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Assessment Schedule – 2006 - NZQA

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					                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 1 of 24
Assessment Schedule – 2006

Art History: Examine the context of an art movement (90495)

Evidence Statement

QUESTION ONE: FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ITALIAN PAINTING
ONE     A   The purpose of an appropriate building has been fully described. Evidence of the effect of that context in each of two appropriate art works has been
 (i)        described.

            e.g. Points about the Arena Chapel may include:
             A simple barrel-vaulted building with a small number of narrow windows built by Enrico Scrovegni as a family chapel next to his palace in 1303–05.
             It replaced an earlier chapel dedicated to Mary of the Annunciation, and this chapel was dedicated to the Virgin of Charity.
             It is believed that Scrovegni’s patronage of the chapel was partly done to atone for his father’s practice of usury.
             Giotto was commissioned to fresco the interior of the chapel with paintings that depicted the life of the Virgin Mary and the life of Jesus.

            Two frescoes in the Chapel are The Annunciation, which is on the wall at the altar end of the church, and The Last Judgement, which fills the western
            end of the Chapel.

            Points demonstrating evidence of the effect of the context on the selected art works may include:
             The Annunciation, an important aspect of the life of the Virgin Mary, is situated in a prominent position at the front of the church, where it can be
               seen by the congregation throughout the service.
             The Annunciation has been separated into two parts to fit around the triumphal arch, which encloses the main altar of the church.
             The Last Judgement fills the western wall of the chapel where the large wall-surface allowed for a large-scale depiction of this subject. It contains an
               image of Scrovegni himself holding a model of the chapel.
             The Last Judgement was situated on the end wall of the chapel where it would be seen by all those who left the church.
ONE     M   As for Achievement, plus:
 (ii)
            A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between the selected art works and the building.

            e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
             The Chapel was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and her life has been celebrated in the frescoes on the walls. The Annunciation is a key aspect of the
               Christian story and its importance is reflected in its dominant position at the front of the church. The kneeling figures of the angel and Mary, which act
               out the annunciation, also lead the eye up to the figure of God in Majesty above the arch.
             The Last Judgement has been shown in its traditional position, on the western wall of a church, where it is the last image seen by the worshipper
               leaving the church. This means that the worshipper leaves the church with a strong reminder of the fate that awaits the Christian. The inclusion of
               Scrovegni is evidence of his desire to gain religious merit by building the chapel.
                                                    NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 2 of 24


E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The extent to which the development of fourteenth-century painting was influenced by its use in buildings has been evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     The development of naturalistic narrative painting is a feature of fourteenth-century painting in Siena, Assisi, and Florence, as well as in Padua. In
       each place, this development was linked to the upsurge in church building and the fashion for decorating the internal walls of these new churches with
       narrative frescoes.
     While the Arena Chapel is a small family chapel, it is an example of the many churches that were built throughout Italy in this century. The decorating
       of these churches provided work for painters and sculptors, and in this environment they were able to develop their skills in large-scale narrative
       painting.
     Frescoes were wall paintings that decorated the walls inside churches. They were painted with stories taken from the bible or Christian legends.
       These narrative paintings were important for the largely illiterate population who were able to learn the Christian stories from them.
     The narrative frescoes in this chapel are typical of the naturalistic narrative style of Giotto’s frescoes in Florence and elsewhere. When looking at
       these works it is obvious that Giotto’s bold depiction of form and clearly defined expressions and gestures have been used because of the works’
       position on the walls.
     Later decorative schemes, such as Giotto’s own works in Sta Croce or the narrative cycles painted by Martini or Pietro Lorenzetti in Assisi show
       similar naturalistic figures and strong emphatic gestures and clearly expressed emotions. The interest in three-dimensional space and noble,
       classicised figures, which we see here, is another feature that developed in fourteenth-century painting.
     It could be concluded that the use of narrative frescoes to decorate the walls of churches was a major factor in encouraging the development of the
       strong narrative style that is a feature of Giotto’s art and that was so influential in the fourteenth century.
     Another factor in the development of fourteenth-century painting, which should be weighed against the impact of the buildings themselves, is the
       humanising ideas of the Dominicans and Franciscans who were encouraging artists to depict the holy stories in a clear, simple, and naturalistic way in
       order to emphasise the humanity of Jesus, Mary, and other religious figures.
     It could be concluded that the development of fourteenth-century narrative painting was influenced by the changes in emphasis in religious teachings
       rather than by an architectural context.
                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 3 of 24


QUESTION TWO: FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ITALIAN PAINTING
TWO     A   At least two aspects of the economic circumstances of fifteenth-century Florence have been described. Evidence of the impact of that context on two
 (i)        appropriate paintings has been described.

            e.g. Points about the economic circumstances of Florence could include any of these:
             Banking networks of the Strozzi, Medici and other powerful families, were making the state of Florence extremely rich.
             A bureaucratic state was emerging and Florentines had to pay Republic taxes, Papal taxes and special levies for war, etc.
             In 1418, the Medici Bank became the banker to the Papacy, which increased their personal wealth and gave them economic influence over much of
               Italy.
             Economic prosperity included the development of trade, and records of Florentine traders in Great Britain, the Middle East, Spain and Germany occur
               throughout the fifteenth century. Foreign traders were a feature of Florentine markets and wealthy families frequently cemented trading partnerships
               with marriages.
             The economic power of banking and trading families like the Strozzi, Pazzi, Brancacci and Medici led to political intrigue.
             Economic prosperity was reflected in extravagant building programmes and art patronage, which provided artists with strong financial support and the
               circumstances in which to develop their art.
             Wealthy businessmen turned to religious patronage as an acceptable way of spending and to atone for their huge profits. This patronage supported
               the growth and decoration of churches and monasteries. Private patronage developed throughout the century.

