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A NEW SIMPLIFIED APPROACH FOR OPTIMUM ALLOCATION OF A DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

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A NEW SIMPLIFIED APPROACH FOR OPTIMUM ALLOCATION OF A DISTRIBUTED GENERATION Powered By Docstoc
					 International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME
                           & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)

ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 165-178
                                                                             IJEET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI)                 ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




   A NEW SIMPLIFIED APPROACH FOR OPTIMUM ALLOCATION OF
      A DISTRIBUTED GENERATION UNIT IN THE DISTRIBUTION
         NETWORK FOR VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT AND LOSS
                        MINIMIZATION

           Dr.T.Ananthapadmanabha1, Maruthi Prasanna.H.A. 2, Veeresha.A.G. 2,
                               Likith Kumar. M. V 2
                        1
                        Professor, Dept of EEE, NIE, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
                 2
                     Research Scholar, Dept of EEE, NIE, Mysore, Karnataka, India.


  ABSTRACT

          In the present energy scenario, increased concerns are shown towards distributed
  generation (DG) driven by renewable energy resources. DG is a small scale generation units
  that are connected near to customer load center or directly to the distribution network. Such
  DGs has the capability of altering power flows, system voltages, and the performance of the
  integrated network. When DGs are integrated to existing distribution network, offers many
  techno-economical benefits. To maximise the availing benefits, optimal DG planning is
  necessary. The two critical issues of DG planning are : Optimal Placement of DG & Optimal
  sizing of DG. The problem of optimal allocation of DG in the existing distribution system
  plays an important role in planning and operation of Smart Electrical Distribution Systems,
  which is the state of the art development in power system. In this paper, the optimal location
  of a DG is found out by using a new index called ‘TENVDI’ & the optimal sizing of DG at
  the optimal location is decided for loss minimisation. The proposed methodology has been
  tested on standard IEEE-33bus radial distribution system & IEEE-69bus radial distribution
  system using MATLAB 2008. The method has a potential to be a tool for identifying the best
  location and rating of DG to be installed for improving voltage profile and reducing line
  losses in a distribution system.

  KEYWORDS: RDS (Radial Distribution System), DG (Distributed Generation), TEN (Tail
  End Node), VDI (Voltage Deviation Index).



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1. INTRODUCTION

        Due to limitation on fossil fuel resources, alternative solutions to traditional large
power stations areunder high priority in recent years to meet growing energy demand of the
future [1]. Distributed Generation (DG) usually refers to the power generation from a few
kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts ( and some proposed restrictions under 50MWs) of the
small scale, distributed, efficient, reliable power generation unit which is arranged around the
user [2].The IEEE defines DG is the generation of electricity by facilities that are sufficiently
smaller than central generating plants so as to allow interconnection at nearly any point in a
power system [2].DG is an approach that employs small scale technologies to produce
electricity close to the end users of power. DG technologies often consist of modular (and
sometimes renewable energy) generators, and they offer a number of potential benefits. In
many cases, DGs can provide lower cost electricity and higher power reliability and security
with fewer environmental consequences than can traditional power generators.DG
technologies include small gas turbines, wind turbines, small combined cycle gas turbines,
micro turbines, solar photovoltaic, fuel cells, biomass and small geothermal generating
plants.
        Determining the suitable location and sizing of a DG is important in order to ensure
for maximum benefits to be obtained from the integration of DG with the distribution system.
with proper planning of DG integration the following technical and economical benefits such
as Voltage support and power quality improvement, Utility system reliability improvement,
Voltage profile improvement, Spinning reserve support during generation outages, Reduction
in line losses and hence reduce demand for the grid, Environmental impact in terms of
reduction in polluting emission as compared with traditional power plants, Transmission and
distribution costs can be reduced since the DG units are closer to the customers, DG is
available in small modular units and therefore easier to find for their resulting in sites short
lead times for procurement and installation, DG plants offer good efficiencies especially in
co-generations and combined-cycles (for larger plants) and many more. The main
applications of DG can be found in the applications involving Base load, Standby Power,
Stand alone systems, Peak load shaving, Rural and remote applications, Combined Heat &
Power (CHP), & Grid support.
        In literature, there are a number of approaches developed for placement and sizing of
DG units in distribution system. Chiradeja and Ramkumar [3] presented a general approach
and set of indices to assess and quantify the technical benefits of DG in terms of voltage
profile improvement, line loss reduction and environmental impact reduction. Khan and
Choudhry [4] developed an algorithm based on analytical approach to improve the voltage
profile and to reduce the power loss under randomly distributed load conditions with low
power factor for single DG as well as multi DG systems. Hung et al. [5] used an improved
analytical method for identification of the best location and optimal power factor for placing
multiple DGs to achieve loss reduction in large-scale primary distribution networks. For
optimal placement of DG, Mithulanathan et al. [6] presented a genetic algorithm based
approach to minimize the real power loss in the system and found a significant reduction in
the system loss. The optimal sizing and siting of DGs was investigated by Ghosh et al. [7] to
minimize both cost and loss with proper weighing factors using Newton-Raphson (NR) load
flow method. Ziari et al. [8] proposed a discrete particle swarm optimization and genetic
algorithm (GA) based approach for optimal planning of DG in distribution network to
minimize loss and improve reliability. Kamel and Karmanshahi [9] proposed an algorithm for

