions. Our results showed that Helix C’ was amphiphilic, one side was more hydrophobic and the other one more hydrophilic. In addition, the junction region showed a periodicity of 3.4, which was close to the periodicity of a helix, only after binding to SpbI. Our results suggested that the junction region may undergo a conformation change from unstructured to helical upon binding SpbI. In particular, two residues, R28 and L49, at the ‘a’ position of heptad sequence repeats showed the largest changes in polarity index upon binding SpbI, but these two residues exhibited different polarity changes. Local environment of R28 becomes more hydrophilic, while L49 more hydrophobic. A SpaI/bI complex structure model was used to explain this difference at atom level. These results suggest that a glutamate acid residue (E2069) from SpbI is close to R28 and a hydrophobic cluster (V2043, L2046, and I 2047) from SpbI around L49. This may be the reason why the mutant at R28 or L49 causes blood diseases hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP). There are the so-called ‘hot spots’, which are critical to the binding, at binding interface.

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75. Stoyanova,Tanya; Yoon, Taewon; Kopanja, Dragana; Mokyr, Margalit B.; and Raychaudhuri, Pradip DDB2 Activates DNA Repair and Apoptosis by Regulating the Level of p21Waf1/Cip1 Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Patients carrying mutation in the DDB2 gene suffer from Xeroderma Pigmentosum E, a human genetic disorder characterized by sun sensitivity and high incidence of skin tumors due to deficiency in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), a major repair mechanism of UV damaged DNA. The precise role of DDB2 (XP-E) is not known. We show that DDB2 participates in both NER and apoptosis by regulating the cellular levels of p21Waf1/Cip1. The involvement of DDB2 in apoptosis is significant because it allows elimination of cells which fail to undergo complete repair. We provide evidence that DDB2 enhances nuclear accumulation of DDB1, which binds to p53 phosphorylated at Ser18 (p53S18P) and targets it for degradation in UV irradiated cells. The DDB2 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), are deficient in the proteolysis of p53S15P. Accumulation of p53S15P in the DDB2-/- MEFs causes higher expression p21Waf1/Cip1. Interestingly, we found that DDB2 regulates p21Waf/Cip1 not only at transcriptional level through p53-S-18P, but also at protein level by targeting p21 Waf1/Cip1 for degradation. The increased level of p21Waf1/Cip1 is the cause NER- and apoptosis- deficiency in the DDB2 -/- cells because deletion of p21Waf1/Cip1 reverses their NER and apoptosis-deficient phenotype in MEFs. P21Waf1/Cip1 was shown to directly bind PCNA (required for repair synthesis) and inhibit NER. P21 Waf1/Cip1 was shown as well to bind and block the activity of casapse-3, a major trigger of apoptosis. Our results provide genetic evidence linking the regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 to the NER, apoptosis and cell cycle activity of DDB2. 76. Sundararajan, Deepa; Peng, Xiao–Ding; and Hay, Nissim Building up the fat: Regulation of adipogenesis by Akt Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Adipogenesis or the formation of the fat tissue is a complex process involving a wide array of transcription factors and their regulators. Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by growth factor signaling. Mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2 are defective in the development of the brown adipose tissue. We investigated the mechanism by which Akt can regulate adipocyte differentiation, by using preadipocytes derived from wildtype and Akt1/2 double knockout embryos and subjecting them to differentiation in culture.

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Reduced Akt activity affects the expression of PPARgamma which is a transcription factor known as the master regulator of adipogenesis. Reconstitution of PPARgamma in the double knockout cells abrogates the defect in differentiation. The expression of many other factors like ADD1 and PGC1 which can regulate PPARgamma expression and activity, is also downregulated in the knockout cells. In addition, we also found that Akt is essential for the growth arrested preadipocytes to re-enter into the cell cycle before they start to differentiate, a process called mitotic clonal expansion. The failure of the Akt1/2 double knockout cells to re-enter the cell cycle is accompanied by their inability to down regulate the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. These results indicate that Akt can regulate adipogenesis even at a very early stage and thus control the development of the adipose tissue. 77. Tawk, Rima; Mullner, Ross; and Freels, Sally Discharges Against Medical Advice from US General Hospitals, 19792003 Health Policy and Administration The problem of against medical advice (AMA) discharge has been discussed in the literature since the early 1960s. Most studies of these patients typically used a small sample size and have been limited to specific diagnostic groups within a few selected institutions. AMA patients may be seriously ill, and premature discharge may lead to poorer outcomes, multiple readmissions, and increased healthcare costs. The aims of the study are threefold: to identify the risk factors associated with AMA discharge; to categorize the mental disorders of AMA patients according to ICD-9- CM; and to model the relationship between mental illness and length of stay (LOS) after adjusting for leaving AMA. Data are from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). We are aware of no studies that had looked at mental illness, patient and hospital characteristics as predictors of such discharge and examined the associations between mental illness and LOS for AMA patients during this study period. Of 5,074,564 hospital discharge records, 50762 were against medical advice (1%). The main predictors of AMA discharge were mental diagnosis, being self-pay, having medicaid insurance, being younger in age, male gender, and the location of the hospital. Neurotic, personality and other non-psychotic mental disorders had the highest likelihood of leaving AMA. Patients with mental diagnosis were approximately 4 times more likely to stay more than 30 days than patients with no mental disorder. Compared with patients with private insurance, patients with Medicare insurance had a 78% higher risk of staying more than 30 days, while those with Medicaid insurance had a 50% higher risk.

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78. Ter Louw,Mike; Venkatakrishnan, V.N.; and Lim, Jin Soon Extensible Web Browser Security Computer Science We examine the security issues in functionality extension mechanisms supported by web browsers. Extensions (or plug-ins) in modern web browsers enjoy unlimited power without restraint and thus are attractive vectors for malware. To solidify the claim, we take on the role of malware writers looking to assume control of a users browser space. We have taken advantage of the lack of security mechanisms for browser extensions and have implemented a piece of malware for the popular Firefox web browser, which we call browserSpy, that requires no special privileges to be installed. Once installed, browserSpy takes complete control of a users browser space and can observe all the activity performed through the browser while being undetectable. We then adopt the role of defenders to discuss defense strategies against such malware. Our primary contribution is a mechanism that uses code integrity checking techniques to control the extension installation and loading process. We also discuss techniques for runtime monitoring of extension behavior that provide a foundation for defending threats due to installed extensions. 79. Tonic, Ivana; and Hay, Nissim Akt Abrogates G2/M Cell Cycle Checkpoint Through the Inhibition of Chk1 Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in a large number of processes inside the cell and it was found to be activated in majority of cancers. It is well known that Akt can inhibit apoptosis, which is one step in tumorigenesis. However, published data indicate that Akt has other functions that contribute to cancer formation. In addition to preventing the cell death, activation of Akt can also abrogate the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. In this investigation we are demonstrating that this mechanism is involving inactivation of Chk1. Chk1 is one of the main effector kinases involved in the G2/M checkpoint signaling pathway. Cells which have activated Akt, show lower level of activated Chk1 upon DNA damage, although the level of total Chk1 remains the same. These cells overcome checkpoint arrest and proceed with cell division without repairing DNA damage, which leads them to genetic instability. The same phenotype was observed in the control cells,

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after we knocked down Chk1 protein level. Furthermore, when Akt is activated, level of claspin, mediator of Chk1 activation, is decreased. Claspin protein level was reduced due to proteosomal degradation in the presence of Akt overexpression. Data from the literature testify that without claspin presence, Chk1 cannot be fully phosphorylated and activated, upon DNA damage. Taken together, we are showing how activation of Akt is enabling cells to abrogate the tightly regulated checkpoint control of the cell cycle and thus acquire more mutations. 80. Tsai, Pei-Yun Differences in herbal use of Chinese American women and other U.S. women Nursing Background: Herbal use has become popular in the U.S. and may significantly influence healthcare providers’ practice. Limited studies have been conducted on the herbal use of women, particularly Chinese American in comparison with other U.S. women. Aim: A secondary data analysis was conducted to explore the prevalence of herbal use, understand herbal users’ demographic characteristics, and examine herbal uses and Western healthcare resources use of American women. Methods: A total of 17,011 U.S. women, 18 years or older and self-identified as white, black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, Chinese American, Filipino, and Asian Indian were used for analysis using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Results: Significant differences in herbal use were found among races/ethnicities (χ2=81.727, p<0.001). Chinese American women had a higher prevalence of herbal use than white (29%), black (21%), Hispanic (26%), American Indian/Alaska Native (30%), Filipino (34%), and Asian Indian women (25%). Moreover, Chinese American women (25%) were less likely to inform their Western healthcare providers of herbal use than white women (41%). Further, both Chinese American women and white women herbal users were more likely to visit a nurse practitioner/physician assistant/midwife and obstetrician/gynecologist. However, when Chinese American women herbal users lacked specific health concerns, they were less likely to visit general physicians, a behavior that differed from white women herbal users. Conclusions: Western-trained healthcare providers are encouraged to have an open discussion of herbal use with their clients to optimize healthcare outcomes and prevent lack knowledge leading to adverse effects of improper herbal use and herbal interactions with drugs.

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81. Tun, Moe; Chen, Yong; Meerschaert, Kris; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Lui, Hui; and Cho, Wonhwa Lipids Regulate Protein Networking and Complexation by PDZ Domains Chemistry PDZ domains are small (~90-amino acid) modular domains that act as molecular scaffolds, organizing the membrane receptors, cytoskeletons and other cytoplasmic proteins to form multiprotein complexes. However, the mechanisms by which this PDZ domain-mediated protein networking have not been fully understood. Here, we present new evidence that many PDZ domains bind not only to proteins but also to membrane lipids and that this lipid binding plays a critical role in PDZ domain-mediated protein networking. Among >500 PDZ domains identified in human, we have screened 96 isolated PDZ domains from various proteins by surface plasmon resonance analysis and 37 of them were shown to bind to membrane lipids with submicromolar affinity. One of these PDZ domains, Zona Occludens (ZO)-1 PDZ2 domain, was characterized in detail to investigate the interplay between lipid and protein binding. Our biophysical, molecular modeling, and cell studies show that the peptide and lipid binding sites of ZO-1 PDZ2 domain are partially overlapping and that lipids regulate the cellular functions of ZO-1 by modulating its protein interactions.

82. Viana, Priscilla; Yin, Ke; Zhao, Xiuhong; and Rockne, Karl Remediation of Contaminated sediments: Gas Ebullition in Capped Sediments Civil and Materials Engineering Contaminated sediments can serve as a continuous source of contamination to the overlying water column leading to long term environmental exposures; long after source control. The two most commonly used technologies to reduce exposure to sediment contaminants are capping and dredging with subsequent disposal. Dredging can lead to deleterious effects on the environment due to re-suspension and re-mobilization of contaminants. A relatively new alternative technology is active capping, which consists of a thin cap layer able to promote chemical and/or physical sequestration, enhanced retardation and/or chemical or biological degradation processes. A major concern in sediment capping effectiveness is biogenic gas production from organic matter degradation in sediments. Gas ebullition may affect cap integrity and, if an impermeable cap is used, may accumulate in a separate phase causing damage from an explosive release as has occurred in some field sites. Gases may open advective channels that can result in substantial

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pollution release. Our basic hypothesis is that biogenic gas production cannot be stopped but only controlled to minimize excessive ebullition. The aim of this study was to determine the gas ebullition rate in sediments in preparation for construction of an active capping technology demonstration at the Collateral Channel site in the Chicago River. We concluded from our results that wide variations in gas production occur (up to 2.8 m3 gas/m3 sediment during summer periods), necessitating gas capture/control during the elevated temperatures of summer. To achieve this, an innovative, economical geo-mesh material will be employed to capture gas to ensure cap integrity. 83. Weng, Yang On Gaussian Interference Channels with mixed interference Electrical and Computer Engineering We analyze a particular achievable region for Gaussian interference channels (IFC) derived from the general Han-Kobayashi region. By reformulating the Han-Kobayashi achievable region as the sum of two sets, we characterize the maximum achievable sum-rate with Gaussian inputs and without timesharing in closed from for any Gaussian IFC. We then show that the computed sumrate meets the upper bound by Kramer for any IFC with mixed interference, and not only for IFC with strong interference. We then show that for a certain subclass of IFCs with mixed interference, the capacity region contains a line segment of slope -1 of which we characterize the extreme points in term of the power allocation among private and common messages. 84. Wilk, John; Kramer, Andrea T.; and Ashley, Mary V. Variation in the spatial structure of clonal growth in wild strawberries, Fragaria virginiana Biological Sciences Like many plant species, Fragaria virginiana, the wild strawberry reproduces both sexually and asexually, although patterns of each are not well understood in natural populations. This study examines three populations coming from differing habitats in order to compare the relative contributions of these reproductive modes and to examine the spatial distribution of clonal groups. Samples were collected from three sites near the Chicago Botanical Garden, differing in relative levels of disturbance. Within each site specimens were collected in 8-16m transects and the location of each individual recorded for spatial analysis. Genetic identity and clonal status was ascertained by examining the alleles of five DNA microsatellite loci. The microsatellite 64

markers were found to be highly variable across all three sampling locations, allowing for the accurate assignment of individuals to clone groups. The three sampling sites varied drastically in both the number of distinct genetic individuals and the spatial organization of clones. The number of genetic individuals present at a location varied from two, with no evidence of sexual reproduction, to 18, representing primarily recruitment from seed. Spatial coherence of clone groups also varied, with the least diverse system having the sharpest borders between clones and the more diverse populations having clone groups with far more diffuse and irregular boundaries. The results of this study indicate that plant reproductive patterns can vary significantly even across small spatial scales and reflect very localized environmental differences. 85. Yang, Shuang An achievable region of Interference Channel with Generalized Feedback Electrical and Computer Engineering In peer-to-peer networks, several source-destination pairs compete for the same communication channel resources by creating mutual interference. At the same time, each user can overhear from the channel some combination of the signals sent by other users and use it to possibly decode part of other users' message. This knowledge can be used to initiate cooperation among users. Our work focuses on two-sender, two-receiver channel models, and investigates achievable region based on transmitter cooperation. When the senders do not cooperate, the IFC-GF reduces to classical IFC, for which the largest known achievable region is due to Han and Kobayashi (HK). The HK strategy involves splitting the transmitted information in two parts, and each receiver also decodes one part of the other user's message. This strategy is optimal for IFC with strong interference. If each transmitter knows the message of the other user perfectly ahead of time, then the IFC-GF reduces to a MIMO broadcast channel, for which the binning (known as dirty paper coding) is optimal for the Gaussian case. In our work, each transmitter must learn (part of) the other user's message through the GF. Our achievable scheme combines ideas from (a) ratesplitting and joint decoding, as in the HK scheme for IFC without GF, (b) block-Markov superposition coding and backward decoding, as for channels with feedback and for relay channels, and (c) binning, as in broadcast channels. A detailed computation for Gaussian channels shows the achievable rates through this strategy and the improvements with respect to the non-cooperative case. We also show comparison with some known outer bounds.