            Two paintings that are evidence of the impact of this world could include:
            Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1425–28
             This fresco relates to taxation as it depicts a story about the disciples paying a tax to stay in an inn which can be related to the papal decree of 1423
              which made the Florentine church subject to state tax. The Brancacci Family, as Papal allies, had a role in making this tax more acceptable to the
              Florentines.
            Gozzoli, The Procession of the Magi, 1459
             This painting, designed for the private chapel in which Cosimo de’ Medici sometimes met foreign dignitaries, depicts a vast, panoramic view of the sort
              of traveling groups that would have come in and out of Florence. The riders wear the clothes of wealthy merchants, and the variety of clothes reflect
              different nations.
TWO     M   As for Achievement, plus:
 (ii)
            A plausible explanation for the relationships between this context and the selected art works has been given.

            e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
             The trading networks of Florence are reflected in the different style of these paintings.
             The intricate detail and richness of Gozzoli’s work reflects the International Gothic style, which was popular in Burgundy and Flanders, two important
               trading partners. The lavish use of rich colours and gold detailing on this work indicates the wealth of the Medici, some of whom are depicted in the
               various processions.
             Masaccio’s painting, which relates to the important question of papal taxes, has been executed in a classicizing, sober style. Not only does this style
               suit the serious nature of its subject but it also reflects the style then favoured in Rome. The increasing popularity of Masaccio’s classical naturalism
               can be linked to the economic links between Florence and Rome, which increased throughout the fifteenth century.
                                                     NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 4 of 24


E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The extent to which economic circumstances were a major factor in the emergence of a Florentine style of painting in the fifteenth century has been
    evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     The selected art works are examples of the two styles of art that were popular in Florence for much of the fifteenth century – International Gothic and
       the classical naturalism of what came to be called the Florentine Style. By the end of the fifteenth century, however, the International Gothic style was
       no longer favoured and the Florentine Style had become dominant in Florence, Rome, and much of Italy.
     Masaccio’s sculptural figures and mathematically constructed space became very popular and immensely influential. Wealthy patrons like the Medici,
       Strozzi, and Pazzi increasingly turned to the masters of perspective when making valuable commissions.
     Michael Baxandall describes paintings as ‘fossils of economic life’ and he attributes the increasing popularity of mathematically ordered, naturalistic
       painting to good Florentine business practices and preferences – the lavish, unnecessary use of gold and rich trimmings was replaced by sensible
       patronage of skill and quality.
     Baxandall has written about the popularity of mathematical puzzles, such as gauging, among Florentines and he has related these pastimes to the
       popularity of demonstrations of mathematical skill and rational order in works like The Tribute Money. It would appear that these scientific skills
       appeared to merchants and traders whose business success depended on their ability to calculate weights and profits in their business dealings.
     The preference for the Roman, classically influenced style also indicates a sort of branding exercise on the part of the Florentine patrons who sought
       to ally themselves with the noble legacy of classical Rome as well as the Papacy rather than with the frivolous styles of nouveau riche kingdoms like
       Burgundy or France. In inventing coinage the Romans could be seen as initiating and the realistic profiles they used on their coins had a major
       influence on the style of portraiture favoured by fifteenth-century Florentines.
     Once the Florentine style had been established, the international Florentine economic network was able to spread its popularity to Rome, throughout
       Italy and abroad to the Netherlands and beyond.
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QUESTION THREE: ITALIAN RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE
THREE    A   At least two aspects of the background of rivalry and competition among sculptors in fifteenth-century Florence have been described. Evidence of the
  (i)        impact of that context on two sculptures by different sculptors has been described.

             e.g. Points about the background of rivalry and competition that existed in fifteenth-century Florence may include:
              The small area of Florence and the number of sculptors working within such a confined area would inevitably produce an environment of rivalry, as
                sculptors would be aware of the work being produced by other sculptors.
              Increasing wealth increased art patronage. In this period, artists were commissioned by wealthy patrons to carry out proscribed commissions. This
                type of patronage would encourage competition between sculptors anxious to obtain the most prestigious commissions.
              The specific competition for the North Doors of the Baptistery, with the final choice being made between Brunelleschi and Ghiberti.
              Competition between the seven main guilds of Florence in their patronage of sculpture on religious and public buildings.
              Competition to do with specific commissions from the guilds for Orsanmichele, which provided a background to a period of rival development by
                Ghiberti and Donatello.
              Rivalry between sculptors for work on the Duomo – again this was largely between Ghiberti and Donatello but also included della Robbia and di
                Banco.
              General personal rivalry, which has been documented as existing between e.g. Michelangelo and others.

             Two sculptures that reflect this rivalry may include:
             Donatello, St Mark, 1411–3
              A tall, free-standing figure which was commissioned for Orsanmichele by the Guild of Linen Drapers to replace a design by Lamberti, who had
               recently lost his position as Master Sculptor to the Duomo. Donatello’s figure reflects his study of classical statues with its naturalistic drapery and
               underlying musculature.
             Ghiberti, St John the Baptist, 1412
              This was commissioned for Orsanmichele by the Cloth Importers Guild while Donatello was working on St Mark. Ghiberti was commissioned to
               produce the first large-scale, freestanding bronze in Florence in a work that would highlight his skill and create an effective contrast with Donatello’s
               work.
THREE    M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
             A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between this competitive environment and the selected sculptures.

             e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
              The decoration of Orsanmichele had been planned in the fourteenth century, but little was done until an edict passed by the Signoria in 1402
                threatened to confiscate any niches that remained empty in 1416. This led to competition among the guilds to fill the niches with statues
                commissioned from the best sculptors to produce works that reflected the status of the guild.
              Lamberti’s first commission for Orsanmichele, St Luke, was seen as old fashioned and lacking in impact, which led the Wool merchants to break their
                contract with Lamberti and commission the young, rising star, Donatello to carve St Mark.
              When the Linen Drapers secured Donatello, the wealthy Cloth Importers Guild commissioned Ghiberti, who was already carrying out their commission
                on the bronze doors of the Baptistery, to produce a statue of St John the Baptist in bronze, which was a more expensive and therefore more
                prestigious material than stone.
                                                      NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 6 of 24