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optimal sizing and siting of DGs at any bus in the distribution system to minimize losses and
found that the total losses in the distribution network would reduce by nearly 85%, if DGs
were located at the optimal locations with optimal sizes. Singh et al. [10] discussed a multi-
objective performance indexbased technique using GA for optimal location and sizing of DG
resources in distribution systems.
      This paper presents a simple method for voltage profile improvement, real power loss
reduction, substation capacity release and is based on tail end nodes voltage sensitivity
analysis. Power flow analysis is done using the forward-backward sweep method. Test results
carried out on IEEE-33 bus system & IEEE-69 bus system using MATLAB 2008 validates
the suitability of this proposed method.

2. NOMENCLATURE

Nn                      :      Total number of nodes or buses in the given radial distribution system.
TENVDI                  :      Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index (matrix of order Nn X 1)
TENVDIi                 :      Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index evaluated by placing DG at bus
                               number i.
NTE                     :      Number of Tail End Nodes.
SDG                     :      Complex Power rating of DG in MVA
SDGmin & SDGmax         :      Minimum & Maximum Complex Power rating of DG in MVA
Ploss, Qloss, & Sloss   :      Real Power, Reactive Power & Complex Power loss in distribution system
SDGopt                  :      Optimal Size of DG (Complex power rating in MVA)
SDopt                   :      Complex demand at optimal location in MVA
 SDG                    :      Incremental value of Size of DG (Complex power rating in MVA)

3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

       The optimal allocation of DG problem consists of three important steps. Viz Selection
of Load flow analysis technique, finding optimal location and selection of optimal size of DG.

3.1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

        Conventional NR and Gauss Seidel (GS) methods may become inefficient in the
analysis of distribution systems, due to the special features of distribution networks, i.e. radial
structure, high R/X ratio and unbalanced loads, etc. These features make the distribution
systems power flow computation different and somewhat difficult to analyze as compared to
the transmission systems. Various methods are available to carry out the analysis of balanced
and unbalanced radial distribution systems and can be divided into two categories. The first
type of methods is utilized by proper modification of existing methods such as NR and GS
methods. On the other hand, the second group of methods is based on backward and forward
sweep processes using Kirchhoff’s laws. Due to its low memory requirements, computational
efficiency and robust convergence characteristic, backward and forward sweep based
algorithms have gained the most popularity for distribution systems load flow analysis. In this
study, Backward and Forward sweep method [11] is used to find out the load flow solution.

3.2 OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF DG USING TENVDI :

       In order to restrict solution space to few buses, tail end nodes are first identified by
viewing the distribution network topology. By penetrating DG with 50% of the total feeder

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loading capacity at each node at a time, the Tail End Nodes Voltage Deviation Index
(TENVDI) is calculated using (1). When DG is connected at bus i, TENVDI for bus i is
defined as:

                  TENVDIi =                                   ---     (1)


Where, ‘m’ corresponds to the each tail end node element of Tail End Nodes (TEN) matrix of
order NTE X 1 ;
        Vnominal is taken as 1.0 Pu ;
TENVDIi gives the total deviation of voltages of all tail end nodes of the network with
respect to the nominal voltage. The bus corresponding to the minimum TENVDI value when
DG is inserted at the same bus is the optimal location of DG in the distribution system. The
flowchart for finding optimal location for DG placement is shown in fig1.




    Figure 1: Flowchart for finding optimal location of DG in distribution system using
                                        TENVDI

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3.3 OPTIMAL SIZING OF DG AT OPTIMAL LOCATION:

       For deciding the optimal size of DG to be placed at the optimal location obtained
from TENVDI, the DG is inserted at the optimal bus, size is varied from minimum value
(SDGmin) to maximum value (SDGmax) with step size of ( SDG). The size which gives the
minimum complex power loss is the optimal size of DG to be placed at optimal location. The
flowchart for determining the optimal size of the DG to be placed at optimal location for loss
minimisation is shown in fig2.