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86. Yin, Ke; Jayara,j Jayashree; Granberg, Kelly; and Rockne, Karl Rapid and Extensive Debromination of Brominated Flame Retardants in Thermophilic Municipal Wastewater Digesters Civil and Material Engineering Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants used in electronics, plastics and textiles and typically end up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Given that arguments in favor of continued BDE209 use hinge on its non-toxicity, it is imperative that we understand whether BDE-209 can be debrominated to more toxic and bioavailable congeners in WWTPs. We measured PBDEs in various stages during the sludge digestion process in the Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP) in Chicago and Woodridge-Greene Valley waste treatment facility (WGV). CWRP receives extensive input from surrounding heavy industry whereas WGV receives exclusively domestic wastewater. PBDEs in WGV were significantly greater than those in CWRP. BDE-209 is debrominated at the highest reported rates with the production of lower brominated homologs within the 10 d hydraulic residence time in the thermophilic digesters at WGV. In contrast, BDE 209 is not extensively removed in the standard rate digester at CWRP, even with a 30 d residence time. These results indicate that domestic wastewater is much higher in PBDEs and are the first to demonstrate extensive debromination during actual digester operation. 87. Yuan, Huajun Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Xe Chemical Shifts and Solubility in Alkanes Chemical Engineering Using the molecular dynamics (MD) method, we demonstrate that intermolecular NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) chemical shifts can be used to evaluate and develop intermolecular potentials for cross-interactions for use in solubility studies. We examine the average Xe chemical shifts in nalkanes and cyclo-alkanes over a range of temperatures using the flexible all atom force field for the solvent molecules. Modification of parameters of the exponential-6 potential model for solute-solvent interaction which leads to Xe chemical shifts in better agreement with experimental values likewise leads to improved estimates of Xe solubility. Since the average chemical shift converges in a fraction of the steps necessary to obtain converged solubility, testing of solute-solvent potentials against average chemical shift values,

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prior to time-intensive calculations of solubility, leads to more efficient development of potentials for mixtures. In the present work the MD simulations reproduce the signs and relative magnitudes of the Xe chemical shifts in n-alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, as well as the signs and relative magnitudes of their temperature coefficients. Our results demonstrate that potential models that show better agreement with experiments for chemical shift, invariably lead to better agreement with experiment for Henry’s constant and solubility of gases in solvents. 88. Zhang, Haisu From tacit to explicit: the role of knowledge conversion in new product development. Marketing Today, “knowledge” is playing a key role in new product development (NPD). From knowledge creation (Nonaka, 1994) to knowledge application (Song, Bij, and Weggeman, 2005), many scholars have turned their research interests to knowledge management in NPD. While a few studies had a concentration on knowledge as a static base (e.g. Moorman and Mine, 1997), many aimed at knowledge flow in NPD (e.g. Sherman, Berkowitz, and Souder, 2005;). Despite prior studies, research on knowledge management in NPD is still a relatively new area, and it lags behind the practice. Both of the streams of research conceived of knowledge as an entire entity, but ignored composition of it and interaction between components. My research is bridging the gap: the conversion from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is crucial to NPD (Lynn, Reilly, and Akgun, 2000), but it is very personal (Polanyi, 1966). Therefore, making it more explicit turns out to be important to NPD. The explication of tacit knowledge is a significant “evolution” (Nonaka, 1994), and harnessing tacit knowledge increases creativity and insight, therefore assisting breakthrough innovation (Mascitelli, 2000). Transforming knowledge facilitates continuous innovation, which leads to competitive advantage (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). No previous research empirically studied the explication of tacit knowledge in NPD. Following research on knowledge flow in product innovation, my study aims to explore the role of transformation from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge in NPD and addresses three questions: • What affect(s) the conversion process; • How the conversion affects NPD performance; and • When the conversion is more important throughout NPD process.

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89. Zhao, Xiuhong; Rockne,Karl J.; Drummond, James L.; Hurlery, Ryan K.; Shade, Christoper R.W.; and Hudson, Robert J. M. Characterization of Methyl Mercury in Dental Correlation with Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial DNA Civil and Materials Engineering Dental wastewater (DWW) was collected from a12-chair clinic and a singlechair office to identify conditions that may affect Hg methylation. DWW was settled for 24 h and samples were collected from the top and bottom of the supernatant to simulate a range of particles that may escape inline traps. Total Hg spanned 5 orders of magnitude (0.02–5000 μM), following a lognormal distribution with p10, p50, and p90 concentration values of 0.24, 31 and 4000 μM, respectively. Methyl Hg was present in high levels (2–270 nM), also following a lognormal distribution with p10, p50, and p90 concentration values of 2.8, 17, and 100 nM, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (90% CI) in p50 methyl Hg or total Hg between the clinic and office. Methyl Hg was predicted from total Hg data by (95% CI): Log ( Me − Hg ) = 0.33(±0.06) × Log (T − Hg ) − 2.27(±0.13) . Total methyl Hg from DWW to U.S. wastewater collection systems is estimated to be 2–5 kg yr-1. Equilibrium speciation modeling predicted that DWW Hg was primarily in sulfide-Hg complexes, except at high total Hg levels where organo-Hg complexes become significant. DNA extracts indicated that the total eubacterial DNA was composed primarily of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and highly significant correlations were found between methyl Hg and both Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfovibrionacaea DNA. Both are known Hg methylators. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between methyl Hg and Desulfobulbus DNA, a genus generally not known to methylate Hg at high rates. These results suggest that SRB are implicated in DWW Hg methylation. 90. Zhu, Hongling; Ornaghi, Francesca; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.; Wrabetz, Lawrence; and Givogri, Maria I.. Effect of Galactosyl-ceramidase deficiency on oligodendrogenesis. Anatomy andCell Biology Krabbe’s disease or Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficient activity of β-galactosylceramidase (GALC) and the stalling in galactosyl-sphingolipid catabolism. The accumulation of undegraded galactosyl-ceramide (GalCer) and galactosyl-sphingosine (psychosine) primarily occurs in myelinating cells, which leads to cell death of oligodendrocytes (OLs), Schwann cells (SCs) and Wastewater and

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myelin loss. A mouse model of this disease, the Twitcher mouse, shows that demyelination stimulates the generation of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) from sites of secondary neurogenesis; however, remyelination fails to take place in the mutant CNS. We speculate that the effect of the GALC deficiency not only causes death of mature OLs but also influences the expansion of neural progenitors, their survival, migration and/or differentiation into functional OPCs. To study the response of neurogliogenic sites to the disease, we generated a new GALC deficient mouse model by crossing the Twitcher line to the 18.2MBPlacZ transgenic line, allowing pre-myelinating Twitcher OPCs to be genetically marked by regulated expression of the lacZ gene under the transcriptional control of the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter. Morphometric studies of the spinal cord of Twitcher/LacZ mice showed a significant reduction in lacZ+OPCs at P30 and P40, coincident with the peak of demyelination. However, upon observation of the spinal cord of P14 Twitcher/LacZ mice –a developmental time that no obvious demyelination is observed- we found a reduction of lacZ+OPCs of about 30-50% in mutant white matter. This unexpected result indicates that GALC deficiency affects the generation of functional OPCs at much earlier developmental times that previously expected.

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2008 GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL STUDENT RESEARCH FORUM PARTICIPANT LIST
Abstract Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Presenter Anderson, Jennifer Antoniou, Chloe Araya, Alejandra Barwacz, Dariusz Bassam, Seyed A Biehl, Jesse K Boodram, Basmattee Brick, Gail Caballero, Isabel C Carluccio, Guiseppe Chansoria, Parul Chen, Chia-Chen Chipeta, Clara (deceased 3/18/2008) Chung, Peter Collins, John M. Desai, Esha Desai, Vikas Dobria, Lidia D’Souza, Gwendolyn Eapen, Asha Elliot, Esi Englof, Ila Esmailbeigi, Hananeh Fink, Anne M Fossati, Davide Garcia, Rodrigo Gasper, Gerald L Golant, Courtney J. Gursahani, Kunal Habiba, Habiba Halasi, Marianna Hazra, Saugata He, Jin Holzle, Denise L Iyengar, Veena Iyengarn Neil M. Jaraula, Caroline Jayaraj, Jayashree Jeng, Eric Kanekar, Neeta Kannakeril, Annie J. Keskar, Vandana Kuhr, Frank Lahiri, Mayank

Department Psychology Chemistry Nursing Social Work Civil and Materials Engineering, Bioengineering Community Outreach Intervention Projects Nursing Ecology and Evolution Electrical and Computer Engineering Bioengineering Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

Email jander22@uic.edu canton3@uic.edu aaraya2@uic.edu dbarwa2@uic.edu sbassa2@uic.edu jbiehl1@uic.edu
1 2 3 4 5 6

bboodram@uic.edu
7

gbrick2@uic.edu icabal2@uic.edu gcarlu2@uic.edu pchans2@uic.edu ccchen2@uic.edu
8 9 1 1 1

Nursing
1

rwt@uic.edu pchung4@uic.edu jcolli3@uic.edu edesai2@uic.edu vdesai82@uic.edu ldobria@uic.edu gdsouz1@uic.edu ashasara@uic.edu eabbam2@uic.edu englof@uic.edu hesmai2@uic.edu afink2@uic.edu dfossa1@uic.edu rgarci39@uic.edu Ggaspe1@uic.edu cgolan2@uic.edu kunxz28@uic.edu hhabib3@uic.edu mhalas2@uic.edu shazra2@uic.edu
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3

Surgery Bioengineering Biopharmaceutical Science Medicine Educational Psychology Biopharmaceutical Sciences Oral Biology Marketing Medicine Bioengineering Nursing Computer Science School of Business, MBA Program Chemistry Educational Psychology Pulmonary Computer Science Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Physical Therapy Medicine Earth and Environmental Sciences Civil and Materials Engineering Anatomy Physical Therapy Pharmacy Biopharmaceutical Sciences Pharmacology Computer Science

jhe6@uic.edu
3

dholzl1@uic.edu
3

viyeng2@uic.edu niyeng1@uic.edu cjarau1@uic.edu jjayar1@uic.edu ejeng2@uic.edu nkanek2@uic.edu kannanke@uic.edu vkeska2@uic.edu fkuhr1@uic.edu mlahiri@cs.uic.edu
3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4

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45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

Langlois, Marina Lei, Yu Lemmon, Grace Li, Juzheng Li, Weiguo Lim, Sok Bee Luo, Jing Maw, Kyaw Thet Mecum, Rebecca Mitchell, Diane E. Mo, Shunyan Monllor, Javier Murphy, Amanda Nam, Ki-Hwan Oppegard, Shawn C. Ozer, Fusun Petersen, Brett Pollema, Sarah L. Preissner, Curt Ramsey, David Rankin, Kristin M Razzak, Anthony Roy, Nilotpal Rumiche, Francisco Shaibat, Medhat Shehu, Aurora Shekhawat, Vivek K. Shih, Michael J. Singha, Sima Song, Yuanli Stoyanova,Tanya Sundararajan, Deepa Tawk, Rima Ter Louw,Mike Tonic, Ivana Tsai, Pei-Yun Tun, Moe Viana, Pricilla Weng, Yang Wilk, John Yang, Shuang Yin, Ke Yuan, Huajun Zhang, Haisu Zhao, Xiuhong Zhu, Hongling

Computer Science Chemical Engineering Managerial Studies Computer Science Bioengineering Biopharmaceutical Sciences Medicine Chemistry Bioengineering Educational Psychology Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Marketing History Bioengineering Bioengineering Biological Sciences Kinesiology Research Anatomy and Cell Biology Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Health Policy and Administration Epidemiology/Biostatistics Surgery Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Civil and Materials Engineering Chemistry Physiology and Biophysics Bioengineering Cardiology Chemistry Chemistry Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Health Policy and Administration Computer Science Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Nursing Chemistry Civil and Materials Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Biological Sciences Electrical and Computer Engineering Civil and Materials Engineering Chemical Engineering Marketing Civil and Materials Engineering Anatomy and cell Biology

mirodo1@uic.edu ylei2@uic.edu gracelemmon@gmail.com jli48@uic.edu wli20@uic.edu slim21@uic.edu jluo4@uic.edu kmyase1@uic.edu rmecum2@uic.edu counselormitch@yahoo.com
4 4 4 4 4 4 4

smo2@uic.edu
5

jmonll2@uic.edu murphy.Amanda@gmail.com knam2@uic.edu soppeg2@uic.edu fozer1@uic.edu coachbrett@petersenperformancelab.net spollema@uic.edu
5 5 5 5 5 5 5

preissne@aps.anl.gov
5

dramse1@uic.edu krankin@uic.edu razzak@uic.edu nroy4@uic.edu frumic1@uic.edu mshaib1@uic.edu ashehu1@uic.edu vshekh1@uic.edu mshih1@uic.edu ssingh16@uic.edu ysong22@uic.edu stanya@uic.edu dsunda1@uic.edu rtawk1@uic.edu mterlo1@uic.edu itonic02@uic.edu ptsai3@uic.edu mtun1@uic.edu pviana2@uic.edu yweng3@uic.edu jwilk@uic.edu syang9@uic.edu kyin1@uic.edu hyuan5@uic.edu hzhang28@uic.edu xzhao20@uic.edu hzhu2@uic.edu
5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8

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Undergraduate Student Research Forum Mission Statement
The aim of this forum is to increase public and academic awareness of the significance of undergraduate research in all fields of study at UIC by providing undergraduates the opportunity to disseminate research findings in a peer-dominated setting.

Undergraduate Student Research Forum Steering Committee
Adolfo Luna Yachana Kataria Megan Madonna Amy Madura Aamna Meah Amrita Narang Erin Olsen Afsa Papa Katie Senkiw Ami Vora Manal Yasin Faculty Advisor: Dr. Mary Lou Bareither Graduate Student Advisor: Prateek Gupta

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Sponsors
The Undergraduate Student Research Forum would like to thank the following sponsors for funding this event. College of Applied Health Sciences College of Liberal Arts and Sciences College of Nursing Office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Affairs Office of Vice Chancellor for Research Student Activities Funding Committee (SAFC) Undergraduate Student Government (USG) University of Illinois Alumni Association

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A Special Thanks to all the faculty judges that volunteered their time to help with this event:
Ardies, Murry Bauer, Brian Canuel, Michael Corcos, Daniel Dassoff, Nancy Dugas, Jonathan Erez, Edna Erricolo, Danillo Fantuzzi, Giamila Gramlich, James Herbener, Ellen John, Eunice Kay, Brian Kelso, Steven Landrie, Chad Leonard, John Levine, Mara Malchow, Robert Marone, Jane Miller, Lawrence Molumby Alan Monahan, Colleen Morrison, Don Morriss, Susan Murray, Darrell Nyberg, Dennis Orenic, Teresa Patil, Crystal Pini, Rafaele Plotnick, Roy Ragozzino, Michael Riger, Stephanie Rizzo, Kathy Roberts, Helen Rockne, Karl John Sargis, Edward Schmidt, Jennifer Schroeder, Kathleen Staver, Michael Strocio, Michael Strome, Sandra Thayne, Munce Troy, Karen Vaccaro, Dennis Vaillancourt, David Wardrop, Duncan Wiley, Jennifer Williams, Jessica

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A Special Thanks to all the alumni judges that volunteered their time to help with this event:
Adams, Ray Ahmed, Fahmida Anguelova, Silvia Arnaud, Lucy Arnold, Patricia Awah, Cedrick Blond, Barbara Bonitzer, Diane Bryan, Dennis Cañon, Miguel Casey, Kenneth Chen, Joyce Cleary, Stephen Conrath, Sr. Lawrence Cross, Jeffery Cwiak, Daniel Daulton, Lange Karen Denotto, Gerry Devito, Vincenzo Dragich-Kuebel, Carol Dubin, Leslie Economou, Rose Gebhart, Joseph Gibson, Tadd Gonzalez, Michael Gonzalez, Victor Graves, Patty Griffiths, Catherine Grimm, Betsy Hurst, William Jones, Almeda Joseph, Ashur Kim, Julie Kundakovic, Marija Lakhan, Manpreet Lamon, Lana Landeweer, Gregory LaVinka, Pamela Leal, Jaime Leon, Rosa Lies, Elizabeth LiPetri, Deborah Lu, Julie Lujano, Jose Lynch, Fiona Margaras, Alexandra Master, Richard Matisiak, Jennifer Michalowski, Edmund Miller, Diane Molinaro, Tony Moriarty, Frank Moulis, Janet Muhammad, Dr. Dawn Nelson, John Ortega, Laura Patel, Rajul Patel, Neha Patel, Kavankumar Patterson, Tasha Pearce, Robert Peck, Yolande Perry, Megan Pillai, Veena Pineda, Poon, Rachel
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Koster, Joyce Kuchay, Shafi Raver, Doug Rizvi, Alamdar Rocha, Nancy Rondo, Shahina Rosen, Rhoda Rosengard, Sue Rucker, Ayasha Ruffin, Loleta Sanders, John Scotella, Valerie Semmler, Jim Sheth, Nikhil Shipman, Kenneth