E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The extent to which this rivalry encouraged the development of individual style in sculpture in this period has been evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     Orsanmichele was an important site for sculpture; the niches in which the sculptures were to stand were on the outside of the building, which was
       situated on the main traffic routes near the centre of the city.
     This was the first large group of free-standing sculptures to stand at eye-level in the city. This position would make the statues most accessible to view
       and therefore would expose the sculptor’s skills to public examination. This would encourage both the comparison of the sculptors’ skills and the
       guilds’ prestige as patrons.
     Donatello’s St Mark was a larger than life, classicising work. The figure stands in a contrapposto pose with his flowing classical robe falling
       naturalistically over his body. His bearded face conveys a naturalistic expression of restrained contemplation. The popular response to this statue was
       important in cementing the growing Florentine preference for rational, classical style rather than the International Gothic.
     Ghiberti’s St John also stands in a classical contrapposto pose; however his cloak falls in decorative, Gothic folds. The metallic sheen of the
       sculpture, together with its obvious display of Ghiberti’s technical mastery of bronze was a fine tribute to the commissioning guild, which was the
       wealthiest in Florence.
     The second wealthiest guild, the Bankers, commissioned a second bronze, St Matthew, from Ghiberti in 1419. This statue also reflects Ghiberti’s
       continued liking for gothic rhythm and elegance within a figure that has classical proportion and naturalism.
     Meanwhile Donatello was commissioned to produce St George, for the Armourer’s Guild and St Louis of Toulouse for the Guelph Party. Both of
       these works represent a critical response to Ghiberti and resulted in Donatello’s reputation surpassing the older sculptor.
     St George wears close fitting armour, which has allowed the sculptor to reveal his mastery of naturalistic proportion and musculature. His erect stance
       and expression introduce an air of realism that is not present in the earlier works. Donatello’s use of perspective in the relief of St George and the
       Dragon was extremely innovative and created a precedent that was followed by painters as well as Ghiberti himself in his later set of Baptistery
       Doors.
     In St Louis of Toulouse, Donatello experimented with new techniques of bronze casting in a move that was a deliberate challenge to Ghiberti.
     The rivalry expressed in the work of these two sculptors for Orsanmichele had a big impact on their later work and encouraged them to devlop
       individual styles. Donatello was stimulated to develop skills in bronze casting, which he later used in his panels for the Baptistery in Siena. The relief of
       St George gave Donatello the chance to develop his skills in relief sculpture, a field that Ghiberti had dominated since winning the competition of
       1403. The figurative style and perspective of this work became characteristic of much of Donatello’s later work.
     Although Ghiberti did absorb many of Donatello’s classicising and perspectival techniques, he continued to use gothic rhythms in pose and drapery.
       This allowed him to develop the unique narrative style that is apparent in his East Doors of the Baptistery.
                                                            NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 7 of 24


QUESTION FOUR: HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM
FOUR    A   At least two features of the environment of papal Rome have been described. Evidence of the impact of that context on two appropriate art works from
 (i)        either the papal apartments or the Sistine Chapel has been described.

            e.g. Points about the environment in papal Rome may include:
             Papal Rome was immensely wealthy. It was also a major international power with influence extending throughout Western Europe. Popes were rich
               and powerful temporal rulers as well as spiritual leaders.
             A major feature of papal Rome in the late fifteenth century was the continuation of the building and city planning programmes that had begun with the
               return of the papacy to Rome in 1420.
             Later in the century, grandiose architectural and decorative patronage was encouraged by the papacy as a counter to the sobriety of Reformation
               Europe.
             By taking his name from the Roman Leader, Julius Caesar, Pope Julius had indicated that he wanted to rebuild the Rome of classical antiquity.
               Architecturally, this was expressed in the use of classical architectural elements. In painting and sculpture, it was expressed in the encouragement of
               classical proportion and nobility.
             The popes wanted to create an atmosphere of grandeur and stateliness with which to impress visitors.
             The popes were the greatest builders – rebuilding St Peter’s and the Vatican palaces as well as other churches etc – and they encouraged other
               church leaders like cardinals to build Roman residences on a grand scale also.
             The popes and other church leaders became collectors of antiquarian art and classical writing. They sponsored the exploration of ancient sites in the
               hope of finding ancient statues. They also patronised classical scholarship and encouraged links between classical philosophy and Christian theology.
             Papal commands were used to summon the world’s best artists to Rome to work on papal commissions.
             Classical examples were used by church patrons when commissioning architects, sculptors, and painters.

            The Sistine Chapel was built by Pope Sixtus in the late fifteenth century, and the chapel’s simple rectangular shape and barrel-vaulted ceiling suggest it
            was always intended to be frescoed. Pope Julius summoned Michelangelo to work on it in 1506.

            Two paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel are:
            The Creation of Adam and The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Planets..
             These two works are part of the grand composition, which stretches the length of the chapel ceiling in a powerful and rich painting that enriches the
              chapel and would provide the papal court, for whom it was intended, with a clear image of the glory and heritage of the church.
             The depiction of Adam as a classical reclining nude, reminiscent of an ancient river god, demonstrates the new acceptability of classical learning and
              imagery in the papal context.
             God the Father is depicted as a powerful, monumental figure in classical drapery. Although his aged, bearded face is taken from traditional
              iconography, his strong physicality represents both the fifteenth century’s humanising emphasis in Christianity as well as the grandeur of scale and
              expression demanded by its patron.
FOUR    M   As for Achievement, plus:
 (ii)
            A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between the selected art works and their context.

            e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
             The Creation of Adam shows a powerful image of God the Father zooming in to give life to Adam with the touch of a finger. It provides a strong
                                                     NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 8 of 24
      visual image of naked humanity and divine creation. This work would give a powerful sense of human destiny to the papal court assembled below.
     Michelangelo’s depiction of God the Father as some sort of super human moving with extra-terrestrial energy was unprecedented. In the Creation of
      the Sun, Moon, and the Planets, the combination of frontal and rear views seems to symbolise the continuity of his existence as well as his immense
      power.
     Pope Julius was answerable only to God. The immensely powerful God that Michelangelo has painted symbolises the might of the only being who
      could be regarded as more powerful than the Pope, who presided over meetings in the room below the painting.
E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The extent to which the papal context was a significant factor in the development of High Renaissance style has been evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     Papal patronage changed the city of Rome, and the Vatican in particular, into a formal and regal environment.
     The papal rebuilding of Rome and the Vatican provided an environment in which artists like Michelangelo and Raphael were able to extend
       themselves in large-scale works that embodied the grandeur of the papal state; therefore, the papal environment was a most significant factor in the
       development of High Renaissance style.
     Michelangelo was commissioned to produce works in the Sistine Chapel that would glorify and heroicise both Christianity and Papal authority. His
       ceiling and end wall united the Creation of the Earth with the Last Judgement in a powerful yet human visualisation of God’s power.
     The decoration of the papal environment with such grand and symbolic paintings provided a visual link between the church activities, which took place
       in these rooms, the contemporary church rulers, and the historic figures who had established the Catholic Church.
     The classical dignity and grandeur that papal patronage encouraged created a fitting environment for the pomp of the papal court, with its riches and
       ritual.
     The scope of the project and the grandeur of the figures suited the Pope’s artistic ambitions and the artist’s use of figures drawn from both a Christian
       and a philosophical legend was in keeping with Julius’ ideas about the relationships between classical philosophy and Christian theology.
     The nobility of the figures with their dignified, idealised forms; the restraint in the gesture from God to Adam; the classicising treatment of God with his
       host of angels encircled in billowing drapery are typical features of High Renaissance art.
                                                              NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 9 of 24


QUESTION FIVE: VENETIAN PAINTING
 FIVE    A   At least two features of the geographical environment of Venice that differed from those of other Italian states have been described. Evidence of this
  (i)        context on two appropriate paintings has been described.

             e.g. Points about the geographical environment of Venice may include:
              Venice is situated in the northeast of Italy, on a group of low-lying islands. It is closer to eastern Europe than to Rome.
              This eastern location isolated Venice from most of Italy. Isolation was increased by the Apennines, which cut Venice off from southern and western
                Italy. This isolation led the maritime state to develop close relationships with eastern states like Byzantine Constantinople and Ottoman Turkey and
                Greece and Northern Africa.
              Venice was strategically situated as the port nearest the Holy Land and was a departure point for many pilgrimages and crusades to the East.
              Venice had a maritime location, which had encouraged her development as a major naval power and sea-trading nation. Transport through the city
                was by a network of canals.
              In the first half of the fifteenth century, the Venetian government had extended control over a fertile, lush area on the mainland.