     Figure 2: Flowchart for determinign optimal size of DG at optimal location for loss
                                       minimisation




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4. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1   IEEE-33 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

       The distribution system characteristics: Number of buses=33; Number of lines=32;Slack Bus
no=1; Base Voltage=12.66KV; Base MVA=100 MVA; The test system is simulated in MATLAB
2008 & the proposed methodology has been tested, whose results are as shown below.




               Figure 3: Single line diagram of standard IEEE-33 Bus system

                          Table 1: Tail End Node matrix elements

                                   Sl.no   Tail End Nodes
                                     1           18
                                     2           22
                                     3           25
                                     4           33


                Table 2:Base case Bus Voltages for IEEE-33BUS test system

                      Bus  Bus   Bus           Bus        Bus  Bus
                      no Voltage no           Voltage     no Voltage
                           (Pu)                (Pu)            (Pu)
                       1  1.0000 12           0.9177      23  0.9793
                       2  0.9970 13           0.9115      24  0.9726
                       3  0.9829 14           0.9093      25  0.9693
                       4  0.9754 15           0.9078      26  0.9475
                       5  0.9679 16           0.9064      27  0.9450
                       6  0.9495 17           0.9044      28  0.9335
                       7  0.9459 18           0.9038      29  0.9253
                       8  0.9323 19           0.9965      30  0.9218
                       9  0.9260 20           0.9929      31  0.9176
                      10 0.9201 21            0.9922      32  0.9167
                      11 0.9192 22            0.9916      33  0.9164




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                  Figure 4: Basecase Voltage profile for IEEE-33bus system




                           Table 3: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement

                      Bus TENVDI Bus TENVDI Bus TENVDI
                      no (x10-4) no (x10-4) no (x10-4)
                        1  5.231  12  0.913  23  3.969
                        2  5.028  13  1.378  24  3.914
                        3  4.049  14  1.681  25  4.005
                        4  3.471  15  2.009  26  1.668
                        5  2.918  16  2.452  27  1.558
                        6  1.755  17  3.593  28  1.229
                        7  1.525  18  4.201  29  1.137
                        8  0.894  19  5.019  30  1.141
                        9  0.775  20  5.172  31  1.289
                       10  0.832  21  5.297  32  1.378
                       11  0.856  22  5.611  33  1.513




Figure 5: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement         Figure 6:Variation of Tail End Node Voltage with
                                                                       DG Placement




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                    Table 4 : Comparison of Complex Power Losses for
                     Optimal sizing of DG at Optimal location: Bus 9

                      Optimal              Complex Power Loss (Sloss) in
                   Location = Bus                    KVA
                          9
                    DG Rating in          Case1          Case2          Case3
                       MVA              (Unity Pf)     (0.9Pf lag)    (0.8Pf lag)
                         0.5            193.9777        182.1617       182.1227
                         1.0            159.0668        136.2883       136.1958
                         1.5            147.3413        113.8010       113.5875
                         2.0            156.6458        112.0736       111.6356
                         2.5            185.1807        128.9607       128.1659
                         3.0            231.3957        162.6299       161.3234
                         3.5            293.8651        211.3234       209.3202
                         4.0            371.4385        273.8590       270.9834
                   Minimum Loss         147.3413        112.0736       111.6356
                    Optimal DG             1.5             2.0            2.0
                  capacity (SDGopt)
                      in MVA




        Figure 7: Comparison of complex power losses after placement of DG for different cases




   Figure 8: Comparison of System Voltage Profile after DG placement (3 cases) with base case

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         Table 5: Improvement of system parameters with optimal allocation of DG
Parameters                                     Base Case       Case I        Case II      CaseIII
Active Power losses in Pu                        0.211         0.1215        0.0908       0.0902
Reactive Power losses in Pu                      0.143         0.0834        0.0643       0.0644
Active Power drawn from Substation in Pu
                                                 3.926         2.3365        2.0058       2.2052
Reactive Power drawn from Substation in Pu
                                                 2.443         2.3834        1.4925       1.1644


        As per the flowchart of fig.1, the optimal location for DG having rating of 50% of total
complex demand of distribution system found to be Bus No: 9 (corresponding to minimum
TENVDI). At this optimal location the optimum size of DG for loss minimisation for various
cases is given in table4. From fig 8, it is evident the optimal allocation of DG results in improved
voltage profile..

