3 parts of the Highway Transportation System (HTS)
Motor vehicle – car, truck, van, bus, tractor-trailer, farm tractors, motorcycle, moped, etc.
What is the purpose and main goal of the HTS?
Regulations of the HTS
Federal – National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety Act
State – National Highway Safety Act
Local – right turn on red, speed limits, parking, etc.
Even = West/East
Odd = North/South
Low = West & South
High = East & North
Airbag & Safety belts
1 in 9 odds of being involved in a collision
1 in 83 odds of being injured
Single-car collision deaths @ 39%+
35% of 15-20 year-old deaths from vehicle crash injuries
Defensive Driving – anticipate actions of others
Search – 20 to 30 seconds ahead
Identify – objects/conditions 12 to 15 seconds ahead
Predict – level of risks involved
Decide – at least 4 to 5 seconds ahead of time to reduce the risk
Execute – actual maneuver of vehicle to avoid risk/hazard
Emotional state of mind affects driving behavior and performance
Aim High & Look Ahead
Keep Your Eyes Moving
Get the Big Picture
Make Sure Others See You
Leave Yourself a Way Out or Margin of Safety
Benefits of taking Driver Education (p17-18)
Graduated Driver License (GDL)
Birth Certificate & Social Security Card (proof of age & identity), Permit Application,
Physical form with Doctor signature
Pass state knowledge test + 6 months & 50 hours of driving practice with 21+ year-old adult
Written or computerized – advanced study, well rested, take your time
Intermediate/Probationary License “Junior License”
Need Learner’s Permit, Insurance, registration
Will fail if you perform/commit dangerous act during in-vehicle/road test
Lights on, radio off, adjustments made, etc.
Do not talk to the examiner unless answering questions
Earn license if you know state laws, demonstrate basic control, adequate vision
Full License / Senior License
At age 17-1/2 if passed driver education & completed 6 hours of instructional driving
At age 18 without course
Purpose of studying Driver’s Manual is to learn driving rules and safe practices
All states have now adopted some form of GDL
Pre-Driving Checklist (p 30-34)
Adjustments before starting engine
OK to mention your nervousness to the examiner – allow you time to calm down before starting test
Visual Acuity (standing/should read from) 20/20 20/40 40/20
What can fatigue impair?
Causes of fatigue and ways to fight fatigue before or during driving
Reasons to turn off engine while at rest
Depth Perception for judging distances and passing
Use of senses when driving & ways to protect them
Best way to stop fatigue
Emotions – inattention, concentration, process information
All emotions affect driving ability
Disabilities – color blind, physical, equipment & devices used, hearing loss, etc.
High beam headlight distances 500 approaching 300 following
Vertical field of vision
Short-term illnesses – cold, flu, allergies, injury
Aging & Driving
Chronic illness – long period of time or recurring – epilepsy, arthritis, diabetes, asthma &
medication reactions affecting driving
Chart on page 64 – Drugs affect on Driving Ability
Inhibitions – elements of personality that hold back poor behaviors / wrong choices
3 Testing methods for alcohol content -
0.00 to 0.02 zero tolerance
.05 to .079 driving while impaired
.08 to .099 driving while intoxicated / influence (new PA law since Oct. 2003)
.10 to .159
.16 and above
Night vision & alcohol or other drugs – how affected?
Alcoholic drinks, servings & content of alcohol (beer, wine, liquor)
Alcohol affects on mind & body
1997 – 16,189 deaths in USA due to alcohol
Distractions – stereo, headphones, cell phone, children, passengers, pets, tolls
Peer pressure and how you drive
Time it takes to become an Alcoholic is unknown – each individual is different +
consumption rate over time
Responsibilities to self and others of drunk driving
Symptoms of a “Problem Drinker”
COLORS SHAPES CONDITION/MEANING
Black Octagon Regulatory – Law/Prohibited/Restricted
White Rectangle/Square Warning/Caution – Watch for/Slow down
Red Diamond Advisory – Change in conditions
Yellow Pentagon Guide – Nearest town/Mileage/Exit
Orange Triangle Roadside Service – Food, Phone, Lodging, Fuel, Hospital, Rest Area
Green Pennant Construction – Slow down/Change in road conditions
Blue Circle Points of Interest/Historical Site/Parks/Museums/Recreation
Brown Shield International – Use only symbols, no words on sign
What is the difference between a school zone, school crossing, and pedestrian crossing signs? Draw below to
Single Solid White Line
Broken White Line
Single Solid Yellow Line
Single Solid & Single Broken Yellow Line
Double Solid Yellow Line
Blue Lines (handicapped parking zone)
Symbols (handicapped, RXR, etc.)