             Evidence of the impact of Venice’s geographical environment can be seen in:
             Gentile Bellini, Procession in St Mark’s Square, 1496
              This painting has a vivid depiction of the Byzantine style of St Mark’s Cathedral and indicates the strength of the eastern Byzantine influences in
                Venice.
             Gentile Bellini, St Mark Preaching in Alexandria, c. 1504
              This work has a convincing exotic setting and contains a large number of figures wearing carefully observed turbans and other eastern garments,
                which reflects the cosmopolitan nature of Venice.
 FIVE    M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
             A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between the geographical environment of Venice and the selected paintings.

             e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
              The panoramic composition of The Procession in St Mark’s Square, which is set in the Piazza San Marco, and the interest in surface decoration,
                which is apparent in the depiction of the cathedral, can be linked to the characteristics of eastern art, which Bellini would have seen when working in
                Constantinople.
              The Byzantine architecture of San Marco, with its rich mosaics as seen in The Procession, clearly established the unique character of Venice that
                resulted from its proximity to the Byzantine world.
              The accuracy of Bellini’s depiction of Turkish architecture, eastern costumes, and animals like the camel in St Mark Preaching in Alexandria
                indicates the Venetian familiarity with their eastern neighbours.
              The carefully observed detail on the costumes of the figures on the right of the Alexandria painting reflect the interest in surface decoration and design
                found in Islamic art and is evidence of Bellini’s familiarity with that art.
                                                     NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 10 of 24


E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The candidate has evaluated the significance of that context in contributing to the unique characteristics of Venetian painting.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     Many of the characteristics of Venetian art reflect the contact between Venice and the East.
     Venetian Renaissance painting is characterised by rich colour and masterful use of light, especially golden, to mould form and create atmosphere.
     Lush landscapes and maritime scenes are suffused with glowing light to create exotic and pastoral visions.
     Balanced, harmonious compositions are set within frames that are richly decorated with gold and, often, enamels or jewels.
     The attention paid to the exotic dress and rich fabrics of the characters in Bellini’s painting of Alexandria is repeated in his brother Giovanni’s portrait
       of Doge Loredano and in exotic panoramas like Veronese’s Marriage at Cana.
     The mosaics on San Marco, which were faithfully painted by Gentile, are reflected in the semi-domes of Giovanni’s San Giobbe and San Zaccaria
       altar panels. Also apparent in these works are the rich colours and golden light that set Venetian painting apart from that of other Italian regions.
     The experiences of Venetian travelers like Gentile Bellini were major reasons for the development of the uniquely Venetian style of painting. Gentile
       Bellini’s depictions of Turkish subjects, like his Portrait of the Sultan, had a major impact on the development of colorito or colourism in Venetian
       painting.
     The colourful breadth, scope, and variety of the panoramas of Carpaccio and Veronese are typically peopled with a cosmopolitan variety that must
       reflect the merchants from all over the world who met in Venice to trade in the eastern commodities of silks, spices, and coloured slaves that were
       brought to Venice by her trading fleet.
     The prosperity brought about by Venice’s monopoly over eastern trade and her friendly relationships with Turkey created the luxurious market for
       those sensuous huge mythological canvases that characterised late fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Venetian painting.
                                                            NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 11 of 24


QUESTION SIX: NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ART
 SIX    A   At least two features of the Burgundian and/or International Gothic contexts that influenced Flemish art have been described. Evidence of that context in
 (i)        two appropriate art works has been described.

            e.g. Correct responses may include:
             The Burgundian court of Philip the Good, based in Brussels, was extremely wealthy and famous for its luxury and patronage of the arts, especially
               illuminated manuscripts.
             In the early fifteenth century, the Burgundian court was the richest and most powerful in Europe. Its relationships with other wealthy courts are seen as
               an important factor in the development of the International Gothic style.
             The royal connections of the Burgundian court brought influences from many areas, including France and Italy, into Flanders, creating an
               international, cosmopolitan atmosphere.
             Portraits were important to the court and this stimulated the development of this genre.
             Both van Eyck and van der Weyden benefited from court patronage, which included the Duke and other members of the royal family as well as
               statesmen and courtiers, like Chancellor Rollin.
             Jan van Eyck was appointed court painter to the Burgundian court, while van der Weyden had the title Town Painter to Brussels.

            Evidence of the impact of the Burgundian and/or International Gothic context can be seen in two paintings of Chancellor Rolin, one of the most powerful
            figures in the Burgundian court and a major patron of the arts.
             He commissioned a self-portrait of himself kneeling in worship before the Madonna from Jan Van Eyck – The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (c.
                1433). The Chancellor is shown dressed in a gold-brocaded, fur-lined robe in a private audience with the Madonna in a powerful image of the great
                statesman.
             Another image of the Chancellor can be found on the exterior of the large Beaune Altarpiece, which he commissioned from Rogier van der Weyden
                (c. 1450), to record his role in founding the hospital at Beuane at great personal expense.