4.2   IEEE-69 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
      The distribution system characteristics: Number of buses=69; Number of lines=68;Slack
Bus no=1; Base Voltage=12.66KV; Base MVA=100 MVA; The test system is simulated in
MATLAB 2008 & the proposed methodology has been tested, whose results are as shown below.

                                                                 Table 6: Tail End Node matrix
                                                                        elements
                                                                    Sl.no Tail End Nodes
                                                                      1            27
                                                                      2            35
                                                                      3            46
                                                                      4            50
                                                                      5            52
                                                                      6            65
                                                                      7            67
Figure 9: Single line diagram of standard IEEE-69 Bus system
                                                                      8            69




                 Figure 10: Basecase Voltage profile for IEEE-69bus system

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              Table 7:Base case Bus Voltages for IEEE-69 BUS test system

                    Bus     Bus      Bus      Bus      Bus      Bus
                    no     Voltage   no      Voltage   no      Voltage
                            (Pu)              (Pu)              (Pu)
                    1      1.0000     24     0.9565     47     0.9998
                    2      1.0000     25     0.9564     48     0.9985
                    3      0.9999     26     0.9563     49     0.9947
                    4      0.9998     27     0.9563     50     0.9942
                    5      0.9991     28     0.9999     51     0.9785
                    6      0.9901     29     0.9999     52     0.9737
                    7      0.9808     30     0.9998     53     0.9746
                    8      0.9786     31     0.9997     54     0.9714
                    9      0.9774     32     0.9997     55     0.9669
                    10     0.9724     33     0.9995     56     0.9626
                    11     0.9713     34     0.9992     57     0.9401
                    12     0.9681     35     0.9992     58     0.9290
                    13     0.9652     36     0.9999     59     0.9248
                    14     0.9623     37     0.9997     60     0.9197
                    15     0.9594     38     0.9995     61     0.9123
                    16     0.9589     39     0.9994     62     0.9120
                    17     0.9580     40     0.9994     63     0.9117
                    18     0.9580     41     0.9983     64     0.9098
                    19     0.9576     42     0.9980     65     0.9092
                    20     0.9573     43     0.9979     66     0.9091
                    21     0.9568     44     0.9979     67     0.9091
                    22     0.9568     45     0.9978     68     0.9088
                    23     0.9567     46     0.9978     69     0.9088



                   Table 8: Variation of TENVDI with DG Placement
                   Bus    TENVDI     Bus   TENVDI      Bus   TENVDI
                   no     (x10-3)    no    (x10-3)     no    (x10-3)
                    1       0.3982    24      0.3137    47      0.3973
                    2       0.3980    25      0.3343    48      0.3969
                    3       0.3978    26      0.3434    49      0.3974
                    4       0.3973    27      0.3486    50      0.3980
                    5       0.3918    28      0.3978    51      0.2580
                    6       0.3298    29      0.3978    52      0.1536
                    7       0.2716    30      0.3986    53      0.2305
                    8       0.2583    31      0.3988    54      0.2084
                    9       0.2517    32      0.4004    55      0.1796
                    10      0.2443    33      0.4072    56      0.1533
                    11      0.2433    34      0.4328    57      0.0537
                    12      0.2416    35      0.4663    58      0.0263
                    13      0.2450    36      0.3978    59      0.0194
                    14      0.2546    37      0.3977    60      0.0138
                    15      0.2702    38      0.3978    61      0.0113
                    16      0.2737    39      0.3979    62      0.0115
                    17      0.2809    40      0.3979    63      0.0123
                    18      0.2810    41      0.4028    64      0.0221
                    19      0.2879    42      0.4070    65      0.0530
                    20      0.2925    43      0.4076    66      0.2206
                    21      0.3007    44      0.4078    67      0.2203
                    22      0.3011    45      0.4096    68      0.2101
                    23      0.3049    46      0.4096    69      0.2100




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                    Table 9 : Comparison of Complex Power Losses for
                     Optimal sizing of DG at Optimal location: Bus 61