Island or Road Division
High Occupancy Vehicle Lane (HOV)
Shared Turning Lane
Traffic Lane Use
Red Red X
Yellow Yellow X
Green Yellow Flashing X
Flashing Red Green Arrow or X
Flashing Yellow Railroad
Red Arrow Drop Gate/Arm
Yellow Arrow Signal Bells
Green Arrow Crossbuck
Pedestrian Red Lights
Walk Flashing Red Lights
Flashing Don’t Walk
Whistle or Tweet sound
Issue of permits, licenses & registration of motor vehicles
Driver’s proof of financial responsibility
Minimum safety equipment / care
Suspension of license 30-90 days minimum and up to 1 year maximum
Revoke license for 1 year then you must reapply
Certificate of Title – proof of ownership of vehicle
Vehicle Registration – form & license plate liability insurance
Insurance – financially responsible, proof you can pay for damages to others
Right-of-way is always given by someone and it is not owned
If arriving at a 4 way stop at the same time, person on right goes first
Yield right-of-way to avoid collisions - overrides all other rules
Emergency vehicle, Blind person (cane or dog), Pedestrians
Non-divided highway & school bus – all cars stop when bus is loading or
Speed Limits – for ideal conditions with good visibility, space & time
Road condition, surface, traffic, dangers, environment
Maximum is posted for best conditions – not safe to go faster
Fixed – maximum & minimum speeds – fined if above or below
Advisory – limited time in change of speed, adjust to conditions
Sharp curve, exit ramp, hill * again for ideal conditions*
Day vs. Night – harder to find visual cues, hazards, conditions at night
Being Pulled Over (page 104)
Basic Speed Laws & Speed Facts (page 105)
1. Remain Calm
2. Stop Immediately (off road if possible & turn off engine)
3. Warn Others
4. Aid the Injured
5. Get/Seek Medical Help
6. Call Police
7. Exchange Information
8. Witness information
9. Stay at the Scene until released by police
10. File Accident Report with police
11. See a Doctor for medical report & records
Head restraint – prevent neck injury when hit from behind
Seat adjustment – at least 10 inches from steering wheel
Air conditioner – lower humidity
Check fluids in car once a week (older cars) new (once a month)
Ignition switch – review 5 positions from text
Automatic transmission – start in park – prevent roll ** unless stalled in traffic – use Neutral
Manual transmission – clutch position is far left pedal
Cruise control- turn off by tapping brakes or manually pressing off button
Use only on straight highways with low traffic
Defroster – clear frost, moisture, ease to scrape ice
Reduce blind spots by adjusting mirrors 15 degree outward & look over shoulders!
Shoulder-lap belt – best safety belt use of all, reduce death by 50%, control car, lessen chance of throw from car,
reduce serious injury by 70%
Parking brake – keep from rolling when parked Emergency brake – use when pedal brake does not work
Reduced visibility – dirty headlights, fogged windshield, blind spots, objects in windows
Airbag – passive safety device
Alternator – provides electricity to car battery / recharge battery
Oil pressure gauge – oil pressure low in the engine (does not tell fluid level of oil)
Drowsiness – caused by overheating the vehicle
Odometer – total miles driven since manufactured
Overdrive gear – 5th gear in manual, saves fuel at high speeds
Parking brake light on – do NOT drive until brake is released
Power brakes & Power steering
Pull vehicle off road when engine is too hot or oil pressure becomes low
Outside & Inside vehicle checks (pages 126-128)
Short Answer – Comfort devices in vehicle and why make the driver comfortable?
Proper use of parking brake to start on a hill (page 140)
Use of toes or ball of foot on the pedals and not the heel
Tap brakes lightly to warn others you are about to stop
Threshold braking (conventional brakes) – not locking the brakes
ABS – keep foot down on brake pedal
Manual transmission – cost less, uses less fuel if used properly
Clutch – engine & transmission (up = engaged & down = disengaged)
Friction point – practice in reverse (lower gear and easier to use)
Backing the vehicle – tracking of front (large radius) and rear wheels (small radius)
Danger points of backing (page 149)
Push-pull versus Hand-over-hand steering techniques
Setting the automatic choke – press accelerator to floor once and release
After starting the engine – check gauges before driving (oil pressure)
Foot pressure to stop vehicle depends on size, weight, road surface, and brake type
Stopping & starting Automatic & Manual transmissions
Locking brakes – decrease effectiveness, cause skid, increases stopping distance
Finding average speed = total distance divided by total time
Speed and rate of acceleration or rate of deceleration (page 144)
Less time to steer to avoid a hazard than to brake to avoid hitting hazard
Short Answer – Steps to put automatic transmission in motion when engine is already running
CHAPTER 9 (study worksheets also)
Use of turn signals for any lateral maneuver (may need to use hand signal)
Altitude effects on driver
Altitude effect on vehicle
Four basic kinds of driver communication
You are at an increased risk when you are not driving with the flow of traffic.