Puryear, Terrence Rakow, Michael Smith, Charles Sobczak, Howard Solheim, Julie Soto, Gabriela Souferis, Athena Frentzas Spiegel, Andrew Staniulyte, Jurgita Stark, Tricia Stiles, Leon Susmaras, Teresa Tolocka, Eric Tommasone, Dominic Vazquez, Judith Meza

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Schedule of the Day
Registration 7:30 – 9:30

Poster Presentations 10:00 – 3:00

Awards Ceremony and Reception 4:00 – 6:00

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Poster 1 Contrasting-Essays: An Instructional Activity Designed to Increase Knowledge of Argument
Amurao, Frances; Lippman, Jordan, M.A. Researchers (e.g., Chinn, 2006) have suggested students’ internal representations of argument forms have an important role in the comprehension, evaluation, and construction of new arguments. The current research builds on prior work using contrasting-cases (Bransford & Schwartz, 1998; Walker & King, 2006); I tested the effectiveness of a ‘contrasting-essays’ activity at teaching students about the schema of the written arguments they produced in their Introduction to Cognition course (PSCH352) at UIC. In the assignment, students sequentially downloaded two essays and then identified the best argument. We wrote two essays-sets such that one in each set was weaker because it had specific properties identified in prior research as problematic for students to recognize (Lippman et al., 2008). We assumed students who became better able to recognize the best argument on the post-test had developed a more normative argument schema. One hundred and fifty participants from two sections of PSCH352 taught by different professors (experimental class n = 100) completed two identical online assignments at the beginning of the spring 2008 semester. The experimental class received a lecture immediately after the first online assignment on the properties of quality arguments that included feedback about student performance. We varied whether students first saw the strong or weak essay in both assignments. I predicted students in the experimental class would develop a more normative understanding of scientific argument and have better performance on the post-test as a result of the practice, feedback, and instruction provided by the contrasting-essays activity and lecture. Participants in the experimental class who saw the strong essay first on the first activity benefited from the lecture, but those who saw the weak essay first and those in the control class did not demonstrate increased performance on the post-test. At the poster, I will discuss potential interpretations of these results.

Poster 2 Determination of the binding constant of Bisphenol-A to Bovine Serum Albumin
Ankleswaria, Nirav Bisphenol-A (BPA) is used as a monomer in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in manufacturing baby bottles, plastic containers and water bottles. Previous studies have shown a link between BPA and neurological development and types of cancers. When plastic containers and bottles are heated, BPA leaches into the 78

food and liquid, which get transported to tissues and organs by serum proteins. The purpose of this study was to determine the binding constant of BPA to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). BPA binds to the same site as bromophenol blue (BPB). The binding constant for BPA to BSA was measured from its competition with bromophenol blue for the binding sites on BSA. Spectrophotometric titrations were performed between BPB and BSA in absence and presence of BPA by using a UV/Visible spectrophotometer. The titrations of BPB with BSA in absence of BPA resulted in a binding constant (K) of 4.4X105 M-1. The titrations of BPB with BSA in the presence of BPA resulted in a binding constant of 9.9X102 M-1. The results indicate that BPA binds to the serum albumin and gets transported throughout the body by this serum protein. This study provides a method for measuring a binding constant of xenobiotics and toxins in the environment to serum proteins. The binding constant of drugs to serum proteins can also be determined by this method to understand how drugs get transported which may assist pharmaceutical companies in designing drugs.

Poster 3 Characterization of a novel mouse model of adult-onset, isolated, GHdeficiency, as a tool to study the importance of GH in regulating adult metabolism
Furquan, B; Luque, RM; Lin, Q; Buch, T; Waisman, A; Kineman, RD Growth Hormone (GH) is produced by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is released into the general circulation where it stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In adults, GH has been shown to have anti-lipogenic, pro-lipolytic, and protein anabolic effects, while IGF-I’s actions are similar to insulin. GH is essential for normal development because developmental GH deficiency (GHD) left untreated leads to short stature, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and low bone mineral density. Since many of these pathologies occur with weight gain and age, and are associated with a reduction in circulating GH, it is possible that the fall in GH may contribute to disease progression in normal aging. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to lower GH levels in young adult mice, without affecting any other pituitary hormones, and examine the impact on various tissues. Specifically, rat GH promoter driven Cre recombinase (rGHp-Cre) mice were crossbred with inducible monkey diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) transgenic mice. The progeny (Cre+/-,iDTR+/-) where normal, but expressed the DTR only in the somatotropes of the anterior pituitary. As adults, these double transgenic mice were treated with DT, leading to the selective destruction of somatotropes, effectively reducing circulating GH and IGF-I levels, therefore providing us with a model of adult-onset isolated GHD (AOiGHD). Preliminary results reveal AOiGHD mice have lower circulating insulin and glucose levels in the fed state, and are more responsive to exogenous insulin challenge, as compared to GH-intact controls. These metabolic changes occur in the context of an increase in fat mass and a decrease in liver mass, without changes in mean body weight. Studies are ongoing to better understand how AOiGHD can bring about these changes in body composition and metabolism.

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Poster 4 The Effects of the End of the Cold War on American Arms Exports
Basu, Tanya American sales of arms exports have increased precipitously since the end of the Cold War. One hypothesis is that the Cold War caused this jump in arms exports. To explore this idea, five countries will be used as case studies: Saudi Arabia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, and Armenia. Overall arms export trends will be analyzed from 1980 to the present. This project attempts to explicate the nature of the booming arms exports sector and to examine how it is related to alterations in the treaties, relaxations of arms bans, and shifting strategic partnerships that developed after the Cold War.

Poster 5 Electronic Braking for Bicycles
Bokhari, Tahir; Wayne, Tiffany; Tho, Min-Soon Sze As the price of energy and fossil fuels skyrockets, people are finding creative ways to save money. Finding alternative energy sources are not just means of saving money, but there is a huge concern about global warming and sustainability of our environment. Ethanol, Hydrogen Fuel cell, and solar power are just few of the alternatives to fossil fuels. In this energy conscious world, harvesting energy from sources such as wind and solar power is becoming more common. The following device also harvests energy, but from a source which is usually looked over. Electronic braking system for bicycles will work by using the energy, otherwise wasted in friction/ heat, and storing it in a battery, later to be used for various other purposes. The battery can be used to Charge Mp3 players, cell phones and a Head Light for night. The power is harvested by using the generator, for braking which will store the energy in the on-board battery. The battery will have a connection that will provide 5V, 1A power supply for charging Cell Phones and Mp3. and will also be connected to the light for nighttime or poor weather conditions. This system will help the environment by generating energy from a completely renewable and environmentally friendly source. Because of on-board power source riders will enjoy their bicycles more, hence living healthy lives, and relaying less on fossil fuel powered transportation.

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Poster 6 Microfluidic add-on for standard electrophysiology chambers
Caicedo, Hugo Angulo; Mohammed, Javeed Shaikh; Fall, Christopher P; Eddington, David T A microfluidic brain slice device (µBSD) has been developed to perform localized cortical brain slice stimulation by releasing neurotransmitters through four differents vias. The device is utilized to explore the hypothesis that modulatory neurotransmitters influence the ability of the cortex to maintain activity patterns related to working memory. In the traditional approaches, a global bath application of neurotransmitters is used or it is introduced with a micropipette that must be positioned in very close proximity to the target tissue. Our device consists of a parallel network of discrete microfluidic channels embedded in a thin 250 µm film of PDMS and bonded to a coverglass slide with pores atop the channels to deliver the neurotransmitters. The device is docked to an off the shelf perfusion chamber. Passive pumping was used to deliver the neurotransmitters through the microfluidic channels eliminating the need for external tubing and pumps; which allows seamless integration of the device with already complex cortical slice perfusion tools. After placing a single cortical brain slice in the perfusion, the tissue was locally stimulated by dopamine that was delivered through the vias in the microfluidic device and the dopamine in the tissue was measured amperometrically. Spatial and temporal FITC intensity profiles were achieved to prove that the µBSD can successfully deliver soluble neurotransmitters to the bottom of brain slice tissues and the modulation of the brain slice tissue under different stimuli can be easily probed optically. Our experimental setup is simple but elegant, allows site-specific stimulation of brain slices with neurotransmitters, allows combination of electrical and chemical stimuli, and can be easily disseminated because it is compatible with standard off the shelf perfusion chambers. Poster 7

Yeast cell-based genetic screens for inhibitors of Aβ42 oligomerization
Lindsey Callan, Sei-Kyoung Park, and Susan W. Liebman Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid plaques resulting from misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Recent studies suggest that small Aβ42 oligomers are associated with the neurotoxicity of the disease. In a current Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, fusion of Aβ42 with the C terminus of the yeast translational termination factor, Sup35p, results in formation of small oligomers. The oligomerization can be scored by impairment of Sup35C. When the fusion protein is oligomerized, cells grow on media lacking adenine due to read-through of a premature stop codon in ade 1-14. However, cells carrying oligomerization-deficient mutations in the

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Aβ42 gene (Aβ42 m2-Sup35C) recognize the stop codon and do not grow on adenine deficient media. The goal of my research was to utilize the yeast model to screen for genes that inhibit Aβ42 oligomerization when they are over expressed. Strains with the oligomerization-promoting fusion protein (Aβ42-Sup35C) were transformed with a Gal-1 plasmid library containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. Colonies were selected that displayed the Aβ42 m2 phenotype on –Ade. Sequencing of confirmed positives is hoped to reveal genes responsible for inhibition of Aβ42 oligomerization. Currently, we are also using a library of 5,000 sequence-verified yeast genes for selection of inhibitors.

Poster 8 Wrist-loading user-interfaced software application
Chuma-Okorafor, Adaeze; Gutierrez, Diana; Chima, Chika When an individual falls unexpectedly, the impulse to break the fall with the hands can result in a distal radius (wrist) fracture. Older women who suffer from osteoporosis are at a higher risk for these fractures due to weaker bones. However, previous research has shown that mechanical loading can increase bone strength by improving bone density, size and shape. This leads us to believe that frequent exercise and non-injurious impact loading has the potential to improve the mechanical strength of the wrist bones, possibly preventing fractures. We designed a software application that, in conjunction with a load cell, functions as a wrist loading device targeted for females in the age range of 50-90 years. Based on different studies, the application will provide feedback to the user to apply approximately half of their bodyweight in force at an off-axis angle with short rest periods inserted between each loading cycle. Key functions of the proposed device include load cycle counting, data logging, and a timer for inserted rest periods. The goal is to facilitate the process of non-injurious impact loading by providing visual feedback, user control, and progress tracking. The application, written in Labview, is integrated with a load cell for the purpose of providing an input signal. With the completion of this application, the design and creation of a completely portable wrist-loading device for use in the home is advanced.

Paper/ Poster 9 Exhibition in Absence of the Traditional Art Object: Lucy Lippard’s Curation of “557,087”
Clancy, Bridget The purpose of this paper is to investigate Lucy Lippard’s curatorial aims for the exhibition “557,087” in relation to larger shifts in exhibitionary practice during the 1960s. “557,087” was organized for the Contemporary Art Council of the Seattle Art Museum in 1969. Consciously located outside of avant-garde hubs, this exhibition was a slightly obscure,

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but notable exhibition of Conceptual Art. “557” was also critic Lucy R. Lippard’s curatorial expression of “dematerialization.” The organization of the exhibition included what Lippard considered democratizing modes of communicating works of art — with ideas dominating often cheap and ephemeral physical supports. “557” included over sixty artists whose work spilled off of the museum’s walls and out into the surrounding city — speaking to the difficulties of both defining and confining Conceptual Art with traditional museum practice. Implicitly, “557” questioned the adequacy and relevancy of the museum. In turn, members of the Contemporary Art Council expressed the desire that “557” would expose Seattle to recent developments in art before it became academicized. My aim has been to incorporate relevant political and social theory current in the 1960s with the dynamic shifts that took place in museum practice during the sixties. I argue that the desire to reintegrate high culture with everyday life was a primary impetus for both the emergence of Conceptual Art and contemporary museum practices. My research has focused on closereadings of Henri Lefebvre’s Everyday Life in the Modern World, Lippard’s own writing, and the formalist theories of Clement Greenberg and Michael Fried. I have also had the opportunity to visit Seattle and conduct research in the Seattle Art Museum’s archives held in the museum’s library as well as the Special Collections at the University of Washington. The culmination of this research is the most thorough academic treatment of “557,087” to date.

Poster 10 Population trends or birds in a developing metropolitan region
Daley, James Bird species respond differently to anthropogenic landscape modification, and may be categorized as increasers or decreasers in an urban environment. I analyzed the relative occurrence of bird species across a rural to urban gradient in northeastern Illinois by examining USGS Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for 23 routes. The BBS is the most comprehensive and large scale monitoring program of bird species in North America. The routes I examined included 14 in agricultural landscapes, 2 in moderately urbanized landscapes, and 2 in highly urbanized landscapes. Based on previous such analyses, I expected more urbanized sites to exhibit increased overall abundance and decreased species richness, and rural sites to exhibit lesser abundance and elevated richness, with both diversity and abundance peaking at intermediate sites. I expected increaser species to include rock doves, house sparrows, house finches and cardinals, and for these species to predominate in both highly and moderately urbanized areas. Species richness patterns followed predicted trends across the gradient, with diversity peaking in intermediate areas and declining in highly urbanized areas. However individual species that predominated were red-winged blackbirds, European starlings, common grackles and house sparrows; these species drove population trends across all sites. This is likely due to the highly agricultural character of the rural Midwest. In subsequent analyses, I intend to analyze these population trends in relation to geographic patterns of conversion of agricultural to urban environments. 83

Poster 11 Neuropeptide Y increases electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.
Dikopf, Mark; Thompson, Jennifer; Ragozzino, Michael E; Fall, Christopher P; Roitman, Mitchell F. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter that is expressed throughout the central nervous system including a region of the brain – the nucleus accumbens (NAc) – that is critical for motivated behaviors. NPY action within the NAc remains largely unknown. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure dopamine (DA) release and its subsequent reuptake via the dopamine transporter in the NAc. DA release was electrically-evoked in a brain slice preparation from mice (CD1; aged 5-8 weeks). A carbon fiber microelectrode and a bipolar stimulating electrode were positioned in the NAc core. A triangular waveform of potential (from -0.4 to +1.0V and back at 400V/s; 10Hz) was applied to the carbon fiber to sense DA with millisecond time resolution. Single pulse (8V, 2ms, monophasic) evoked DA release was measured once every 5 minutes. Following a 30 minute baseline period, NPY or selective NPY receptor agonists were bath applied for 50 minutes and washed out for another 50 minutes. We found a significant enhancement in the magnitude of electrically-evoked DA release by bath application of NPY (44.6 ± 11.8% relative to baseline; p<0.01; n=7) or an NPY Y2 receptor agonist (43.7 ± 8.0% relative to baseline; p<0.01; n=9). There was no effect of NPY on the rate of DA reuptake. Given that NPY has been shown to play a role in drugtaking behavior, the results indicate that it may partially exert its action on modulating DA signaling in a region of the NAc that is particularly involved in drug addiction.