 SIX    M   As for Achievement, plus:
 (ii)
            A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between this background and the two selected works.

            e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
             Together these works provide a picture of court patronage and values in general and those of a great courtier in particular.
             The setting of Van Eyck’s painting depicts a courtly room with rich fittings such as the tiled floor, glass windows, carved capitals and the balcony that
               overlooks a finely detailed gothic city and fertile landscape. The elegant details of the room’s architecture and glass windows have been recorded
               faithfully and provide a clear visual picture of the courtly elegance in which its subject lived.
             Van der Weyden’s altarpiece is a large and impressive work that opens to show a Last Judgement. On its outer doors, in front of hangings of gold,
               we see Rolin and his wife in rich velvet and fur robes, kneeling before tables clad in gold ornamented drapes. These images combine the sober
               realism of the portraits and black robes with the richness of gold to present an image of a wise and benevolent courtier accustomed to the luxury of
               the Burgundian court.
        E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

            The extent to which this context contributed to the development of the detailed naturalism of Flemish art has been evaluated.
                                                NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 12 of 24


e.g. Discussion Points may include:
 The detailed naturalism of Flemish art, which is apparent in both selected works, appears to have been encouraged by the Burgundian court.
 Chancellor Rolin was an exacting patron like the Dukes whom he served. The fine details and rich surroundings he had depicted in his commissions
   reflected the richness of the court in which he lived and worked. It also reflected the taste of the Burgundian court and is evidence of the great
   influence this had on the development of Flemish art and its detailed naturalism in particular.
 Collected at that court were art works from all over France commissioned from the finest sculptors, goldsmiths, painters etc. The Burgundian collection
   of manuscripts was famous and the detailed landscape and gothic cathedral in Van Eyck’s painting is reminiscent of the landscapes, castles and other
   details seen in the earlier works commissioned by the Burgundian family such as the Limbourg brothers’ works for the Duc de Berry early in the
   fifteenth century.
 In The Madonna and Chancellor Rolin, the viewer is struck by the naturalism of the Virgin’s face and the realism of Rolin’s portrait. The tiled floor
   and the trim of the Virgin’s dress are painted with considerable detail. Similar attention to fabric details occurs in the cloak worn by the Archangel and
   the papal robes on the blessed in Van der Weyden’s Last Judgement. Such detailed naturalism reflects the characteristics of International Gothic
   miniatures.
 Both Van Eyck’s Madonna, who is depicted as an elegant Gothic princess about to be crowned with an elaborate jeweled crown and the Gothic
   angels who sound the apocalyptic trumpets in Van der Weyden’s work reflect the French and International conventions of curving, elegant female
   figures.
 The jeweled crown carried by Van Eyck’s angel and the papal tiaras in Van der Weyden’s painting are carefully painted in the sort of glittering detail
   one finds in the frames and ornamentation of Burgundian miniatures.
 Both van der Weyden and Van Eyck worked within the Burgundian court for many years and the influence of this wealthy, luxurious court is apparent
   in their art.
 The importance of court portraits as evidence of feudal service and patronage was also important in the Burgundian court, and this encouraged both
   artists to develop the realistic characterisation that became typical of their portraits and Northern portraits in general.
                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 13 of 24


QUESTION SEVEN: CUBISM AND ABSTRACTION 1900–1930
SEVEN    A   At least two aspects of the artistic and cultural world of Paris have been described. Evidence of that context on two appropriate art works has been
  (i)        described.

             e.g. Points about the artistic context of Paris may include:
              Paris was the centre of cultural and artistic Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
              Paris was the centre of western fashion design and theatrical development, which encouraged visits from wealthy tourists who spent money on art,
                thus encouraging art production.
              Many artists moved to Paris from rural France and other countries to learn and work there.
              Major figures from the nineteenth century like Monet, Renoir, and Cezanne were still exhibiting in Paris.
              Artists all lived in a small suburb where flats and studios were cheap. This led to the development of an artist’s quarter.
              Café culture was growing and many stories exist of artists meeting to eat and drink and discuss their work.
              Newspapers published reviews of art, and writers like Apollinaire were important in encouraging art development.
              Wealthy Americans like Gertrude Stein, who bought avant garde art, were stimulating the development of art.
              Independent dealers such as Kahnweiler were active in promoting the art of young artists.
              Exhibitions in the Louvre and other art museums.

             Two works which have evidence of this context are:
             Picasso, Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907
              This work was partly stimulated by a retrospective of Cezanne’s works in Paris in 1906.
              The varied stylistic references in this work can be related to collections in the Louvre as well as private collections of Negroid art such as that of
                Vlaminck.
             Braque, Grand Nu, 1908
              This work represents a major change in style for Braque. It is evidence of the rapid spread of new ideas which took place within the close artistic world
                of Paris.
SEVEN    M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
             A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between this context and the selected works.

             e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
              The nude figures of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon have been derived from Cezanne’s Bathers Series, which had been included in the exhibition of
                1906. The stylised forms themselves can be linked to classical and Byzantine works in the Louvre and to the Negroid works that were beginning to be
                collected by artists like Vlaminck, Matisse, and Picasso himself.
              Braque’s Grand Nu was completed within 6 months of his first seeing Picasso’s painting. Its debt to Picasso is obvious in the twisted axis and
                primitivist planarity of the figure. This change in Braque’s style would not have occurred if he had not been working in the environment of Paris.
                Braque’s absorption of Picasso’s ideas had an immediate impact on other artists in the area.
                                                    NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 14 of 24


E   The significance of this context in stimulating the development of new styles of art that emerged in Paris in the early twentieth century has been
    evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion points may include:
     The development of new styles in Paris in the early twentieth century carried on a trend established in nineteenth-century Paris that saw the
       emergence of styles like Impressionism.
     Several new styles of art did emerge in Paris in the early twentieth century: Cubism, Analytical Cubism, Synthetic Cubism, Orphism, and Fauvism.
       The emergence of so many styles reflected the close environments of friendship and rivalry that existed among the artistic quarter of Paris.
     The survival of so many young experimental artists and the styles they developed can be attributed to the patronage that was available in Paris.
       Wealthy Americans like the Steins supported artists like Picasso and provided an environment in which they were able to sell works without being
       dependent on the traditional Salon market. This was important for the development of styles like Cubism, which were not popular with the traditional
       art-buying public of Europe.
     This wealthy foreign patronage also enabled independent galleries like that owned by Kahnweiler to open. The existence of independent galleries in
       Paris was an important factor in the development of a market that encouraged the development of new styles.
     New styles also developed outside of Paris – abstract expressionism emerged in Munich, Constructivism was a Russian movement, and Futurism
       emerged in Milan – which suggests that the cultural and artistic environment of Paris was not vital to the emergence of new styles.
     The growing cult of the individual, popularised by theosophists and Nietzsche among others, encouraged artists towards self-expression, which has
       been a major factor in the emergence of so many new styles of art in the early twentieth century. This cult was possibly stronger in centres where new
       styles were emerging outside of Paris.
     A concept of modernity was also important in encouraging artists like Picasso to reject traditional styles. This concept was strong in Paris and largely
       responsible for Robert Delaunay’s Orphism, which he developed to celebrate new modern technology like powered flight and electricity; however, it
       was the concept of modernity that stimulated the Russian Malevich to develop Suprematism, many miles from Paris.
                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 15 of 24