Automatic transmission – may need to reduce gear (D1 or D2) to increase power on steep hills and slowing on
steep downhills also
Manual transmission – downshift to gain power uphill
downshift to increase control, reduce speed and wear on brakes downhill
Use of cruise control
Steps to changing lanes (page 163)
Passing and being passed
It takes an acceleration of 10-15 mph increase to pass another vehicle
Can not legally exceed speed limit when passing
Returning to original lane – see both headlights in rearview mirror before attempt
Do not accelerate to prevent a person from passing you
Slow down and move to right side of your lane when being passed
CHAPTER 10 (study worksheets also)
More than 1/3 of all collisions occur at intersections (34%-36%)
Prepare/plan for turn 8-12 seconds in advance = 500 feet
Signal 150 feet in advance of turn
Making turns from proper lanes
Making turns into proper lanes
Time gaps in traffic at intersections
4-5 seconds to go through
6-8 seconds to turn right
7 seconds left & 9 seconds right to turn left
Turnabouts / turning around
Considerations before turning around (page 181) Visibility, Space & Time
Two-point turn using a driveway
Backing into drive on left Backing into drive on right
Heading into drive on left Heading into drive on right (most dangerous)
When is it safe and unsafe?
U-turns – legal vs. illegal Why not perform a U-turn?
Around the block - Safest method of turning around but takes longer
Angle parking 5-6 feet from parked cars before entering
Perpendicular parking 7-8 feet from parked cars before entering
Parallel parking 3 feet from side of car in front of space and then back into
Parking beyond an intersection
Parking on a hill (wheel direction & gear selection for parking)
Uphill with a curb
Uphill without a curb
Downhill with a curb
Downhill without a curb
Parking restrictions (page 189-190)
Do not park near curves or hilltops on roadway
+ Response/Reaction Distance
+ Braking Distance
Total Stopping Distance
Any time the speed is doubled, you need 4 times the distance to stop.
Most entrance and exit ramps on controlled-access highways are on what side?
Dirty headlights can reduce illumination by what percent?
When is the best time to use low beam headlights?
Braking distance is dependent on speed, tires, road surface, car size & weight.
Initial driver reaction time = ½ to ¾ second.
Space margin to the sides of a vehicle when driving should = 8 feet.
Is a jackrabbit start fuel-efficient?
The best way to manage visibility is to keep your eyes moving.
What are the possible dangers to speeding up to beat a changing light?
Compare speed limits in the city to rural roads –
To minimize risk, you have to manage what 3 things when driving?
Exit and entrance ramp speed limits range from 25 to 45 MPH.
Identify objects and conditions in your path of travel how far in advance?
Manage space ahead, behind, and to the sides at all times.
Know the following and their differences:
ESSAY: How can you manage visibility BEFORE starting your car?
(page196) need 4 of 6
If snow is falling too heavily with windshield wipers on fastest speed, pull off the road.
Do not use defroster and keep driving – causes a buildup of ice on outside of windshield.
When are the roads the slickest during rain?
Define hydroplaning –
What are the safety conditions for driving in fog?
Decreased light = difficulty seeing others and them seeing you.
Parking lights were designed for what purpose?
A dirty or scratched windshield causes increased sun glare.
Why drive in the tracks of the vehicle in front of you when on wet (rain or snow) pavement?
When is sun glare most dangerous?
Snow tires reduce fuel economy.
Where do you look and why when an oncoming car has on its high beam headlights?
Define overdriving headlights –
Why is visibility ahead reduced when driving at night?
Why should you not use parking lights when driving at night?
Steps for rocking a car in snow when stuck – page 222
Why should you replace a badly scratched or cracked windshield?
Why is it a good habit to use hand signals with the car’s turn signals when driving in glaring sun?
ESSAY: What precautions can be taken so you can see other drivers better?
