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					CHAPTER 1

3 parts of the Highway Transportation System (HTS)

Motor vehicle – car, truck, van, bus, tractor-trailer, farm tractors, motorcycle, moped, etc.

What is the purpose and main goal of the HTS?

Regulations of the HTS
        Federal – National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety Act
        State – National Highway Safety Act
        Local – right turn on red, speed limits, parking, etc.

Highway #s
      Even = West/East
      Odd = North/South
      Low = West & South
      High = East & North

Airbag & Safety belts

1 in 9 odds of being involved in a collision
1 in 83 odds of being injured
Single-car collision deaths @ 39%+
35% of 15-20 year-old deaths from vehicle crash injuries

Defensive Driving – anticipate actions of others


SIPDE process
       Search – 20 to 30 seconds ahead
       Identify – objects/conditions 12 to 15 seconds ahead
       Predict – level of risks involved
       Decide – at least 4 to 5 seconds ahead of time to reduce the risk
       Execute – actual maneuver of vehicle to avoid risk/hazard

Emotional state of mind affects driving behavior and performance

Smith System
       Aim High & Look Ahead
       Keep Your Eyes Moving
       Get the Big Picture
       Make Sure Others See You
       Leave Yourself a Way Out or Margin of Safety

Benefits of taking Driver Education (p17-18)

Graduated Driver License (GDL)

        Learner’s Permit
               Birth Certificate & Social Security Card (proof of age & identity), Permit Application,
                       Physical form with Doctor signature
               Pass state knowledge test + 6 months & 50 hours of driving practice with 21+ year-old adult
               Written or computerized – advanced study, well rested, take your time

        Intermediate/Probationary License       “Junior License”
               Need Learner’s Permit, Insurance, registration
               Will fail if you perform/commit dangerous act during in-vehicle/road test
               Lights on, radio off, adjustments made, etc.
               Do not talk to the examiner unless answering questions
               Earn license if you know state laws, demonstrate basic control, adequate vision

        Full License / Senior License
                At age 17-1/2 if passed driver education & completed 6 hours of instructional driving
                At age 18 without course

Purpose of studying Driver’s Manual is to learn driving rules and safe practices

All states have now adopted some form of GDL

Pre-Driving Checklist (p 30-34)

Adjustments before starting engine
       Head restraint
       Steering wheel
       Safety belt

OK to mention your nervousness to the examiner – allow you time to calm down before starting test

Visual Acuity (standing/should read from)             20/20          20/40           40/20

What can fatigue impair?

Causes of fatigue and ways to fight fatigue before or during driving

Reasons to turn off engine while at rest

Depth Perception for judging distances and passing
Use of senses when driving & ways to protect them
Best way to stop fatigue
Peripheral vision
Emotions – inattention, concentration, process information
       All emotions affect driving ability
Disabilities – color blind, physical, equipment & devices used, hearing loss, etc.
Central vision
High beam headlight distances 500 approaching                 300 following
Vertical field of vision
Contrast sensitivity
Night Blindness
Short-term illnesses – cold, flu, allergies, injury
Aging & Driving
Chronic illness – long period of time or recurring – epilepsy, arthritis, diabetes, asthma &
       medication reactions affecting driving

Chart on page 64 – Drugs affect on Driving Ability
Inhibitions – elements of personality that hold back poor behaviors / wrong choices
Implied Consent
3 Testing methods for alcohol content -
BAC Levels
0.00 to 0.02    zero tolerance
.05 to .079     driving while impaired
.08 to .099     driving while intoxicated / influence (new PA law since Oct. 2003)
.10 to .159
.16 and above
Night vision & alcohol or other drugs – how affected?

Alcoholic drinks, servings & content of alcohol (beer, wine, liquor)

Drug Classifications
       Prescription (Rx)
Alcohol affects on mind & body

1997 – 16,189 deaths in USA due to alcohol
Distractions – stereo, headphones, cell phone, children, passengers, pets, tolls
Peer pressure and how you drive
Time it takes to become an Alcoholic is unknown – each individual is different +
consumption rate over time
Responsibilities to self and others of drunk driving
Symptoms of a “Problem Drinker”

COLORS         SHAPES                  CONDITION/MEANING
Black          Octagon                 Regulatory – Law/Prohibited/Restricted
White          Rectangle/Square        Warning/Caution – Watch for/Slow down
Red            Diamond                 Advisory – Change in conditions
Yellow         Pentagon                Guide – Nearest town/Mileage/Exit
Orange         Triangle                Roadside Service – Food, Phone, Lodging, Fuel, Hospital, Rest Area
Green          Pennant                 Construction – Slow down/Change in road conditions
Blue           Circle                  Points of Interest/Historical Site/Parks/Museums/Recreation
Brown          Shield                  International – Use only symbols, no words on sign

What is the difference between a school zone, school crossing, and pedestrian crossing signs? Draw below to
show difference.