Poster 12 Control of Movement Distances in Individuals with Essential Tremor
Elavia, Kevin; Robichaud, Julie; Poon, Cynthia; Corcos, Daniel Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. ET is characterized by uncontrollable tremor of the hands, head, and/or voice during voluntary movements or while individuals maintain a static posture. In healthy individuals, electromyography (EMG) modulation during rapid point-to-point movements over increasing movement distances is well understood (Pfann et al. 1998). However, the literature is unclear on how individuals with ET modulate EMG activation. Britton and colleagues (1994) showed during rapid wrist flexion movements across increasing movement distances, individuals with ET exhibited a normal triphasic EMG pattern along with systematic EMG modulation. Furthermore, the timing and pattern of this EMG modulation along with movement speed were consistent with that observed in healthy subjects. In contrast, Köster and colleagues (2002) showed during a rapid 40° elbow flexion movement that individuals with ET exhibited a longer first agonist burst duration along with an abnormal triphasic EMG 84

pattern. Our study analyzed EMG activation during rapid elbow flexion over increasing movement distances (36°, 54°, and 72°) in individuals with ET. We hypothesize that individuals with ET will systematically increase peak velocity with increasing movement distances; however, the first agonist burst duration will be longer than that observed in healthy subjects at a given distance and will not systematically increase with increasing movement distances. Eight ET subjects and eight healthy control subjects were instructed to perform thirty elbow flexion movements “as fast as possible” over three movement distances. EMG parameters were examined using surface electrodes placed on the biceps and triceps muscles. Similar to healthy individuals, all ET subjects increased velocity with increasing movement distances. However, these subjects exhibited a prolonged duration of the first agonist burst along with an abnormal triphasic EMG pattern. While individuals with ET can move at speeds comparable to healthy individuals, they still exhibit discrepancies in EMG modulation.

Poster 13 Measuring Coefficients of Friction with a Custom Built Reciprocating Tribometer
Frederick, Jennifer; Bonomo, Tony; Garcia, Fred; Shareef, Farah In order to prevent and treat joint ailments it is of great importance to reduce wear experienced in articular joint cavities during everyday activities. Synovial fluid has been traditionally recognized as the primary lubricant in joint cavities. Commercial tribometers are inadequate for measuring frictional forces between natural and artificial joint surfaces, as they are designed for use in industrial applications. As such, we set out to design, build, and test the functionality of a reciprocating pin-on-dish tribometer to measure the coefficient of friction between hyaline articular cartilage on a rabbit toe knuckle and various artificial surfaces. Such a tribometer required the ability to apply small normal loads to bone pins of varying diameters, interchangeable dish surfaces, the ability to contain various media used in testing, and the sensitivity to measure frictional forces associated with small coefficients of friction. Furthermore, it was important to incorporate an overlapping reciprocating path. We were successful in designing and building a tribometer that met the above stated requirements. The functionality of our tribometer was ascertained through the replication of an experiment previously conducted by our sponsor that demonstrated the lubricating properties of synovial fluid. We believe that our tribometer can be used as a springboard for studying the frictional forces in artificial joint cavities. Exploration of these forces can lead to a better understanding of the design requirements for artificial joints and create paths for improvement of current design standards.

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Poster 14 Personal Consumption during war time in US
Chintan Gandhi We often wonder how personal consumption could be affected during recession. The reason why I did my research on personal consumption is because I wanted to do research on topic that was out of my core academic realm (Investments) and yet passionate enough to work on. Socio-Economics is the topic I found I was very passionate about. After researching different topics on the subject I was interested in, I found combination of war and personal consumption very innovative areas to try my hands on. I wanted to research impact of war on personal consumption. I first started with gathering data on personal consumption from Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis website. I then gathered data from same source on real GDP, disposable personal income, balance on current account and personal savings as my independent variables and ran a regression for personal consumption as dependent variable. I ran simple linear regression, non-linear regression where I choose to run double-log, semi-log models and model with dummy variable for effect of war. My results showed that personal consumption is affected by war.

Poster15 On approximating the number of primes less than a given number
Garcia, William Niven, Zuckerman, and Montgomery show a weaker version of the Prime Number Theorem in an introductory text. For this project, we adapted a similar method, employing the scientific program, Mathematica, and achieved better bounds than those obtained by Niven, et al. While we believe we cannot prove the Prime Number Theorem by our method, we conjecture that one can come arbitrarily close.

Poster 16 Femtosecond, Thermal-lens-shaped Yb:KGW Laser
Greco, Michael J. Our lab has developed a femtosecond pulsed Yb:KGW laser system [1] that will be used as a photon source for ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM). The thermal lens shaping technique developed in Prof. Schroeder’s laboratory [2] is used with laser diodes to efficiently pump a Yb:KGW gain medium. This technique completely removes astigmatism from the laser cavity by forming a perfect pump-induced thermal lens in the gain medium. Moreover, spherical aberration is also minimized, resulting in optimal laser performance.

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Yb:KGW is chosen as the gain medium for its wide emission bandwidth – a requirement for femtosecond laser pulse generation. Optimum power output was found to be over 4.5 W at 35 A of diode current. Also, 250 fs pulses were measured at 3.5 W. The pulse is taken through a frequency doubling crystal, changing the 1040nm radiation to 520nm radiation. The frequency doubled power reaches 1.65 W with a conversion efficiency (from 1040nm to 520nm) of over 60% at 30 A. The femtosecond-pulsed 520nm radiation will be used to drive a photocathode in a UEM. The resulting short electron pulse will make it possible to simultaneously achieve sub-picosecond time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution.

Poster 17 The effects of altered distance feedback on 20 km cycling time trial pacing strategies and performance
Grossman, Michael & Dugas, Jonathan Purpose: To examine whether deceptive distance feedback to well-trained cyclists affected heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (RPE), power output, pacing strategy, oxygen consumption, and performance time during a 20-km time trial (TT). Methods: Two well trained cyclists each completed four TT. Prior to each trial, each cyclist completed a series of preliminary tests which included: assessment of body composition, peak power output (PPO), and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a Familiarization trial (FT). In FT cyclists were given the correct distance feedback at each kilometer. Each cyclist then completed three experimental TT’s. In one trial (LONG) deceptive data was provided at longer than actual distances. In the other trial (SHORT), deceptive data was provided at shorter than actual distances. Feedback was altered in the first perceived five km so that in LONG cyclists actually rode 6.5 km and in SHORT cyclists actually rode 3.5 km, although the cyclists thought they competed five km. Distance feedback during the subsequent 10 km was altered in a random manner so that by 15 km correct distance feedback was given. During a third trial (CON) correct distance feedback was provided at each km. TT distance remained constant at 20 km. Feedback was provided and measurements recorded at both actual and deceptive kilometers. Cyclists were blinded to all other feedback. Results: There was no effect of distance deception on RPE, pacing strategy, power output, and performance time. Oxygen consumption and heart rate differed between trials from 05 km, but not in a significant manner. Conclusions: RPE, pacing strategy, and performance in a 20-km cycling TT are not altered by deceptive feedback, although low subject numbers might result in Type II error. The current data support the hypothesis that cyclists use a pre-determined pacing strategy that is made before a contest and is unaltered by feedback.

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Poster18 Genetic differentiation among island and mainland populations and species of California oaks
Crystal Guzmán; Saji Abraham; Mary Ashley The genus Quercus (oaks) is known to have a high degree of gene flow among species and poorly defined species boundaries. In this study, seven DNA microsatellite loci were used to characterize the population structure of 102 individual trees among three oak species; Q. tomentella (island oak), Q. lobata (valley oak) and Q. chrysolepis (canyon oak) that occur on the California mainland and islands off the coast. Quercus tomentella, an island endemic, was sampled on Santa Cruz Island, Q. lobata in the Santa Monica Mountains, and Q. chrysolepis populations were sampled on both Santa Cruz Island and two mainland sites. This study meant to assess the levels of gene flow across and within geographical barriers in order to distinguish hybridization susceptibilities between species. Tests for genetic differentiation among island and mainland Q. chrysolepis (Hopland and Hasting) revealed them to be genetically most similar with FST of 0.0682 and 0.0815, respectfully. Santa Cruz Island Q. tomentella and Q. chrysolepis populations were found to be less similar than Q. chrysolepis island and mainland populations suggesting limiting hybridization between the closely related Quercus species coexisting on Santa Cruz Island. Finally, levels of differentiation between Q. chrysolepis and Q. tomentella and presumed unrelated Q. lobata showed that the highest differentiated population pair was Q .tomentella and Q. lobata with a FST value of 0.3038. Greater differentiation of Q. lobata from the other species was further exhibited by having the highest number of private alleles (22).

Poster 19 How Does Garlic Mustard Affect the Germination of Other Plants?
Hanif, Maryam; Nijm, Justin; Polka, Michelle “Allelopathy refers to the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant on another plant, both crop and weed species, by the release of chemicals from plant parts by leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and other processes in both natural and agricultural systems.1” Garlic mustard (Alliaria petioloata) of the Brassicaceae family is an invasive species that has been invading North American woodlands. We tried to test how these plants inhibit the germination of other plants. We experimented with lettuce seeds, due to previous knowledge about their germination patterns. Garlic Mustard plant’s affect on the germination of lettuce seeds was tested for volatile chemical emissions and leachates. Roots, Leaves and Stems of this plant were tested for volatiles. The effect was most evident in the roots of the plant, and negligent in the stems and leaves. Leachates of roots and leaves of the plant were tested in both direct contact and volatiles from the leachate. Neither displayed significant results. Lastly, the effect of volatiles from the fresh

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roots, and frozen roots of the plant were tested both in a Petri dish setting, as well as in flower pots. Results showed that frozen roots inhibited germination significantly and fresh roots displayed similar results to the control, implying no effect.

Poster 20 Joining Dissimilar Materials: Interface Interactions Between Metallics and Ceramic Systems
Houston, Nina Due to their configuration and atomic bonding, ceramics are often chosen for high temperature uses. Currently, there is a high demand for ceramic/metallic systems to work at higher temperatures and in harsh environments. However, joining the two materials is problematic. There are several sealing methods and of them, brazing will be further studied. When brazing occurs, the liquid metals will bead up instead of spreading out. This must be minimized to achieve the desired characteristics of the seal, which is airtight, able to function in the event of mismatched thermal expansions, and the ability to undergo thousands of hours of thermal cycling. Developing a metallic sealant that would be used in solid oxide fuel cells using Yttria stabilized Zirconia and Titanium Nickel 67 that can achieve the above stated criteria will be the objective of this investigation.

Poster 21 A Study of the CUE2 Gene and the Formation of Prion Aggregates
Hufana, Joan; Anita Manogaran, PhD; Sue Liebman, PhD; Joan C. Hufana; Dr. Sue Liebman; Dr. Anita Manogaran Found to be the cause of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, “Mad Cow” disease in cattle, and Scrapie in sheep, prions are proteinaceous infectious particles. In prion disease, a protein misfolds and takes on a stable conformation. The altered protein can further convert normally folded protein, into the altered form. These misfolded prions form large stable aggregates. A greater understanding of how prions behave on a molecular level has been greatly enhanced by the study of prions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast. In yeast, the [PIN+] prion is caused by the misfolded form of the Rnq1 protein. Like mammalian prions, [PIN+] is infectious and aggregates. Fusion of the RNQ1 gene to the green fluorescent protein results in distinct cytoplasmic fluorescent foci in [PIN+] cells. Many studies have focused on chaperones, which assist in protein conformation and are required for the maintenance of the [PIN+] prion. A large scale screen of 4800 non-essential gene deletions have shown that only the Hsp104 chaperone is required for [PIN+] maintenance. Interestingly, a deletion in the CUE2 gene results in claw-like fluorescent aggregates, when RNQ1: GFP is over-expressed instead of distinct foci. A newly made CUE2 disruption confirmed this altered aggregation phenotype. While the function is still unknown, the Cue2 protein has been shown to bind to ubiquitin. I am currently testing the effects of Cue2 over-expression on the [PIN+] aggregate and trying to 89

understand whether cue2- binding of ubiquitin plays an important role in the aggregate phenotype.

Poster 22 Strategizing to Overcome the Baseball Fan Effect
Jaeger, Allison; Jennifer Wiley; Travis Ricks Cognitive research on expertise has found that possession of prior knowledge or experience usually leads to superior domain-related learning, and memory performance (see Feltovich, Prietula, & Ericsson, 2006 for review). The superior performance of experts is thought to be due to their extensive, well connected, and easily activated knowledge structures which allow them to retrieve relevant background information from memory (Bedard & Chi, 1992; Ericsson & Staszewski, 1989; Larkin, McDermott, Simon, & Simon, 1980). However, other research has found that the ability to remember newly learned concepts is negatively related to the number of associations that are available between those concepts (Anderson, 1974; Anderson & Reder, 1999). This phenomenon, called the fan effect, suggests that when new concepts are presented with many associations, these associations produce interference in memory such that “the more you know the slower you will go” or the more difficult retrieval from memory will be. The present line of research is the first to explore the relationship between the possession of expertise and whether it can moderate the interference usually present in the fan effect. Indeed, in a previous study, it was found that experts experienced less interference from highly interrelated new concepts when they were in their area of expertise, while novices displayed the usual fan effect (Ricks & Wiley, 2007). One suggestion for why experts were able to overcome interference was because they may have been able to integrate the newly learned phrases into a meaningful chunk by using their prior knowledge, thus eliminating the fan effect. The present research further explores the strategies that even novices may use to avoid interference and eliminate the fan effect. Results suggest that integration across the tobe-remembered items is critical, and several mechanisms for supporting integration and avoiding interference will be discussed.

Poster 23 Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of erythroid spectrin variant G46R
Kang, Jianxia (Jean) The tetramerization site between erythroid spectrin a and b is an important region as several forms of hereditary hemolytic anemia are related to the mutation in this site. It has been found that the affinity for ab association to form tetramers varies between different spectrin isoforms. Spectrins are composed of multiple triple helical coiled-coil structural modules. The tetramerization occurs between the partial domain on the N-terminal end of

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SpaI, a single helix, and the partial domain on the C-terminal end of SpbI, two helices. Previous studies of SpaI-1-156 with NMR and sequence alignment show that a residue G46 is at a junction region and may play an important role in tetramerization. The corresponding residue in the brain spectrin (SpaII) is R37. Thus a mutant SpaI-1-156G46R (G46R) was prepared. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to determine G46R-SpbI association affinity. We found that G46R exhibited four times higher affinity than the wild type (WT). Thermally and urea induced unfolding on G46R and WT monitored with circular dichroism (CD) showed that both proteins were stable. The study results showed that residues in a particular junction region in the tetramerization site may be important in determining the association affinity.

Poster 24 Analyzing the change in the Irish tobacco trade in response to immigrant group influxes and public policy directives.
Kenny, Oisin I will be conducting an analysis over the changing tobacco trade in Ireland in response to its recent economic boom and involvement with the EU. A variety of criteria have changed most notably ethnic diversity and cultural preferences towards tobacco, public policy decisions, increased firm entry, and the influence of organized crime in the trade. The report will have the guidance from Professor Frank Chaloupka, one of the world's leading experts on the matter who can bestow his wisdom wherever it may be needed. I aim to find the most important and influential factors in the tobacco industry's success in order to design the necessary legislation to hinder its growth and potential to degrade the Irish standard of living.