QUESTION EIGHT: FAUVISM AND EXPRESSIONISM
EIGHT    A   At least two social issues that stimulated independent German Expressionist artists have been described. Evidence of that context in two appropriate art
  (i)        works has been described.

             e.g. Correct responses may include:
              Workers’ rights and welfare were concerns of the Socialist movement that grew in Germany in the late nineteenth century. This movement was
                concerned at the lack of rights for workers and their poor living and working conditions.
              The role of women was a subject that began to interest German artists and thinkers by the beginning of the twentieth century. This was associated
                with concerns for women’s’ health, infant mortality, the role of a mother, etc.
              The issues of war and peace, especially with regard to the oppression of the poor, who were compulsorily conscripted into the infantry where they
                were most vulnerable.
              Poverty was a major concern, and the growing socialist movement worked to introduce welfare benefits for the poor and under-privileged.
              Equality of rights and opportunity for poor, male and female, all races.

             Kathe Kollwitz, Infant Mortality, 1925.
              This is a woodcut from Kollwitz’s Proletariat Cycle, which draws attention to the issue of infant mortality with its harsh black and white image of a
               grieving woman holding a small, wooden casket.
             Kathe Kollwitz, Visit to the Hospital, 1929
              This woodcut shows a skeletal man’s face poking out of a narrow bed. A thin woman with a bowed head sits on the bed with a small boy clinging to
               her. The woman’s thin black silhouette draws attention to the seriousness of the family’s situation.
EIGHT    M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
             A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between the selected works and the social issues that led to their production.

             e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
              In Infant Mortality, Kollwitz’s own experiences as a mother who had lost a child have contributed to the stark image of this woodcut. The large hands
                of the grieving mother are those of a manual worker and identify this as a working-class subject. The small size of the coffin in the large hands of the
                mother contributes to the power of the socialist message in the work.
              The subjects in Visit to the Hospital are also identified as poor by the mother’s large, gnarled hands and the simple clothes of the figures. The
                frightened face of the sick man and his wife’s bowed pose create a strong image of the hopelessness and powerlessness of the poor who must work
                continually to provide for their family.
         E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

             The importance of this context in encouraging the development of individual styles of Expressionism in twentieth-century Germany has been assessed.

             e.g. Discussion points may include:
              Kollwitz has a unique place in the history of German Expressionism because of the subjects she depicted and the media she used.
              Kathe Kollwitz grew up in a Lutheran family with a tradition of devout faith and social service. This was carried on by her husband and the family lived
                in a working-class area. Kollwitz sympathised with the hardships experienced by working-class people and often depicted their suffering in her art.
              Kollwitz was primarily a printmaker, although she also produced some notable pieces of sculpture. She worked with a variety of printing techniques;
                                                NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 16 of 24
  however, the woodcut was her preferred medium. Although other Expressionists, including Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter artists did produce prints,
  German Expressionism is dominated by painting.
 The dominance of female subjects and issues relating to women, especially mothers, is particularly unique in German Expressionism. With the
  exception of Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kollwitz was the only Expressionist to devote her working career to the depiction of subjects drawn from the
  female experience.
 Unlike Modersohn-Becker, whose exploration of these themes was limited by her early death, Kollwitz was able to explore the full extent of the female
  experience – childhood, motherhood, widowhood, death.
 Kollwitz’s involvement with the urban poor also sets her apart from contemporary Expressionists who chose to live and work in professional and
  intellectual circles. Although Beckmann shared some of Kollwitz’s social concerns, particularly the impact of war on families, his lifestyle isolated him
  from the full extent of urban suffering. As a result his exploration of the impact of World War I, as expressed in his unique Hell Cycle, is more
  intellectual and philosophical than the simple, harsh realities expressed in Kollwitz’s War Cycle.
                                                           NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 17 of 24


QUESTION NINE: DADA AND SURREALISM
NINE    A   At least two aspects of the world of commercial art and the popular press which stimulated dada artists have been described. Evidence of the impact of
 (i)        this context on two specific art works has been described.

            e.g. Correct Responses may include:
             After 1918, Berlin was a centre of political conflict, which was reported in newspapers and publicised with posters pasted throughout the city.
             Photographs had now become a feature of newspapers and magazines and provided readers with visual evidence of events alongside the printed
               word.
             Advertising had become a creative, visual activity, which resulted in a startling juxtaposition of news images and commercial images in magazines and
               newspapers.
             Photography had become affordable, and family photographs were displayed on the living rooms of family homes. The commercial production of
               cameras was leading to the development of new genres of visual images.
             Other examples of popular printed images, which had become accessible to all, included postcards, illustrated calendars, etc.
             Politicians had become aware of the photo opportunity, and political observers were already conscious of the possibilities of the manipulated image.

            Two works that have evidence of this context are:
            Hannah Hoch, Pretty Maiden, 1920
             A montage has been created out of photographs of a woman’s hair and a headless body in a swimsuit together with images cut from advertising
              material such as the BMW motif, a light bulb, and a watch.
            Max Ernst, Tantot nus, tantot vetus de minces jets de feu, ils font gicler les geyser avec la probabilitie d’une pluie de sang avec la vanitie des
            morts, 1929
             In the foreground an image made from a photograph of soldiers in the field looks back into a landscape in which images of geysers, a giant frog and a
              headless near-nude female have been incorporated in the print.
NINE    M   As for Achievement, plus:
 (ii)
            A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between this context and the two selected works.

            e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
             Both images contain images appropriated from the popular press, and both artists have created confused compositions with their combination of
               individual and mass-produced images that have little immediate relevance to one another.
             Hoch’s montage of photographs and magazine advertisements has been pasted together in a form that mimics unconnected accumulations of old and
               new posters on city billboards.
             The form of Ernst’s image likens it to the black and white images found in serious newspapers, which are probably the source of the image of the
               soldiers in the foreground. By combining it with other unconnected images he has produced a very disquieting image.
        E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

            The extent to which this context was a significant factor in encouraging Dada artists to explore new art forms has been evaluated.

            e.g. Discussion points may include:
             Photomontage and collage was used by Dada artists to pass comment on the dislocated world they saw around them. In particular, they sought to
                                               NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 18 of 24
  provide a counterpoint to the crazy, anarchic political world in which they worked.
 Having rejected traditional art forms and techniques, Dada artists like Hoch were looking for new media that would challenge traditions and
  communicate with the public.
 Although collage had already been used by a number of cubist and later artists, the Dada innovation was to create collages out of images drawn from
  the popular press and photography. They were some of the first to realise that the camera can indeed lie, or at least be manipulated by politicians and
  celebrities.
 The confused juxtaposition of advertising images and news photographs to be found in the popular press appealed to Dada artists and they fed on it
  in their development of these new media.
 An important aspect of the Dada movement was the rejection of traditional art conventions and techniques. The development of advertising, news
  photography, and amateur photography provided Dada artists with important sources for the development of new art forms. These new forms
  provided ideal vehicles for the ridiculing of contemporary political and material society.
                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 19 of 24


QUESTION TEN: ARCHITECTURE: MODERNISM TO POST-MODERNISM
 TEN     A   At least two aspects of the circumstances surrounding the commissions of the selected works have been described. Evidence of the impact of that
  (i)        context on two appropriate buildings has been described.