                       Optimal       Complex Power Loss (Sloss) in
                       Location                KVA
                       = Bus 61
                         DG           Case1       Case2          Case3
                       Rating in      (Unity    (0.9Pf lag)      (0.8Pf
                        MVA            Pf)                        lag)
                          0.5       180.2229        162.6008    161.3606
                          1.0       128.9543        95.4359     92.9176
                          1.5       102.0178        53.8736     50.1355
                          2.0        96.7717        34.8566     30.0237
                          2.5       111.0474        35.7901     29.9683
                          3.0       143.0446        54.7633     48.1141
                          3.5       191.2309        90.1621     82.9125
                          4.0       254.1131        140.5060    132.8839
                      Minimum
                                    96.7717         34.8566      29.9683
                         Loss
                       Optimal
                         DG
                       capacity       2.0             2.0          2.5
                      (SDGopt) in
                        MVA




Figure 11: Variation of TENVDI with DG placement               Figure 12:Variation of Tail End
                                                              Node Voltage with DG Placement




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 Figure 13: Comparison of complex power losses after placement of DG for different cases

         Table 10: Improvement of system parameters with optimal allocation of DG
Parameters                                   Base Case   Case I      Case II      CaseIII
Active Power losses in Pu                      0.2365       0.0872     0.0300       0.0254
Reactive Power losses in Pu                    0.1065       0.0420     0.0174       0.0152
Active Power drawn from Substation in Pu
                                               4.1272       1.9779      2.1206      1.9161
Reactive Power drawn from Substation in Pu
                                               2.8001       2.7356      1.8393      1.2088




  Figure 14: Comparison of System Voltage Profile after DG placement (3 cases) with base
                                         case

        As per the flowchart of fig.1, the optimal location for DG having rating of 50% of
total complex demand of distribution system found to be Bus No: 61 (corresponding to
minimum TENVDI). At this optimal location the optimum size of DG for loss minimisation
for various cases is given in table9. From fig 14, it is evident the optimal allocation of DG
results in improved voltage profile.



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5. CONCLUSION

        The determination of size and location of DG are two important factors for the planning and
operation of smart electrical distribution systems. This paper presents a simplified approach for
optimum allocation of DG in distribution system in which the optimal location of DG is determined
by TENVD index for improving the tail end node voltages and optimal sizing of DG is determined at
the optimal location for minimising the power losses. The proposed method has been tested on IEEE-
33bus system & IEEE-69bus system using MATLAB 2008. The results of these two systems have
proved the impact of optimal allocation of DG in terms of better voltage profile especially for
consumers connected to tail end node and reduced power losses.

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[3] P. Chiradeja and R. Ramkumar. An approach to quantify the technical benefits of distributed
generation. IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion. 2004, 19 (4): 764-773.
[4] H. Khan and M.A. Choudhry. Implementation of distributed generation algorithm for performance
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AUTHORS’

                       r.
                      Dr. T. Ananthapadmanabha received the B.E. degree in
                      Electrical Engineering in 1980, M.Tech degree in Power Systems
                                           and
                      (1st Rank) in 1984 and Ph.D. degree (Gold Medal) in 1997 from
                      University of Mysore, Mysore. He is presently working as Professor
                      in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and
                      Controller of Examinations at The National Institute of Engineering,
                      Mysore, Karnataka, India.
                              His research interest includes Reactive Power Optimization,
                      Voltage Stability, Distribution Automation and AI applications to
                      Power Systems.


                      Maruthi Prasanna. H. A. received the Diploma in Electrical &
                      Electronics Engineering in 2004 from D.R.R.Government
                                    D
                      Polytechnic, Davanagere and B.E. degree in Electrical & Electronics
                                                                             Engineering,
                      Engineering in 2011 from B.M.S.Evening College of Engineering
                      Bangalore. He is presently pursuing research work at Department of
                                                  Engineering,
                      Electrical and Electronics Engineering The National Institute of
                             ering,
                      Engineering, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
                              His research interest includes Distribution System
                      Optimisation, Power System Stability studies, A.I. applications to
                      power system and Smart Grid.



                     Veeresha. A. G. received the B.E. degree in Electrical &
                     Electronics Engineering in 2003 from SJMIT, Chitraduraga. He is
                     presently pursuing research work at Department of Electrical and
                                 Engineering
                     Electronics Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering,
                             ,
                     Mysore, Karnataka, India.
                            His research interest includes Wind Energy, Distribution
                     System Design, Distributed Generation.




                     Likith Kumar. M. V. received the B.E. degree in Electrical &
                     Electronics Engineering in 2011 from SKIT, Bangalore. He is
                     presently pursuing research work at Department of Electrical and
                         tronics Engineering
                     Electronics Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering,
                             ,
                     Mysore, Karnataka, India.
                            His research interest includes Smart Grid, Communication
                     System, Renewable Energy.



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