Poster 25 Claudin-7 correlates with breast carcinoma histological grade but not with outcome
Khramtsova, E; Macias, V; Patel, M; Akhtar, J; Jee, O; Gao, W; Liang, W-M; Beam, C; Gilks, B; Wiley, B; and Balla, A The claudin family of proteins is important in epithelial cell tight junction formation and function. Normal breast epithelial cells have strong expression of claudin-7. Previous publications have shown an inverse correlation of claudin-7 immunohistochemical expression and breast cancer histological grade. However, no formal study has been performed to investigate whether claudin-7 immunohistochemical expression can be used as prognostic marker. A total of 438 consecutive women with primary invasive breast cancer underwent surgery for breast cancer between 1974 and 1995 at Vancouver General Hospital. Outcome data was available for all patients. A tissue microarray was built with duplicate

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0.6 mm cores. Claudin-7 immunohistochemistry was performed and scored using the HercepTest algorithm. Any discrepancies between the five observers were resolved by consensus review. There was an inverse correlation between Elston grade and claudin-7 expression (Spearman Pearson coefficient r = -0.16, p< 0.05). There was no difference in survival curves when patients were stratified according to claudin-7 expression (Log rank test, p=0.35). Correlation between claudin-7 expression and axillary node positively was direct and marginally statistically significant (p=0.0485, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Higher claudin7 expression was present in lymph node positive cases. We found no correlation with tumor size (Spearman Pearson coefficient r = 0.03). Even though tumors with high claudin expression (3+) had better histology grade on average, they were associated with lymph node metastases. Without computer-assisted image analysis claudin-7 expression cannot be used as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, but we are currently reanalyzing Claudin-7 expression using a commercially available imaging system (Aperio ScanScope). Automated analysis of TMA is based on optical density of chromogen detected antigen.

Poster 26 Conservation genetics of the endangered blacknose shiner (Notropis heterolepis) in Northern Illinois
Kuroiwa, Emi; Ozer, Fusun; Ashley. Mary V. The blacknose shiner (Notropis heterolepis) was once common throughout Illinois, but now is extirpated in parts of its range. The first state endangered and threatened fish sanctuary was established in a detention pond at Prairie Crossing housing development in Grayslake, Illinois in 1998 to reestablish blacknose shiners, along with three other E/T species. Fish were transplanted from Cedar Lake and Deep Lake in Lake county, Illinois, part of the Fox River drainage. Here we studied genetic diversity and differentiation between the two source lake populations and the sanctuary population to assess small population effects and translocation impacts. A total of 163 blacknose shiner samples from the three populations were characterized for seven microsatellite loci. Our data indicated a slight reduction in genetic variability level in the sanctuary population (He = 0.75, allelic richness = 7.06), compared to the source populations (He = 0.81, allelic richness = 8.43). However, the sanctuary population has sufficient genetic diversity to constitute a source of individuals for reintroduction. Small but significant genetic differentiation was observed between the two source populations (F¬st = 0.013). The sanctuary population was genetically more similar to the Cedar Lake population (Fst = 0.007) than to Deep Lake population (Fst = 0.025). This might be due to smaller number of initial transplants from Deep Lake, or the sanctuary habitat being more comparable to Cedar Lake habitat. Upon further comparative study of habitats, separate management of the Deep Lake population might be warranted to minimize loss of genetic diversity.

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Poster 27 Tbx-2 promoter activity is independent of GLP-1/Notch signaling in C. elegans
Pearson, Emma-Leigh; Crum, Tanya; Okkema, Peter G., PhD T-box transcription factors are involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. The T-box transcription factor TBX-2 is required for development of pharyngeal muscle derived from the ABa blastomere in the nematode C. elegans and TBX-2 is expressed in ABa-derived pharyngeal precursors. However, it is not well understood how expression of the tbx-2 gene is regulated. A possible factor in the regulation of tbx-2 is the Notch family transmembrane receptor GLP-1. GLP-1 is involved in interactions between cells during embryonic development in C. elegans and it is required for the development of AB-derived pharyngeal muscles. In glp-1 mutants, ABa-derived anterior pharyngeal development is inhibited, resulting in death of the organism late in embryonic development. We hypothesized that GLP-1 is required for the activity of the tbx-2 promoter. To examine tbx-2 expression, a chromosomally integrated tbx-2::gfp promoter fusion was constructed and GFP expression was observed in wild type and glp-1 mutant embryos using fluorescence microscopy. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the tbx-2::gfp reporter were characterized by observing different stages in embryonic development. GFP was found to be expressed at similar stages in development in both the glp-1 mutants and wild type embryos. Similarities were observed in the location of the GFP expression in the embryos at each of these particular stages as well. It appears that the absence of a functional glp-1 gene has no effect on the expression of tbx-2, refuting the hypothesis that GLP-1 is required for tbx-2 expression.

Poster 28 MRI Measurement of CSF Pulse Wave Velocity in the Cervical Spine: A Potential New Marker for the Diagnosis of Chiari Malformation
LeMaster, Elizabeth; Tung, Emily; Lee, Aaron; Alperin, Dr. Noam Background: The brain is protected by the surrounding Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). With each heart beat, CSF flows back and forth between the cranium and spinal canal. In the spinal canal, the pulse wave velocity (PWV) describes how the CSF pulse wave travels along the spinal canal. The potential clinical relevance of this new measure was evaluated in Chiari Malformation (CM) - a poorly understood brain disorder in which the lower part of the brain descends into the spinal canal. The diagnosis of CM is challenging because there is no correlation between the anatomical severity of the herniation and the severity of symptoms. Aim(s) of this Research: The goal of this research is to establish a reliable method to measure PWV of CSF flow in the spinal canal, establish normative values in control subjects, and compare these values to those measured in symptomatic CM patients.

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Methods: Nine healthy (4 adolescents and 5 adults) and five CM (adults) patients were studied. A dynamic velocity encoding Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique was used to image CSF velocities along the cervical spine during the cardiac cycle. PWV was determined from the slope of a scatter plot that relates pulse arrival time to the distance from the cranio-spinal junction. Results: The PWV in healthy controls ranged from 3.56 to 5.25 m/sec with a mean of 4.14. Interestingly, the values in adolescents and adults were similar. In contrast, PWV values in the CM group were considerably faster (mean 8.74 m/sec) to the point that the same arrival time was measured over a long segment of the spinal canal. Discussion: PWV was found to differ significantly between healthy and CM patients. Faster PWV suggests that the cervical canal of CM patients has lower mechanical compliance. This new information complements previously reported lower intracranial compliance in CM.

Poster 29 Healthy Hearts Program
Lopez, Raquel
The worldwide obesity epidemic is on the rise. Recent research suggests that Latino children are more likely to become obese than black or white children. The prevalence of obesity in Latino youth between the ages of 16 and 19 is twice the national average for children in this age range. Co-morbidities associated with obesity include hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. It is crucial that health care professionals work together to improve the health of all persons, but Latino youth especially. The Healthy Hearts Program designed by Dr. David Anyadike of Pilsen Community Pediatrics targets the Latino obesity epidemic together with a community of health care providers including primary care physicians, dietitians, UIC students, UIC interns, the Rauner Family YMCA, behavior change specialists, and more. Primary care physicians have been asked to recruit overweight and obese Latino children and their families to participate in this intervention program designed to teach parents and children the fundamentals of exercise and healthy nutrition within their own community. This eight week model of community-based treatment of childhood overweight and obesity program is scheduled to start April 2008 on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 6-7:30 pm. Pre- and post questionnaires and pre-and post body mass index (BMI) will be used to assess the progress of the participants. Eligibility requirements for participants are BMI above the 85th percentile, fasting and normal profile values for blood lipids, insulin, glucose, liver, blood pressure. These are recorded for each participant before, during, and after the eight week session. Follow-up visits are encouraged and facilitated by volunteers and YMCA staff.

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Poster 30 Inactivation of the parafascicular thalamic nucleus impairs place reversal learning
Madonna, Lauren; Brown, H.D.; Ragozzino, M.E. Several conditions exist in which individuals are impaired in flexibly shifting choice patterns or strategies, e.g. Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. All of these conditions are marked by abnormalities in striatal functioning. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that the dorsomedial striatum is critical to learning when conditions require a shift in choice patterns. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the dorsomedial striatum is one neurotransmitter that supports behavioral flexibility. Anatomical studies indicate that the parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus is one brain area that projects to the cholinergic interneurons in the striatum. Thus, input from this area may be important in modulating striatal acetylcholine release related to behavioral flexibility. To investigate this possibility, the present experiment investigated the effects of parafascicular inactivation on the acquisition and reversal learning of a place discrimination. Stereotaxic surgery was performed on rats to bilaterally implant cannulas in the parafascicular nucleus. Subsequently, rats were pretrained to navigate through a cross maze to receive cereal reinforcements. Following pretraining, rats were tested across two consecutive days. Five minutes prior to testing, saline or a mixture of the GABA A&B agonists, muscimol and baclofen were injected intracranially. Three different doses of muscimol/baclofen were examined (Mus(3.51nM)/Bac(1nM); Mus(1.17nM)/Bac(0.327nM); Mus(0.117nM)/Bac(0.0327nM)). Parafascicular nucleus inactivation did not impair initial learning of a place discrimination, but did impair place reversal learning. These findings suggest that the parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus may be part of a larger neural system that supports learning when conditions require a shift in choice patterns.

Poster 31 Proximal Tubular Basement Membrane Width in Diabetic Nephropathy
Maduram, A; John, E; Setty, S. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by the accumulation of renal extracellular matrix within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangium, and tubular basement membrane (TBM). Although morphometric studies of the glomerulus are well established, the correlation of TBM thickening to advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy has not been studied extensively. This pilot study evaluated proximal tubules of two patients diagnosed with nodular glomerulosclerosis. Proximal tubules were identified by the characteristic brush borders and elongated mitochondria. Tubules within 2 or 3 tubular diameters from the glomeruli were measured using electron microscopy blocks from 1 µm sections of resin embedded tissue, which included 10 to 15 tubular

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profiles per block. TBM of non-sclerosed tubules were photographed at a final magnification of ×10000 and calibrated with ImageJ software to measure the orthogonal width of the TBM at intercept points. A total of 17 tubules, with 9 ± 4 intercepts per tubule, were used to obtain measurements for both patients. Patient A, diagnosed with mild nodular glomerulosclerosis, had 9 proximal tubules and 94 intercepts with an average TBM width of 0.688 ± 0.20 µm. The 99% confidence interval is (0.633µm, 0.742 µm). Patient B, diagnosed with severe nodular glomerulosclerosis, had 8 proximal tubules and 64 intercepts with an average TBM width of 1.802 ± .55 µm. The 99% confidence interval is (1.62µm, 1.98µm). A comparative analysis of these patients indicates that increasing TBM width is correlated to the severity of diabetic nephropathy. TBM width can also be a surrogate for GBM width in the presence of a second glomerular disease. Future applications of this research include using the proximal TBM thickness as an indicator of diabetic nephropathy in renal transplant patients.

Poster32 Trip-Recovery Strategies of a Transfemoral Amputee
Maro, Gina; Uram III, Edward; Crenshaw, Jeremy; Grabiner, Mark In a one month period, 64% of transfemoral amputees reported falling (Gauthier-Gagnon et al., 1999). Thus, it is important to identify modifiable mechanisms leading to falls by transfemoral amputees. Common trip-recovery strategies used by non-amputees involve lowering the obstructed limb to the ground, a lowering strategy, or elevating it over the obstacle, an elevating strategy (Eng et al., 1994, Pavol et al., 2001). Effective trip-recovery strategies have not been reported for transfemoral amputees. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the trip-recovery strategies employed by a transfemoral amputee. We hypothesized that obstructing the prosthetic limb (PL) and non-prosthetic limb (NPL) would result in a lowering strategy and elevating strategy, respectively. The female subject (age: 27 years, height: 165 cm, mass: 62.5 kg) suffered a traumatic, transfemoral amputation of the left limb 3 years and 6 months prior to participation. She was tripped twice during overground walking, once per limb, using a concealed, pneumatically-controlled obstacle that rose 5 cm above the floor. An eight-camera motion capture system (Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA), operating at 120 Hz, recorded the position of 22 retroreflective markers attached to the subject. When the PL was obstructed, the subject successfully used a lowering strategy as was hypothesized. However, when the NPL was obstructed, the subject lowered the obstructed limb and executed a “hopping” strategy to negotiate the obstacle with the NPL. This is a previously unreported trip-recovery strategy that may be commonly used by transfemoral amputees. The strategy, however, suggests a lack of trust in using the prosthesis during triprecovery. Furthermore, this recovery strategy may not be appropriate for amputees who are less physically fit marked by diminished lower extremity strength and power. These preliminary results suggest that specific focus on trip recovery may be important during rehabilitation of amputees.

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Poster 33 Gender differences influence the perception of credibility, importance, and believability of science texts
Newey, Amy; Raney, Gary E; Daniel, Frances; Obeidallah, Sharon Raney et al. (2005) found that information in natural science passages that matched prior knowledge was read faster than information that mismatched prior knowledge. In contrast, information in social science passages that matched prior knowledge was read slower than information that mismatched prior knowledge. We explored this interaction by assessing participants’ beliefs about natural science and social science. Based on theories such as the bias confirmation theory, we expected participants’ beliefs about natural science and social science could influence comprehension. The three passages used by Raney et al. (2005) were used as stimuli. Two were about natural science (global warming and laws of motion) and one was about social science (gender differences in communication). Participants read and evaluated these passages. Men rated physical sciences as more important and credible than social sciences whereas women rated social sciences as more important and equally credible. This occurred despite no gender differences in comprehension. How beliefs influence text comprehension is discussed.

Poster 34 Evaluating Undergraduate Cognitive Psychology Students’ Explanations for Theory Preferences
Noone, Kevin This poster presents the results of a theory selection task (c.f. Chinn & Brewer) to assess whether or not undergraduate students in an upper level cognitive psychology course used legitimate (normative) criteria as the basis of decisions about the best theories of two unfamiliar cognitive phenomena. A second question was whether or not criteria used to justify initial theory preferences were consistent across the two phenomena. We analyzed student responses to a required homework assignment for the types of reasoning demonstrated, and and to assess whether these reasons were scientifically legitimate (c.f., Samarapungavan, 1992). Students either based their decisions on the analysis of the properties of the theories or a variety of non-normative responses. A commonly occurring example of non-normative reasoning that would deem novices incapable of legitimate is the use of a generalization, such as "that's just the way things are." A majority (75%) of these appear to be illegitimate because students employed knowledge-based reasons (such as the aforementioned "generalization" response). This type of reasoning was not based on the theories but rather on the personal experiences, opinions, or intuitions. The proportion of codes assigned to each content area were correlated, r = .99, p < .05. Separately, the subcategory of theory-based explanations was correlated across the content areas, r = .99, p < .01 but the category of knowledge-based was not significantly

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correlated. suggesting that students thinking about theories was a general skill. At the poster presentation, I will discuss potential interpretations and implications of these results as well as avenues for future research.

Poster 35 Using Web Resources to locate Wetlands
Occhiuzzo, Brenda; Nyberg, Dennis Wetlands are special. Water is important to all organisms and it attracts certain species, both those people enjoy like frogs and those, like mosquitoes, they would rather not have around. Wetlands are legally protected, but defining a place as a wetland is difficult because water sometimes floods places that are not wetlands and is absent from many wetlands in the summer and fall. Classically plants integrate water histories over periods of many years so plants are used to delimit wetlands. Recently aerial images covering the globe have been put on the web and water on the land surface is distinctive. The images for the Chicagoland area are of high resolution. I have used Google Maps, TerraServerUSA, Microsoft Live Search Maps and aerial photographs from Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission to locate and measure apparent wetlands in two parcels of Cook County Forest Preserves. From the aerial photos I measured length and bearing of long axis, width at center, percent open water, quality of shape, and the GPS coordinates of each wetland center. I will investigate how attributes of each program, the time-of-day of the photo and the date of the photo effects wetland detection. Finally I consider how being filled with trees, shrubs or herbaceous vegetation affects the detectability of the wetlands of different sizes. At this point almost all the Palos wetlands that had calling frogs in 2000 have been detected with all the images and programs. The images generally detect more areas as wet than are big/deep enough for amphibian breeding. The size of the wetlands measured from the images correspond closely to ground measurements. Web based resources identify a very high percentage of wetland locations and accurately measuring their area when the images are before leaf-out of trees in a short amount of time (compared to field work).