             Note: the wording architectural works allows structures like Eiffel Tower or Toronto sky tower.

             e.g. Correct responses may include:

             Frank Lloyd Wright, Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1956–59
             Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 2001
              In the second half of the twentieth century, museums have tended to become a focus of civic pride, replacing churches and town halls as the cultural
                centre of an area, built large to protect their contents and built in eye-catching styles to signify their importance.
              Both of these commissions were for patrons of the arts who were interested in individual buildings that related to the uniqueness and creativity of the
                works to be exhibited inside.
              The patrons of both commissions wanted eye-catching buildings that would stand out in their respective urban environments and attract visitors.
              Both commissions were intended to create buildings that would stand out from traditional, usually Neoclassical, art galleries or museums, which
                tended to take themselves very seriously.
              Both commissions had patrons and architects who enjoyed testing the possibilities of modern materials and designs.
              The New York site was unique – a corner opposite Central Park, on Park Avenue, a street of rectangular, high-rise apartment buildings.
              The New York Building was intended to house modern, non-objective art and the white, curving, modernist shape of Wright’s building challenges the
                traditional architecture surrounding it, just as the art within it challenged traditional art.
              The Bilbao Building was intended to uplift a depressed area of Spain and provide an attraction that would bring tourists to the area. The strange
                shapes and innovative structure of Gehry’s building was intended to attract visitors in its own right.
 TEN     M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
             A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between the selected buildings and their contexts.

             e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
              Both the selected buildings are highly individualised designs that have responded to the demand for individualised, creative structures by exploiting
                the possibilities of modern materials and techniques to produce buildings that were strikingly innovative. Wright’s modernist white, curved façade was
                as futurist in his day as Gehry’s titanium clad, flowing forms that reflect the light from the sun and surrounding sea.
              Both buildings set up strong visual contrasts with their respective surroundings. Wright’s smooth-surfaced, snail-like structure contrasts with the
                rectangular corporate, urban high-rises of New York. Gehry’s gleaming, flamboyant building rises up from the grim dockland surroundings of the
                Bilbao foreshore.
                                                     NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 20 of 24


E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

    The extent to which major commissions have contributed to the development of new techniques and/or styles in the twentieth century has been
    evaluated.

    e.g. Discussion Points may include:
     The nineteenth-century idea of a museum as a serious container of culture to be visited reverently in pursuit of educational enlightenment has been
       modified by the need to compete with other leisure and entertainment facilities in order to attract the public.
     By the end of the twentieth century, museum authorities had become aware of the importance of the appearance of a building as a means of attracting
       visitors, and commissions became increasingly directed towards the eye-catching and novel.
     The New York Guggenheim is an early example of this trend. Designed for a city that already had a large number of museums, and commissioned
       by a family with a long history of modern art patronage, Wright was encouraged to design a building that stood out from its neighbours.
     Wright took the opportunity to make a creative design that exploited the plastic qualities of one of his favorite materials, concrete. In typical fashion his
       building controlled its user by forcing the visitor to take an elevator to the top floor to begin to view the works, which were hung along the walls of a
       downward spiraling ramp. In this way the Guggenheim Museum provided a widely publicised example of the possibilities for sculptural design using
       concrete, inspiring later designs like Saarinen’s TWA terminal or Utzon’s Sydney Opera House.
     By the time of Gehry’s much later building, other architects like Libeskind had been given the freedom to push the boundaries of innovative museum
       design further with his outrageous postmodernist addition to London’s National Gallery and his grimly innovative Jewish Museum in Berlin.
     Gehry’s patrons gave him the freedom and money to build an extraordinary building that could only have been designed using computerised
       techniques and that could only be constructed in the space-age material of titanium. Such a design would not have been possible for any other type of
       commission – cost effective corporates would not have provided the funds; urban authorities would have had neither the funds nor the space for such
       a non-functional design with its diverse and not always easily used spaces.
     The fluid curves of the Bilbao building and its glittering surfaces are already being experimented with in buildings throughout the world.
     These buildings are outstanding examples of the extent to which art galleries and museums can provide creative architects with the opportunity to
       experiment with new materials and technologies as well as styles.
                                                            NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 21 of 24


QUESTION ELEVEN: MODERN AMERICAN ART
ELEVEN A   At least two aspects of the social issues that have affected feminist and/or postmodernist art in the late twentieth century have been described.
  (i)      The evidence of that context on two appropriate works of art has been explained.

           e.g. Correct responses may include:
            Anti-war movements: anti-Vietnam in the seventies, anti-nuclear throughout the last decades of the twentieth century.
            Racial issues: in America itself, particularly in the sixties but ongoing; abroad, particularly in South Africa in the eighties and nineties.
            The environment and ecology: a movement that has grown in momentum in the last years of the twentieth century and may be expressed as an
              ecological concern; to support endangered species; anti-planned obsolescence movements, recycling programmes etc.
            Political concerns: challenging capitalist economics with socialist ideas.
            Anti-globalisation: concerns about economic exploitation and global inequalities, anti-consumerism.
            Feminist issues: challenging the patriarchy both within the art world and outside of it.