(page 220-221) need 6 of 9
5300 pedestrians killed and 77,000 injured each year in the USA
Where do most collisions occur?
Define Jaywalking –
When waiting at an intersection with a red signal, wait for the green light AND check for pedestrians before
If children are present in the area when backing a vehicle where should you look before backing up?
When on a 2 lane road in an area where there is a high chance of animals being present, drive with your
headlights on and close to the center of the road. This allows for better reaction time if the animal should
attempt to run onto the road.
Why is there a greater danger of hitting a deer at dusk?
Motorcycle/moped/bicycle are less stable than cars, can easily be in a driver’s blind spot, and drivers tend not to
look for them.
After passing a truck/semi/tractor-trailer DO NOT pull in too closely in front of it because of the need for room
between vehicles when the truck has to brake to avoid an obstacle or to stop.
Why do smaller cars need more time and space to pass another vehicle?
If stopping near railroad crossings, what is the minimum required distance on either side?
Why should you never pass a tractor-trailer on the right side?
What should you be alert for when approaching or passing a stopped bus on either side of a roadway?
If a bus has its red light flashing and it is on a 2-lane non-divided roadway, you MUST STOP.
What should you do if your car stalls on the railroad tracks and a train is approaching?
Why is the likelihood of being involved in a fatal car crash greater in a rural area instead of in the city?
What clues can you look for to be alert for children that could be playing in the area you are driving?
Know the definitions of the following terms:
Center of Gravity
Friction overcomes centrifugal force when turning or cornering.
Are you helpless to control the outcome of a skid?
Top braking efficiency = threshold braking NOT locking the brakes/wheels.
How can a driver/passenger reduce the effects of inertia?
Under-inflated tires grip the roadway unevenly and with what part of the tires coming in contact with the road
Thread depth on tires should be a minimum of ______ of an inch.
When using properly inflated tires with good tread and driving in water, what happens to the water in relation to
Driving on ice or snow causes less traction than in rain. Traction is poorest near 32 F and the chance of a skid
is increased as well.
Why do rough roads decrease or worsen traction?
If a vehicle’s weight doubles, so does its momentum.
Which is safer, a low center of gravity or a high center of gravity? Why and in what relation to the vehicle’s
base of support?
What can you do to reduce force of impact in a head on collision?
List the 4 types of skids and describe how they are caused.
First thing to do in the event of brake failure is to …
When brake failure occurs, the brake may yield little or no resistance.
Engine failure is caused by …
What is affected if your engine stalls?
If your engine is flooded, how will you be able to tell?
What is the most common type of steering failure?
What should you do if you have total steering failure?
If a tire loses air pressure while you are driving, you should …
If you are using an undersized or low-mileage spare tire after changing a flat, you should drive …
What may cause a stuck accelerator pedal?
Engine fires are usually very smoky and caused by what?
What should you do if there is an engine fire?
It is important to treat a shock victim by keeping him warm.
The pulse of a person in shock will be _____________ and _____________.
Lack of oxygen for ____ to ____ minutes may result in permanent brain damage.
If you apply the parking/emergency brake too abruptly in an emergency situation, you may lock the wheels and
cause the car to spin out of control.
Define a flooded engine –
How do you start a flooded engine?
Which type of vehicle will cost more to maintain, new or used and why?
Most fatalities occur when the collision is head-on and the driver …
Which type of vehicle has the highest death rates?
The more cylinders an engine has, the more fuel it needs. This results in reduced fuel efficiency.
A manually driven vehicle will use less fuel than an automatic vehicle if it is driven properly.
Does power steering affect fuel efficiency?
A burnt smell from the transmission dipstick may indicate that the vehicle has an …
Insurance companies will pay for damages based on the type of damage, not on the value of the car’s worth.
The 2 types of liability insurance are ___________ ____________ and ____________ ____________.
A _______________ is when you pay a fixed amount of damage first and then the insurance company pays the
What type of insurance pays for on-road repair costs?
Carpooling will decrease the cost of your insurance.
Antilock brakes decrease the time and distance it takes for a vehicle to stop. (Compared to locking conventional
Vehicle death rate of 2 per 10,000 is not a good vehicle to buy!
What colors are considered high visibility?
What colors are considered low visibility?
Fuel consumption depends on …
What is an advantage to selecting a vehicle with an automatic transmission?
Define axle-gear ratio –
When checking the radiator, you should be looking for clean coolant fluid and leaks.
What is the BLUE BOOK used for?
Why do men have higher insurance rates than women?
Why do young married men pay less for insurance than single men the same age?