Poster 36 Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase isoforms in primary cultures of Human Oligodendrocytes.
Othman, Ahmad; Vujicic, Snezana; Boullerne, Anne I. Demyelination of Oligodendrocytes is a known symptom of the autoimmune disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to better understand the genetic changes that take place in Oligodendrocytes experiencing the loss of their myelin sheath, a study was conducted to determine the expression patterns of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) isoforms I, II, and III. New evidence suggests that NOS may play a role in the

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demyelination of Oligodendrocytes that is seen in patients with MS. Therefore a study was conducted using a primary culture of Human Oligodendrocytes in an effort to determine the expression pattern of the three isoforms in healthy cells. These results are essential in determining whether NOS does in fact play a role in demyelination. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted using mRNA extracted from a primary culture of Human Oligodendrocytes to determine the expression of the three isoforms of NOS along with several other proteins markers of Oligodendrocytes. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNPase), myelin basic protein (MBP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), as well as the transcription factors for maturation Olig-1, Nkx2.2 and SOX10 were found expressed. RT-PCR proved valuable in determining that NOS I, II, and III are expressed in a Human Oligodendrocyte cell line called HOG, but only NOS-III was found expressed in primary culture of Oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, these results were verified by a positive Immunostaining for NOS-III in primary cultures of Human Oligodendrocytes. Studies using Western blotting provided additional evidence that NOS-III is expressed in white matter composed of half Oligodendrocytes. The literature shows that NOS-III is expressed in Schwann cells, the myelinating homologue cell of the peripheral nervous system, which further validates our study.

Poster 37 The Role of G Proteins, Prephenate Dehydratases and Pirin 1 in the Regulation of Phenylalanine in Early Plant Development.
Plachta, K; Mezzich, R; Kukuruza, N.O; Warpeha, K. M; Kaufman, L. S. Because of its two roles, as an amino acid necessary for protein synthesis and as a precursor to phenylpropanoids, the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) can account for as much as 30% of the dry mass of a plant, yet until two years ago it was completely unknown how plants synthesize Phe. Our lab recently defined the pathway responsible for Phe synthesis in the cytoplasm of etiolated seedlings of the model plant Arabidopsis, in a manner analagous to that found in bacteria and fungi. Enhanced Phe production occurs as a direct result of activation of Prephenate Dehydratase 1 (PD1) through its physical interaction with the activated form of the sole G-protein alpha subunit that exists in Arabidopsis. We have demonstrated that the same G protein alpha subunit interacts with the protein Pirin 1 (PRN1), a quercetinase that has the ability to interact with and regulate activity of specific subunits of the NFY (CAAT-box binding transcription factors). The function of a quercetinase is to cleave quercetin, a UV-screening pigment. We have investigated if PRN1 directly can modulate accumulation of the UV-screening pigment quercetin. We hypothesize that PRN1 may act in DNA repair or in a feedback mechanism to control Phe made via PD1, early in development. There are six members of the PD gene family in the Arabidopsis genome and one member expressed in the etiolated (completely dark-grown) seedling is PD1. We do not know the role(s) of the other five PD proteins. We investigated the light regulation, gravity responses and Ultraviolet radiation tolerance of each member of the PD family for which 99

there are T-DNA insertion mutants. We find that PD3 and PD6 seem to have important roles in light signaling and gravity-sensing, whereby plants mutant in these proteins fail to respond normally to particular light or gravity signals.

Poster 38 A Bio-Cultural Analysis of Teen Breastfeeding Decisions
Podraza, Adam Compared with older mothers, teenage mothers have much lower rates of breastfeeding their infants from birth. The disparities become more pronounced at six and twelve months after delivery. These low rates have stymied health professionals, as teenage mothers stand to benefit immensely from the cost-savings and infant health benefits of breastfeeding. Most researchers, however, have focused solely on the social milieu of teenage mothers, identifying low social support and poor breastfeeding education as key factors impacting these rates. When the biological as well as the social domain is considered, however, it is apparent that teenage mothers must contend with an additional demand that likely does not impact older mothers – competition for resources between calorically expensive breastmilk and the still-growing mothers' bodies. This may be particularly relevant in explaining why teenagers discontinue breastfeeding over time as the caloric content of breastmilk increases. This presentation will consider the low breastfeeding rate of teenage mothers from a bio-cultural perspective, tying life history analysis of competition for energetic resources to the larger body of social literature on low breastfeeding rates.

Poster 39 Here It Goes Again: Internet Social Networks are Changing the Art Game
Polera, Justin & Kohler, Bill Two recent Internet ventures, Threadless and YouTube, use social networking technology to build online communities of artists and consumers that open new markets for art products. Data collected from these two websites shows how consumer preference for art goods, designer T-shirts and artist videos, is socially constructed. Popularity information about products provided on the sites reinforces trends, by driving consumers toward “hits” (mainstream) products in a bandwagon effect. Contrary to this, previous research has shown a “long tail” effect in social sites where consumer focus shifts away from in the “hits” towards expanded niche markets. This paper examines these two effects within communities online and argues for a complementary effect of the “steep tail” and “long tail” not a competitive effect. YouTube and Threadless provide different approaches to how social networks drive the supply of user-generated art products and create an expanded “long tail” while at the same time helping users discover products and drive up collective popularity of hits in the “steep tail”. Both websites feed the “steep tail” effect; YouTube 100

maintains listings of the “most viewed” videos whereas Threadless host contests and annual awards to drive consumers toward popular products. The “steep tail” effect created by making popularity information available to users appears to be a demand-side driver by attracting new users to the site to meet “long tail” supply. To support this argument data was collected from Threadless, which does not highlight bestsellers on the site but instead recently introduced awards for the most popular and most purchased products. Looking at data before and after the awards were introduced there is still a complementary effect where awards draw new customers from the outside with out a loss of interest in niche products. Thus popularity information provided on Internet ventures serves to drive new growth and shape consumer behavior.

Poster 40 Evaluation of a Peer-Instruction Program in an Undergraduate Anatomy Laboratory
Pounder,Stephanie & Bareither, Mary Lou Peer-instruction has been used extensively in medical education and its benefits are well established with positive examination scores, student satisfaction, and personal and professional development. However, little research has been reported in undergraduate education. To evaluate peer-instruction in an undergraduate program, a pilot study was initiated in the laboratory portion of the two-semester Human Physiological Anatomy course. This course enrolls over 500 pre-health students. Undergraduate peer-instructors, who had previously taken the course, were assigned to each laboratory which is taught by a graduate teaching assistant. An anonymous and voluntary survey evaluating the peerinstructional program was administered to enrolled students (n=455), undergraduate peerinstructors (n=16) and the graduate teaching assistants (n=6) during week 10 of the 15week semester. Additionally, final grades of the course were compared using an independent t-test to previous years where no peer-instruction was implemented. There was no significant difference in the final course grades between semesters in which peerinstructors were used and previous years without peer-instructors (p=0.43). However, of the enrolled students that responded (n=422), 95.3% felt that the peer-instructors were academically beneficial. The students also felt that they learned better from “teachers” of the same level of knowledge, a concept called cognitive congruence. Peer instructors that responded (n=14), reported that they experienced an improvement in their understanding of course concepts and leadership (100%), improvement in their communication skills and confidence (92.8%), and developed teamwork (85.7%). All graduate teaching assistants responded to the survey and were 100% highly supportive of the peer-instructors and felt their assistance benefitted both the teaching and learning experience in the lab. These outcomes suggest that a peer-instructional program may a highly valuable and inexpensive educational method to enhance learning in an undergraduate anatomy laboratory.

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Poster 41 Apoptosis in cold ischemia-induced-hypoxia in human pancreatic islets correlates with decreased islet isolation
Raisdana, Aisan Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus cannot make insulin due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet's &#946; cells. Islet transplantation is used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus so that the transplanted islets can make and release new insulin. Difficulties with islet transplantation include the need for at least two donor pancreata because of &#946; cell loss in transplantation and the need for immunosuppressive drugs in islet recipients to maintain transplanted islet functionality. I analyzed the incidence of apoptotic events and morphological changes that occur in the tissue of pancreata with varied cold ischemia times. This was done to test to what extent cold ischemia-induced-hypoxia affects islet potency and islet yield upon pancreas sample isolation. Currently, my morphological analyses and measurements of apoptotic beta cells within the pancreas samples are blind and have not yet been correlated to each sample's cold ischemia time and isolated islet yield. However, these correlations will be completed by next week in order to accept or reject the hypothesis that as the cold ischemia time of a pancreas sample increases, hypoxia will induce islet apoptosis, thereby decreasing isolated islet yield and potential transplantation success. My morphological and immunohistochemical findings will be integrated into a larger research project to determine optimal conditions for islet functionality in order to improve islet graft survival. Poster 42

Conformational and Toxicity Studies of non-beta-amyloid NAC(8-18)
Rios, Nancy; Jones, Christopher; Chimon, Sandra; Junhui, Fu; Ishii, Yoshita Non-beta-amyloid component (NAC) peptide is a 35-residue amyloid peptide that has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s. The NAC is the second largest component found in Alzheimer’s plaques, next to the Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide (Aβ). NAC has been found to self-assemble into β-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils, which exhibit neurotoxicity. We are currently investigating a small 11-residue fragment NAC(818), which corresponds to the 8 to 18 residues of NAC. Interestingly, this fragment has been the minimal element of NAC that retains amyloid fibril formation and toxicity upon aggregation. Circular dichroism confirmed that NAC(8-18) exhibits a conformation change into a β-sheet structure from random coil upon fibril formation through self-assembly from the monomeric form. Solid-state NMR analysis suggested homogeneous β-sheet structures in NAC(8-18) fibrils. Toxicity of the NAC(8-18) fibril sample and monomeric form were compared with that for a fibril sample of 40-residue Aβ fibril through a standard MTT assay on rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.

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Poster 43 Active Stabilization of the Wrist During Impact
Rivadelo, Ryan & Troy, Karen L. Wrist fractures frequently occur after an individual falls and attempts to break the fall by putting their hands in front of them. Previous research indicates that active stabilization of the wrist during impact may improve its fracture strength. Here, we sought to determine whether people vary the degree to which they actively stabilize their wrists in response to the amount of force they anticipate experiencing, and whether their muscles activate before (in anticipation) or after (in response) impact. Seven healthy adults (age: 18-40, mass: 64-98 kg) were recruited for this study. Four surface electrodes measuring muscle activation in each of two wrist flexors and two wrist extensors were affixed to the subject’s dominant arm. Subjects voluntarily fell onto their hands with a light, medium, and hard impact. A force plate recorded the peak impact force. Three trials were performed for each force. A significant linear relationship exists between muscle activation and ground reaction force. The mean R2 value for ground reaction force versus percent maximum contraction for the flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were 0.64±0.18 and 0.64±0.20, respectively. In light falls, each muscle’s onset of activation was 0.22±0.20 and 0.32±0.23 seconds before peak force. During hard falls, activation onsets occurred 0.05±0.13 and 0.09±0.12 seconds after peak force. Co-contraction occurred in all falls. There is only 20-40 ms of time between the instant the hand contacts the ground and peak force —too fast for a voluntary reaction. Because peak contraction occurs nearly simultaneously with peak force in harder falls it may be a reaction to, rather than an anticipatory activation. Even in voluntary hard falls, maximum active stabilization doesn’t occur until after peak force, and therefore may not help prevent wrist fractures due to unexpected falls. More research is needed to determine whether training could improve performance during this task.

Poster 44 Universal Serial Bus Key (USB Key)
Sanchez, Maruno; Alexandru Marcu-Cristian; Morganna Lockett People in charge of access to large buildings, or even smaller ones too, deal with the inconvenience of storing, keeping on track, and managing tens or hundreds of keys. Our goal is to design and build a Universal Serial Bus (USB) Key, capable of opening all or some, determined doors in a building using encrypted codes, while preserving all the extra features of the USB stick.

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Many people think of magnetic stripe cards or “punch-in” codes as being an easy, good method to solve this problem, we came up with an easier, advanced, safer method, the USB Key. Magnetic stripe cards were clearly an innovative invention. It allows you to open a door by simply swiping the card past a reading head installed on the door. People might think it doesn’t get any easier than that, and the answer is no. But a USB Key can do that and a lot more. It is more durable, can hold additional data if necessary, can be easily encrypted, and it has plenty of other uses. Codes are just a primitive, simple function of the USB Key. Everything you can do by punching in a code you can do it with a USB Key, without even having to actually punch in numbers, just by inserting the key in the USB slot you get the job done. So there’s virtually no margin of error, the possibility of having the wrong code is null. Only that makes the USB key a smarter choice, but there are many other benefits too. It is now clear why a USB Key is a better option.

Poster 45 An analysis of state-level incidence/mortality (I/M) ratios between Blacks and whites for breast and prostate cancer: Where are the Black I/M ratios lower, and why?
Sarran, Marc; Sabunis, Petek; Hsieh, Patrick Yuli; Barrett, Richard; Dolecek, Therese A.; Warnecke, Richard B. While much attention has been paid to racial disparities in health at the national level and within metropolitan areas, there is little analysis of the large disparities at the state level. Our preliminary analysis of state-level 2000-2004 breast cancer I/M (incidence to mortality) ratios shows that I/M ratios for whites are very similar. Yet in every state but one, the I/M ratio for blacks is lower (poorer survivorship) than that of whites, and the differences between black-white I/M ratios are highly variable between states. Given that this analysis only uses recent data from 37 NAACCR “gold standard” (i.e. with very high incidence coverage) states, these differences are almost certainly due to health disparities by race rather than to underregistration of incident cases. This poster will examine black and white state-level I/M ratios for breast and prostate cancer, two cancers with large racial disparities of major significance for differential cancer mortality. Whether states show similar patterns of racial differences in I/M ratios for breast and prostate cancer will be examined. The influence of two possible sets of independent factors on racial disparities in I/M ratios will be examined. First, racial differences in SES (including race- and sex-specific poverty rates, levels of education and per capita income) will be examined across states. Second, provision of medical care (including funding for medical care and physician/population ratios) across states will be analyzed to see if lack of medical resources has a larger negative effect on the more vulnerable part (i.e. the African-American) part of the population. Whether these structural factors have the same effects on racial differences in I/M for the male cancer (prostate) as for the female one (breast) may help show whether gender should also be included in state-level models of cancer disparities 104

Poster 46 Gay Concentration Camps or Anti-Communist Scapegoat: The Legacy of Cuban Military Units to Aid Production
Seely, Stephen The Cuban Unidades Militares para la Ayuda de Producción (Military Units to Aid Production) labor camps were established by the Communist regime to reform those believed to be counter-revolutionary. From 1965 to 1968, thousands of men were sent to these forced labor camps, a large number of them homosexual men. It was believed that homosexuality was a bourgeois decadence, a symbol of capitalism. The United States and western European countries often held up the UMAP camps as exemplary of the horrors of Communism; however, homosexuals were consistently persecuted in these “First World” countries as well. Though I do not dispute that these camps were the source of brutal acts against innocent homosexual men, in my research I examine the degree to which the “west” used UMAPs to further perpetuate the hysteria surrounding the spread of Communism. I also look at the treatment of homosexuals in Cuba after the UMAP period in comparison to their conditions in the “west.” I have found that the Cuban government and Castro’s Party did much to improve the homosexual condition, and that persisting accounts of persecution are often highly exaggerated. The truth about the UMAP camps is that they were an extreme example of the persecution homosexuals experienced in many countries during the Cold War period, and that their legacy has been used to further anti-Communist rhetoric.