           Robert Smithsons, Spiral Jetty, 1970
            This large curl of bull-dozed rock was built on a remote site in Utah, many miles from cities and outside of the art gallery networks that had traditionally
             controlled the viewing of art and its marketing. Smithson’s sculpture rejects that consumerist world and re-emphasises the natural environment.
           The Guerrilla Girls, How Many Women Had One-Person Exhibitions at NYC Museums Last Year?, 1985
            This black and white poster appeared on billboards around New York anonymously. Its bold upper-case lettering and use of statistics associated it
             with un-emotive public notices rather than art. While its message challenged the patriarchical world of art gallery management, it also challenged
             traditional art making practices.
ELEVEN M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
           A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between social issues and the selected works.

           e.g. Appropriate explanations may include:
            In the late twentieth century art, had become an investment commodity that was bought and sold for profits by gallery dealers in the same way as
              stocks and shares. Public art galleries became part of this development by hosting competitions and exhibitions, which could increase the popularity
              of artists. To a large extent this could lead to the market having ownership of the artist. By siting his sculpture far away from the grasp of dealers and
              curators Smithson was ensuring that his art work could not be controlled by these consumerist forces.
            The Guerrilla Girls’ decision to operate outside traditional gallery networks also challenged the control of art by galleries. In the eighties, art gallery
              management was very much a male network – there were very few female art dealers and dealers and critics appeared to favour male artists rather
              than females. The content of this art work emphasises this issue while the pasting of the work in public places challenges the accepted way of
              displaying art to the public.
       E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

           The extent to which social issues encouraged feminist and/or postmodernist American artists to explore new forms of art has been evaluated.

           e.g. Discussion points may include:
            The selected works are good examples of the new forms of art that were developed by feminist and postmodernist artists to explore social issues in
              the late twentieth century.
                                                 NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 22 of 24
 Smithson was one of many late twentieth-century sculptors who chose to reject the gallery environment and make his art works in the natural world of
  materials and of a size that could not be purchased. Christo’s vast packaging works are another example of this. Spiral Jetty could not be bought by
  a wealthy investor, stored away in his private collection and resold for a profit later on.
 In fact Spiral Jetty no longer exists, having been flooded by the rising lake, an act that in itself throws into question the mania for collecting that has
  become a characteristic of western consumerist society.
 The Guerrilla Girls’ explored several different innovative media – the clandestine poster-pasting like this work; performance art, dressed in little black
  dresses and gorilla masks; and, more recently, websites and online exhibitions.
 Each of these media has allowed the artists to retain control of their works and method of exhibition. The works themselves are infinitely reproducible,
  which makes them valueless. The work’s value as an investment commodity is further reduced by their anonymous collective authorship.
 Artists who make art in order to publicise or challenge issues want their art to reach a wide public and it became obvious to Smithson, the Guerrilla
  Girls and others that traditional media exhibited in traditional galleries was ineffective.
 Consequently they explored new forms of art like the ones discussed. Land art, performance art, internet art, graphic art, installations etc are all part of
  today’s artistic landscape and it is likely that this is, to a large extent, the result of the desire by artists to comment on social issues.
                                                          NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 23 of 24


QUESTION TWELVE: MODERN NEW ZEALAND ART
TWELVE A   At least two features of New Zealand’s geographical environment that differ from other artistic environments have been described. Evidence of the impact
  (i)      of this environment on two works of art has been described.

           e.g. Correct responses may include:
            New Zealand’s geographical isolation from other western countries because of its surrounding oceans and large distances between other countries.
            New Zealand’s location in the South Pacific near many diverse Pacific Island cultures.
            New Zealand’s varied geographical terrain – mountains, lakes, thermal areas, etc appeal to concepts of “view”, “picturesque” etc.
            New Zealand’s sunny climate and the dominance of water in its geography – sea and lakes.
            New Zealand’s changeable climate – storms, droughts, snow, etc.

           John Pule, Hikulangi Ko Palima Te Leviki, 2003
            This is a brown oil-stained work on unstretched canvas that shows evidence of New Zealand’s location in the South Pacific, because its medium with
             its brown on cream colour and gridded composition is reminiscent of tapa cloth or tivaevae.
           Robin White, Safety Matches, 1998
            This is a woven pandanus place mat and was produced traditionally with the help of women on the island of Tarawa where the artist was living.
TWELVE M   As for Achievement, plus:
  (ii)
           A plausible explanation has been given for the relationships between this environment and the selected art works.

           e.g. An appropriate explanation may include:
            These two works are good examples of the relationships between New Zealand and her Pacific neighbours, which are now being explored by artists.
              John Pule’s work uses media that are familiar in western cultures however the colours he uses link back to his homeland. Robin White, a New
              Zealander has produced an art work in a medium, woven leaves, which is common in the Pacific Islands.
            These art works represent a current trend in New Zealand art, the exploration of the interface between the art and culture of New Zealand’s Pacific
              and European heritages. At first sight Pule’s work looks like a traditional tapacloth, however closer examination reveals that it is in the European
              medium of paint on canvas. White’s image depicts a tropical flower however the text refers to an item that is common in everyday New Zealand.
       E   As for Achievement with Merit, plus:

           The extent to which this environment is contributing to art that is uniquely New Zealand in character has been evaluated.

           e.g. Discussion points may include:
            The gridded composition used by Pule has become a convention of contemporary New Zealand image-making and can be seen in the works of other
              artists like Fatu Feu’u and Shane Cotton.
            Pule’s motifs are not unique either – the pattern making that has been derived from Polynesian carving and weaving, which can be seen in this work,
              has become a recognisable feature of many contemporary artists.
            In Pule’s work the use of iconography that relates to the important Christian traditions of Polynesian New Zealand and the Pacific Islands can be seen
              in compartments adjacent to Pacific Island motifs such as palm leaves, lizards, and fish.
            The use of a compartmentalised grid and the inclusion of iconographic motifs drawn from Polynesian and palagi life has become a familiar feature in
              contemporary New Zealand art.
                                                             NCEA Level 3 Art History (90495) 2006 – Page 24 of 24
             Robin White’s work is derived from the objects that islanders have learnt to produce for the souvenir trade. The image of the brightly coloured hibiscus
              together with the hint of the ocean in the blue and white trim provides a strong reminder of island life.
             These bright colours reappear in the art of the Pacific Islanders such as Ani O’Neill, who are now regarded as part of the contemporary art scene in
              New Zealand.
             These qualities of iconography, medium, composition, and colour can be used to define the unique character of contemporary New Zealand art.
             New Zealand artists no longer feel the need to define themselves in terms of their relationships to Europe or North America; instead they are seeking
              to define their art, music and fashion in terms of their place in the South Pacific.



Judgement Statement

           Achievement                        Achievement with Merit                Achievement with Excellence

Describe the context of a specific art   Explain relationships between the      Evaluate the significance of context
movement.                                context of the movement and            for the art movement.
                                         selected art works.
and                                                                             E
                                         M
Describe how the context of the
movement is evident in selected art
works.
A

				
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posted:4/11/2013
language:Latin
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