Poster 47 Mutational Effects on Brain Spectrin Tetramerization Site
Sevinc, Akin & Fung, Leslie W.-M. Spectrin, a prominent cellular protein, exerts its fundamental cytoskeletal function by forming tetramers via the association of α- (Spα) and β-spectrin (Spβ) isoforms at the Nterminal region of Spα with the C-terminal region of Spβ. Previous studies revealed that residue 22 of the non-erythroid α-spectrin is critical in the formation of tetramers. A replacement of this residue (valine) to aspartic acid (V22D) reduces the αβ association affinity. In this study, we replaced valine with various amino acid residues at this position (V22A, V22M, V22F and V22W) using site-directed mutagenesis techniques and analyzed the αβ interaction using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) techniques. Recombinant model proteins of non-erythroid (brain) α-spectrin (SpαII-1-359) and βspectrin (SpβII-1689-2137) have been used for our experiments.

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In Y2H analysis, blue colored colonies were formed due to the reporter gene activation in WT and V22A, V22F, V22M or V22W clones, and the color intensities were ranked. No coloration was observed in V22D clones, as expected. In Y3H analysis, a reduction in colony size was observed based on mutant’s competitive ability with the WT protein for binding to Spβ partner, or the larger the colonies, the less the interaction of mutant with Spβ. The size was normalized to 1 (a.u.) for no interaction. The colony sizes were 0.45 ± 0.05 for WT, 0.47 ± 0.07 for V22A, 0.55 ± 0.09 for V22F, 0.58 ± 0.16 for V22M, 0.65 ± 0.08 for V22W and 0.70 ± 0.10 for V22D. These data suggest that the replacement at the 22nd residue showed significant effect on tetramerization due to the change of the side chain properties.

Poster 48 Characterization of microcantilever beam dynamics
Shah, Hardik; Krishnan, Sandeep; Saggere, Laxman Contact based micromanipulation using MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Sytems) devices is critical for various tasks including microassembly operations and manipulation of biological specimen such as cells and tissues. Currently, in the Micro Systems and Devices Laboratory at UIC, dexterous micromanipulators are being developed for microfactory applications. One such device is the chip-scale/miniaturized multifingered micromanipulator comprised of microfingers that coordinate with one another to carry out various assembly tasks. The speed of micromanipulation is critical to some of these tasks and it becomes essential to characterize the dynamic properties of microfingers. The goal of this research is to establish an experimental framework for determining damping parameters of microstructures (such as microfingers) in the lab environment. Towards this goal, experimental characterization of the dynamics of a microcantilever beam is carried out. The cantilever beam’s dimensions are approximately 200 mm in thickness, 1.5 mm wide, and 5 mm long. The microcantilever is mounted on a high voltage piezoelectric actuator under a Polytech laser Micro Scanning Vibrometer (MSV). The MSV has the ability to capture vibration amplitudes in the nanometer (10-9) range. The surface of the cantilever free end is scanned under the MSV and using fast Fourier transform (FFT), the natural resonance frequencies up to 1.5 MHz and corresponding mode shapes are measured. The resonance frequencies are then processed using the log-decrement method to calculate experimental damping coefficients corresponding to different frequencies of the microcantilever beam.

Poster 49 Smart Chair
Moulik Shah; Patel, Amar; Shah, Jay; Goncharoff, Vladimir With the products like I-Pass, Work Id’s, Speed Pass and many others RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) has made a huge place in today’s technology. Few years ago

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RFID technology was only used in industrial and manufacturing purposes. But due to the efficiency and low cost of the technology we have extended its use to home products and this is where our SMART CHAIR design comes in. Smart chair is a chair which identifies a person sitting on it and automatically turns on the TV with the persons selected channel and volume. This design makes use of RFID technology to identify the person sitting on it. User will also have an option to chance the selected channel and adjust the volume. Extra tags can also be programmed to work on the chair. Design Goals • Each RFID tag will have different settings for each individual • The distance between the receiver and the smart chair that has the RFID tag should be 10 feet apart in order to communicate • RFID tag will be a credit card size card • Error free low frequency RFID reader • Receiver that communicates between the RFID tag and the controller (smart chair) Design Alternative User can manually select the program and adjust the required volume.

Poster 50 Identification and Functional Analysis of Tubulin/ Gs&#945;-protein Binding Site
Sharma, Aarti; Rahul, Dave; Rasenick, Mark M. G-protein signaling cascades are principal elements in the molecular machinery of drugs geared towards the treatment of clinical depression – half of extant pharmaceuticals are known to be affected by these mechanisms. Classically, a stimulated G-protein-coupledreceptor (GPCR) activates Gs&#945;, resulting in increased cAMP levels. However, in the absence of GPCR stimulation, we show that tubulin can donate its GTP to Gs&#945;, and Gs&#945; reciprocally activates tubulin’s GTPase, providing an alternative pathway that induces dynamic microtubule behavior and neuronal outgrowth. Tubulin and Gs&#945; colocalize in rat brain synaptosomes, demonstrating a specific binding interaction through exhibition of a Kd of about 120nM. The purpose of our investigation is to pinpoint the exact binding interface of tubulin to the subunits of these G-proteins, as well as observe the functional interactions of this complex. Four chimeras of Gs&#945; and Gt&#945; (which does not bind to tubulin) were created based on sequence homology information, previous functional data, and computer models of the Gs&#945; /tubulin complex. We optimized a PCR-based approach to introduce specific mutations, and sequences were verified using restriction enzyme mapping and DNA sequencing. Following this, the recombinant histidine-tagged Gs&#945; mutants were expressed in E. Coli, purified over a Ni-NTA column, and purity was verified on a Coomassie stained gel. Using surface plasmon resonance, we will quantify the affinity of the interaction between tubulin and these modified G-proteins. We will also study the effect of these G-protein mutants on tubulin GTPase activity, and their ability to receive GTP from tubulin. Such information will aid in the narrowing of the specific residues involved in the functional interactions between G107

proteins and tubulin; discovery of such a cynosure not only holds myriad implications for comprehension of the mechanisms behind various neurological and cancer drugs, but also potential to contribute to novel treatments through manipulation of tubulin polymerization dynamics.

Poster 51 Error-tolerant Sibship Reconstruction
Sheikh, Saad; Ashley, Mary; Caballero, Isabel; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; Dasgupta, Bhaskar Kinship analysis using genetic data is important for many biological applications, inform evolutionary to conservation biology. While there exist many methods for reconstructing sibling relationships, almost none account for errors and mutations in microsatellite data, which are prevalent and a ect quality of reconstruction. We present an error-tolerant method for reconstructing sibling relationships based on the ideas of consensus techniques. We have defined a framework for developing consensus based approaches to siblings reconstruction problem. We have developed a Greedy Algorithm for solving sibling reconstruction problem using distance based consensus. It has three phases: Phase 1 runs the 2-allele min set cover algorithm to obtain solutions for dropping one locus. Any technique for siblings reconstruction may be used here. We use the 2-allele min set cover algorithm as the basis since it performs as well or better than other available methods and makes fewest assumptions. Phase 2 works by comparing all solutions. Two individuals are placed in the same sibling group only if all solutions agree. Unpaired individuals are placed in singleton sibling groups. Finally, phase 3 works iteratively by merging the closest pair of sibling groups. We test our approach on both biological and simulated data, with both pre-existing and introduced errors. Our method is highly accurate in almost all simulations, typically with over 90%. Ours is the first method designed to tolerate errors while making no assumptions about the population or the sampling distribution.

Poster 52 Effects of a novel M1 muscarinic cholinergic agonist, CDD-102A on memory and strategy shifting in rodents
Singh, A. & Ragozzino, M.E. Several disorders and diseases, e.g. autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease are marked by impairments in short-term memory and/or cognitive flexibility which are devastating to functioning in daily life. One potential neurochemical target to alleviate memory and cognitive flexibility deficits is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine acts at both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Within these different classes of cholinergic receptors there are several different

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subtypes. Recent findings indicate that the M1 muscarinic receptor functioning is altered in several conditions, e.g. schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, developing pharmacological treatments that target the M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor may alleviate memory and cognitive flexibility deficits observed in different disorders and diseases. To begin addressing this issue, the present experiment investigated the effects of a novel M1 muscarinic cholinergic agonist, CDD-102A on short-term memory and strategy switching in rats. A delayed spontaneous alternation test was used to test shortmemory. A place-visual cue discrimination was used to test strategy switching. The results indicate that CDD-102A significantly enhanced delayed spontaneous alternation in a dose-dependent manner. Preliminary findings also indicate that CDD-102A enhances a shift from a place to visual cue strategy. The findings suggest that activation of M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors enhances short-term memory and strategy switching. The findings also suggest that CDD-102A may have the potential to alleviate cognitive deficits in various disorders and diseases, e.g. schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Poster 53 Selective Ion Passage through Functionalized Graphene Pores and Control of Fluid Flow by Rotation of Stacked Nanocones Connected by Alkyl Chains
Sint, Kyaw; Wang, Boyang; Král, Petr We design functionalized nanopores in graphene monolayers and show by molecular dynamics simulations that they provide highly selective passage of hydrated ions. For example, a hydrogen-terminated pore allows the passage of Cl- ions, but blocks the passage of Na+ ions, while fluorine-terminated pore does exactly the opposite. The passage of ions through these nanopores with diameters approximately 5 angstrom is possible due to the fact that the ions are inside the pores only partly stripped of their hydration shells. These nanopores can have potential applications in separation, desalination and energy storage systems.

Poster 54 Expression of Synthetic Antibodies for Zebrafish Proteins
Smetana, Alex; Saiyed, Natasha; Thai, Sang; Hao, Zengping; Kay, Brian K. To add value to the sequencing of the human genome, the attention of the scientific community is now directed at determining the function of the thousands of gene products in each cell. Traditionally, antibodies are widely used to probe cells and to learn when the protein product of a gene is synthesized, where it is localized, and what it is associated with in the cell. However, it typically takes 2-3 months to generate rabbit or mouse antibodies to each individual protein, and there is limited control by the investigator on the quality of the antibodies generated by the immunized animals. From phage libraries, which

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display billions of different antibody fragments, one can isolate affinity reagents to a specific target protein in 2-3 weeks. As a proof-of-principle, we are working with lab members in generating affinity reagents to zebrafish proteins by constructing recombinant proteins, fusing the coding regions selected antibody fragments with that of the E. coli alkaline phosphatase. The resulting fusion proteins can then be used in immunoassays, western blots, and immunohistochemistry to follow expression of individual proteins during zebrafish embryogenesis. Much of our efforts have been on constructing the recombinant DNA, subcloning it into an expression vector, and purifying the fusion proteins for enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. An ELISA is run to check the binding specificity of the target protein to its antibodies and is considered significant with an absorbance at least 4x greater than background. After purification with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), the fusion proteins are checked on a gel for concentration and purity. We currently have 1-2 unique antibodies for 4 different target proteins cloned into an alkaline phosphatase expression vector available for the zebrafish research community.

Poster 55 The Comparison of Step Width and its Variability during Overground and Treadmill Walking
Stefani, Katie; Hurt, Christopher; Rosenblatt, Noah; Grabiner, Mark D. Treadmill walking is frequently used to evaluate gait. However, the question of whether treadmill and overground walking differ biomechanically has not been resolved. Step width (SW) and step width variability (SWV) are gait parameters commonly evaluated under both conditions and have been linked to falls by older adults which is a focus of our laboratory. Given the methodological advantages of treadmills we determined the relationship between SW and SWV during treadmill and overground walking. We tested the hypotheses that step kinematics during the two conditions would be strongly related and not significantly different. Seven healthy young adults (4 males, 3 females) walked at a self-selected comfortable walking speed overground and on a treadmill. Thirty overground trials and ten minutes of treadmill walking, randomly ordered, were collected. SW was recorded using a motion capture system. SWV was calculated as the standard deviation of the trials of each condition. The between-condition relationships were established using correlation and between-condition comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The correlation coefficients between SW and SWV for the overground and treadmill conditions were 0.87 and 0.80, respectively (p<0.05). SW during treadmill walking was significantly larger than that of overground walking, 132 mm and 111 mm, respectively (p=0.006). However, SWV during overground walking was significantly larger than that of treadmill walking, 24 mm and 22 mm, respectively (p=0.04). The significant between-condition differences suggest that for the variables of interest, SW and SWV, overground walking and treadmill walking are not similar. However, the strong relationship between SW and SWV for the treadmill and overground conditions suggest that treadmill walking may provide a reasonable surrogate for overground walking. Further characterizing the relationship between SW and SWV, 110

dynamic stability, and fall-risk are warranted given the clinical advantages of treadmill walking, and the magnitude of the healthcare problem imposed by fall-related injuries.

Poster 56 Microarray analysis of the polymorphic ciliate, Tetrahymena vorax.
Subei, Obada; Hunt, Christin; Kosalka, Malgorzata; Martin, Ashley; Buhse, Howard; Werlin, Rebecca; Hamilton, Eileen; Orias, Eduardo The ciliate Tetrahymena vorax is a unicellular eukaryote that has the unusual ability to exist in two forms. In the microstomal form, T. vorax cells resemble those of other Tetrahymena species, but under defined conditions it differentiates into a large carnivorous cell, the macrostomal form, capable of ingesting smaller prey organisms. Stomatin, a substance produced by potential prey, induces this transformation. Synchronous differentiation occurs within 6 hrs of stomatin treatment. The molecular events underpinning macrostomal differentiation occur between 135 and 195 min following stomatin treatment. To investigate which T. vorax genes are up- or down-regulated by stomatin treatment, RNA was extracted from a differentiating cell culture at 150 min poststomatin treatment and also from untreated control microstome cells. cDNA was synthesized, labeled and hybridized to gene expression microarrays containing approximately 380,000 probes for nearly all the ~28,000 known or predicted genes in the genome sequence of the related species T. thermophila. We detected no genes that were highly induced by stomatin treatment, perhaps because the (unknown) average % sequence difference between the two species masks detection of the induction of the relevant genes. Unexpectedly, considering this evolutionary distance, many genes showed high levels of hybridization, regardless of stomatin treatment. We are investigating the basis of this interesting finding.

Poster 57 The Compensatory Stepping Response of a Transfemoral Amputee
Uram, Edward III; Maro, Gina; Crenshaw, Jeremy; Grabiner, Mark Following a postural disturbance, a compensatory stepping response (CSR) with adequate step lengths and times are imperative to a successful recovery (Hsiao & Robinovitch, 1999). The purpose of the present study was to describe how the CSR of a transfemoral amputee (TFA) changes with the disturbance magnitude. We hypothesized that initial step and stride length (Lstep, and Lstride) would increase, while initial step and stride time (tstep and tstride) would decrease with increasing disturbance magnitude. Furthermore, initially stepping with the prosthetic limb (PL) would decrease Lstep and increase tstep compared to stepping with the non-prosthetic limb (NPL). A 27 year old amputee (height 165cm, mass 62.5 kg) participated in this study. Postural disturbances, requiring an anteriorly directed CSR, were applied delivered using a modified treadmill. The

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disturbance magnitude, or the initial acceleration of the treadmill belt (a0), was incrementally increased with each trial. For the first 19 trials, the subject took the initial step with the NPL. During the next 10 trials the subject initiated the CSR with the PL. The subject’s movements were recorded using a motion capture system. The subject successfully recovered from all disturbances. Initially stepping with the PL was associated with significantly decreased Lstep (p < .001) and Lstride (p = 0.047) and increased tstride (p = 0.005). Increasing a0 significantly decreased tstep (p < .001) and tstride (p = 0.047). Unexpectedly, stepping with the PL did not decrease tstep and increasing a0 did not affect Lstep and Lstride. Our results suggest that initially stepping with the PL may put TFAs at risk of falling. The results also suggest that amputees modulate step speed instead of step length as a function of the disturbance magnitude.

Poster 58 A novel anti-obesity drug, MSI-1436, does not alter the rate of dopamine uptake via the dopamine transporter
Wescott, Seth A; McLane, Michael P; Wolfe, Henry R; Roitman, Mitchell F Many drugs that reduce food intake and body weight affect the rate of dopamine (DA) reuptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT) (e.g. amphetamine, bupropion). DAT blockers are undesirable as drugs as they increase locomotor behavior and have high addictive potential. A recently developed drug (MSI-1436) has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight via inhibition of PTP1b. In vitro results suggest that MSI-1436 may inhibit the DAT. We investigated the effects of MSI-1436 on DA reuptake using in vivo fastscan cyclic voltammetry in anesthetized rats. A stimulation train was delivered to the ventral tegmental area every 5 minutes and the resultant [DA] and rate of reuptake were measured. After 3 stimulations (baseline), rats received an injection of either saline, the known DAT blocker nomifensine (7mg/kg, i.p.) or MSI-1436 (10mg/kg, i.p.) and an additional 12 stimulations were collected. Peak [DA] and decay rate (tau) per stimulation train were measured and expressed as percent change from the average of the baseline. Differences in peak [DA] and tau were apparent (i.e. increase in tau = 7±8.4, 8±4.8 and 59±6.1% for saline, MSI-1436 and nomifensine, respectively) after injections. For both measures, there were main effects of time and drug as well as time by drug interactions. Post-hoc analyses indicated that peak [DA] and tau significantly increased from baseline only after injection with nomifensine. These data indicate that MSI-1436 in vivo does not alter DA reuptake via the DAT. Thus, MSI-1436 may represent a novel anti-obesity treatment with low addictive potential.

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Poster 59 Sprouty 2 expression during mouse skin wound healing
Wietecha, Mateusz S.; Chen, Lin; Ranzer, Matthew; DiPietro, Luisa A.

Angiogenesis, or the process by which new blood vessels are formed, is a crucial component of wound healing. In this process, endothelial cells from blood vessels adjacent to a wound respond to certain angiogenic signals and migrate into the wound site to form new capillaries that stem from the existing vasculature. The onset of angiogenesis is positively as well as negatively regulated by several factors, most notably fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Angiogenesis follows a branched tubular development and is regulated by signals received by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Mammalian Sprouty (Spry) proteins are known to function by specifically antagonizing the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway by RTKs, especially FGF-receptors and VEGFreceptors. The purpose of this research is to find and quantify the amount of Sprouty 2 protein present at various stages of wound healing and tissue repair in the mouse model. The hypothesis is that Sprouty 2 levels will correlate with the known pattern of angiogenesis in the process of mouse excisional wound healing according to the protein’s inhibitory role. To examine Sprouty 2 in wounds excisional dermal wounds were made on 6-to-8 week-old female FVB-strain mice using a 3-mm punch-biopsy instrument. Wound samples were collected and analyzed at: 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post-injury. mRNA expression quantification experiments using Real-Time PCR showed that Sprouty 2 mRNA levels increase after Day 5 and peaked at Day 14. Western blot protein analyses show a similar pattern of increasing Sprouty 2 expression after Day 5. This Sprouty 2 expression pattern correlates well with the known angiogenesis profile in this model system. In vivo functional studies using Sprouty 2 mutants are currently under way, as are more trials to confirm the preliminary mRNA and protein data.

Poster 60 Over-expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), Glutathione STransferase (GST-pi), and Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE-1) in Human Cancers of the Tongue and Larynx
Ziliute, Simona; Khurram, Huma; MacDonald III C. Charles; Vesper, J. Benjamin; Haines III, G. Kenneth; Altman, W. Kenneth; Tarjan, Gabor; Radosevich, A. James Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) is an enzyme responsible for the production of highly reactive molecular species Nitric Oxide (NO). NO is normally present in human cells at low levels. However, previous studies have shown that human upper aerodigestive tumors overexpress one or both isoforms of NOS (ecNOS, iNOS), resulting in increased levels of NO radicals. To neutralize harmful effects of free NO radicals, tumor cells produce 113

increased levels of a protective free radical scavenger system driven by the enzyme Glutathione S-Transferase (GST-pi). Furthermore, it has been shown that NO can induce DNA strand breaks. However, work in our laboratory has found that tumor cells with high NOS expression actually exhibit significantly less DNA strand breaks than tumors with lower levels of NOS expression, suggesting that one or more DNA repair enzymes are also being utilized by these tumors. Herein we studied tumors from two aerodigestive sites—tongue and larynx—for the presence of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1). Forty-six primary human squamous cell tongue carcinoma samples and 34 cases of human laryngeal cancers were subjected to standard immunohistochemical techniques to determine the expression levels of ecNOS, iNOS, and APE-1. In general, tumors of the tongue were found to overexpress iNOS, while laryngeal tumors were found to overexpress ecNOS. APE-1 expression was found in tumors from both sites, indicating that this repair enzyme is another measure tumor cells use to protect themselves from high NO environments. By gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms tumor cells use to protect themselves from free radicals, we will be able to design more effective treatments.

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Index of Abstracts
1. Amurao, Frances; Lippman, Jordan, M.A. pg. 78 Contrasting-Essays: An Instructional Activity Designed to Increase Knowledge of Argument 2. Ankleswaria, Nirav pg. 78 Determination of the binding constant of Bisphenol-A to Bovine Serum Albumin 3. Furquan, B; Luque, RM; Lin, Q; Buch, T; Waisman, A; Kineman, RD pg. 79 Characterization of a novel mouse model of adult-onset, isolated, GH-deficiency, as a tool to study the importance of GH in regulating adult metabolism 4. Basu, Tanya pg. 80 The Effects of the End of the Cold War on American Arms Exports 5. Bokhari, Tahir; Wayne, Tiffany; Tho, Min-Soon Sze pg. 80 Electronic Braking for Bicycles 6. Caicedo, Hugo Angulo; Mohammed, Javeed Shaikh; Fall, Christopher P; Eddington, David T pg. 81 MICROFLUIDIC ADD-ON FOR STANDARD ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY CHAMBERS 7. Callan, Lindsey; Park, Sei-Kyoung; Liebman, Susan W. pg. 81

Yeast cell-based genetic screens for inhibitors of A&#946;42 oligomerization 8. Chuma-Okorafor, Adaeze; Gutierrez, Diana; Chima, Chika
pg. 82 Wrist-loading user-interfaced software application 9. Clancy, Bridget pg. 82 Exhibition in Absence of the Traditional Art Object: Lucy Lippard’s Curation of “557,087” 10. Daley, James pg. 83 POPULATION TRENDS OF BIRDS IN A DEVELOPING METROPOLITAN REGION 11. Dikopf, Mark; Thompson, Jennifer; Ragozzino, Michael E; Fall, Christopher P; Roitman, Mitchell F. pg. 84 Neuropeptide Y increases electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. 12. Elavia, Kevin; Robichaud, Julie; Poon, Cynthia; Corcos, Daniel pg. 84 Control of Movement Distances in Individuals with Essential Tremor 13. Frederick, Jennifer; Bonomo, Tony; Garcia, Fred; Shareef, Farah pg. 85 Measuring Coefficients of Friction with a Custom Built Reciprocating Tribometer 14. Chintan Ghandi pg. 86 Personal Consumption during war time in US 15. Garcia, William pg. 86 On approximating the number of primes less than a given number 16. Greco, Michael J. pg. 86 115

Femtosecond, Thermal-lens-shaped Yb:KGW Laser 17. Grossman, Michael & Dugas, Jonathan pg. 87 The effects of altered distance feedback on 20 km cycling time trial pacing strategies and performance 18. Crystal Guzmán; Saji Abraham; Mary Ashley pg. 88 Genetic differentiation among island and mainland populations and species of California oaks 19. Hanif, Maryam; Nijm, Justin; Polka, Michelle pg. 88 How Does Garlic Mustard Affect the Germination of Other Plants? 20. Houston, Nina pg. 89 Joining Dissimilar Materials: Interface Interactions Between Metallics and Ceramic Systems 21. Hufana, Joan; Anita Manogaran, PhD; Sue Liebman, PhD; Joan C. Hufana; Dr. Sue Liebman; Dr. Anita Manogaran pg. 89 A Study of the CUE2 Gene and the Formation of Prion Aggregates 22. Jaeger, Allison; Jennifer Wiley; Travis Ricks pg. 90 Strategizing to Overcome the Baseball Fan Effect 23. Kang, Jianxia (Jean) pg. 90 Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of erythroid spectrin variant G46R 24. Kenny, Oisin pg. 91 I will be analyzing the change in the Irish tobacco trade in response to immigrant group influxes and public policy directives. 25. Khramtsova, E; Macias, V; Patel, M; Akhtar, J; Jee, O; Gao, W; Liang, W-M; Beam, C; Gilks, B; Wiley, B; and Balla, A pg. 91 CLAUDIN-7 CORRELATES WITH BREAST CARCINOMA HISTOLOGICAL GRADE BUT NOT WITH OUTCOME 26. Kuroiwa, Emi; Ozer, Fusun; Ashley. Mary V. pg. 92 Conservation genetics of the endangered blacknose shiner (Notropis heterolepis) in Northern Illinois 27. Pearson, Emma-Leigh; Crum, Tanya; Okkema, Peter G., PhD pg. 93 Tbx-2 promoter activity is independent of GLP-1/Notch signaling in C. elegans 28. LeMaster, Elizabeth; Tung, Emily; Lee, Aaron; Alperin, Dr. Noam pg. 93 MRI Measurement of CSF Pulse Wave Velocity in the Cervical Spine: A Potential New Marker for the Diagnosis of Chiari Malformation pg. 94 29. Lopez, Raquel Healthy Hearts Program 30. Madonna, Lauren; Brown, H.D.; Ragozzino, M.E. pg. 95 Inactivation of the parafascicular thalamic nucleus impairs place reversal learning 31. Maduram, A; John, E; Setty, S. pg. 95 Proximal Tubular Basement Membrane Width in Diabetic Nephropathy 32. Maro, Gina; Uram III, Edward; Crenshaw, Jeremy; Grabiner, Mark pg. 96 Trip-Recovery Strategies of a Transfemoral Amputee 33. Newey, Amy; Raney, Gary E; Daniel, Frances; Obeidallah, Sharon pg. 97 Gender differences influence the perception of credibility, importance, and believability of science texts 34. Noone, Kevin pg. 97

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Evaluating Undergraduate Cognitive Psychology Students’ Explanations for Theory Preferences 35. Occhiuzzo, Brenda; Nyberg, Dennis pg. 98 Using Web Resources to locate Wetlands 36. Othman, Ahmad; Vujicic, Snezana; Boullerne, Anne I. pg. 98 Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase isoforms in primary cultures of Human Oligodendrocytes. 37. Plachta, K; Mezzich, R; Kukuruza, N.O; Warpeha, K. M; Kaufman, L. S.pg. 99 The Role of G Proteins, Prephenate Dehydratases and Pirin 1 in the Regulation of Phenylalanine in Early Plant Development. 38. Podraza, Adam pg. 100 A Bio-Cultural Analysis of Teen Breastfeeding Decisions 39. Polera, Justin & Kohler, Bill pg. 100 Here It Goes Again: Internet Social Networks are Changing the Art Game 40. Pounder,Stephanie & Bareither, Mary Lou pg. 101 Evaluation of a Peer-Instruction Program in an Undergraduate Anatomy Laboratory 41. Raisdana, Aisan pg. 102 Apoptosis in cold ischemia-induced-hypoxia in human pancreatic islets correlates with decreased islet isolation 42. Rios, Nancy; Jones, Christopher; Chimon, Sandra; Junhui, Fu; Ishii, Yoshitaka pg. 102 Conformational and Toxicity Studies of non-beta-amyloid NAC(8-18) 43. Rivadelo, Ryan & Troy, Karen L. pg. 103 Active Stabilization of the Wrist During Impact 44. Sanchez, Mauro; Alexandru Marcu-Cristian; Morganna Lockett pg. 103 45. Sarran, Marc; Sabunis, Petek; Hsieh, Patrick Yuli; Barrett, Richard; Dolecek, Therese A.; Warnecke, Richard B. pg. 104 An analysis of state-level incidence/mortality (I/M) ratios between Blacks and whites for breast and prostate cancer: Where are the Black I/M ratios lower, and why? 46. Seely, Stephen pg. 105 Gay Concentration Camps or Anti-Communist Scapegoat: The Legacy of Cuban Military Units to Aid Production 47. Sevinc, Akin & Fung, Leslie W.-M. pg. 105 Mutational Effects on Brain Spectrin Tetramerization Site 48. Shah, Hardik; Krishnan, Sandeep; Saggere, Laxman pg. 106 Characterization of microcantilever beam dynamics 49. Moulik Shah; Patel, Amar; Shah, Jay; Goncharoff, Vladimir pg. 106 Smart Chair 50. Sharma, Aarti; Rahul, Dave; Rasenick, Mark M. pg. 107 Identification and Functional Analysis of Tubulin/ Gs&#945;-protein Binding Site 51. Sheikh, Saad; Ashley, Mary; Caballero, Isabel; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; Dasgupta, Bhaskar pg. 108 Error-tolerant Sibship Reconstruction 52. Singh, A. & Ragozzino, M.E. pg. 108 Effects of a novel M1 muscarinic cholinergic agonist, CDD-102A on memory and

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strategy shifting in rodents 53. Sint, Kyaw; Wang, Boyang; Král, Petr pg. 109 Selective Ion Passage through Functionalized Graphene Pores and Control of Fluid Flow by Rotation of Stacked Nanocones Connected by Alkyl Chains 54. Smetana, Alex; Saiyed, Natasha; Thai, Sang; Hao, Zengping; Kay, Brian K. pg. 109 Expression of Synthetic Antibodies for Zebrafish Proteins 55. Stefani, Katie; Hurt, Christopher; Rosenblatt, Noah; Grabiner, Mark D. pg. 110 The Comparison of Step Width and its Variability during Overground and Treadmill Walking 56. Subei, Obada; Hunt, Christin; Kosalka, Malgorzata; Martin, Ashley; Buhse, Howard; Werlin, Rebecca; Hamilton, Eileen; Orias, Eduardo pg. 111 Microarray analysis of the polymorphic ciliate, Tetrahymena vorax. 57. Uram, Edward III; Maro, Gina; Crenshaw, Jeremy; Grabiner, Mark pg. 111 The Compensatory Stepping Response of a Transfemoral Amputee 58. Wescott, Seth A; McLane, Michael P; Wolfe, Henry R; Roitman, Mitchell F pg. 112 A novel anti-obesity drug, MSI-1436, does not alter the rate of dopamine uptake via the dopamine transporter pg. 113 59. Wietecha, Mateusz S.; Chen, Lin; Ranzer, Matthew; DiPietro, Luisa A. Sprouty 2 expression during mouse skin wound healing 60. Ziliute, Simona; Khurram, Huma; MacDonald III C. Charles; Vesper, J. Benjamin; Haines III, G. Kenneth; Altman, W. Kenneth; Tarjan, Gabor; Radosevich, A. James pg. 113 Over-expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), Glutathione S-Transferase (GSTpi), and Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE-1) in Human Cancers of the Tongue and Larynx

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We are grateful to the more than 100 alumni who have returned to campus today to serve as judges. Their insight and encouragement enhance the educational experience for the participants. Our alumni will certainly be impressed with the work they see. The event also gives them the opportunity to interact with some of their former faculty, many of whom have been instrumental as advisors and teachers. This day strengthens all of our bonds to UIC. Please continue to stay connected to UIC by visiting the UIAA Offices on the 5th floor of Student Center East and by visiting the UIAA website at www.uiaa.org.
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