Single Solid White Line
Broken White Line
Single Solid Yellow Line
Single Solid & Single Broken Yellow Line
Double Solid Yellow Line
Blue Lines (handicapped parking zone)
Symbols (handicapped, RXR, etc.)
Pedestrian Crosswalk
Stop Line
Island or Road Division
High Occupancy Vehicle Lane (HOV)
Shared Turning Lane

Traffic                                                Lane Use
        Red                                                    Red X
        Yellow                                                 Yellow X
        Green                                                  Yellow Flashing X
        Flashing Red                                           Green Arrow or X
        Flashing Yellow                                Railroad
        Red Arrow                                              Drop Gate/Arm
        Yellow Arrow                                           Signal Bells
        Green Arrow                                            Crossbuck
Pedestrian                                                     Red Lights
        Walk                                                   Flashing Red Lights
        Flashing Don’t Walk
        Don’t Walk
        Whistle or Tweet sound

Administrative Laws
       Issue of permits, licenses & registration of motor vehicles
       Driver’s proof of financial responsibility
       Minimum safety equipment / care
       Suspension of license 30-90 days minimum and up to 1 year maximum
       Revoke license for 1 year then you must reapply
       Point system
       Certificate of Title – proof of ownership of vehicle
       Vehicle Registration – form & license plate               liability insurance
       Insurance – financially responsible, proof you can pay for damages to others

Right-of-way Rules
        Right-of-way is always given by someone and it is not owned
        If arriving at a 4 way stop at the same time, person on right goes first
        Yield right-of-way to avoid collisions - overrides all other rules
                 Emergency vehicle, Blind person (cane or dog), Pedestrians
        Non-divided highway & school bus – all cars stop when bus is loading or

Speed Limits – for ideal conditions with good visibility, space & time
       Road condition, surface, traffic, dangers, environment
       Maximum is posted for best conditions – not safe to go faster
       Fixed – maximum & minimum speeds – fined if above or below
       Advisory – limited time in change of speed, adjust to conditions
                Sharp curve, exit ramp, hill * again for ideal conditions*
       Day vs. Night – harder to find visual cues, hazards, conditions at night
       Being Pulled Over (page 104)
       Basic Speed Laws & Speed Facts (page 105)

        1. Remain Calm
        2. Stop Immediately (off road if possible & turn off engine)
        3. Warn Others
        4. Aid the Injured
        5. Get/Seek Medical Help
        6. Call Police
        7. Exchange Information
        8. Witness information
        9. Stay at the Scene until released by police
        10. File Accident Report with police
        11. See a Doctor for medical report & records

Head restraint – prevent neck injury when hit from behind

Seat adjustment – at least 10 inches from steering wheel

Air conditioner – lower humidity

Check fluids in car once a week (older cars) new (once a month)

Hazard lights

Ignition switch – review 5 positions from text

Automatic transmission – start in park – prevent roll ** unless stalled in traffic – use Neutral

Manual transmission – clutch position is far left pedal

Cruise control- turn off by tapping brakes or manually pressing off button
        Use only on straight highways with low traffic

Defroster – clear frost, moisture, ease to scrape ice

Reduce blind spots by adjusting mirrors 15 degree outward & look over shoulders!

Shoulder-lap belt – best safety belt use of all, reduce death by 50%, control car, lessen chance of throw from car,
       reduce serious injury by 70%

Parking brake – keep from rolling when parked             Emergency brake – use when pedal brake does not work

Reduced visibility – dirty headlights, fogged windshield, blind spots, objects in windows

Airbag – passive safety device

Alternator – provides electricity to car battery / recharge battery

Oil pressure gauge – oil pressure low in the engine (does not tell fluid level of oil)

Drowsiness – caused by overheating the vehicle

Odometer – total miles driven since manufactured

Overdrive gear – 5th gear in manual, saves fuel at high speeds

Parking brake light on – do NOT drive until brake is released

Power brakes & Power steering

Pull vehicle off road when engine is too hot or oil pressure becomes low

Outside & Inside vehicle checks (pages 126-128)

Short Answer – Comfort devices in vehicle and why make the driver comfortable?

Proper use of parking brake to start on a hill (page 140)

Use of toes or ball of foot on the pedals and not the heel

Tap brakes lightly to warn others you are about to stop

Threshold braking (conventional brakes) – not locking the brakes

ABS – keep foot down on brake pedal

Manual transmission – cost less, uses less fuel if used properly

Clutch – engine & transmission (up = engaged & down = disengaged)

Friction point – practice in reverse (lower gear and easier to use)

Backing the vehicle – tracking of front (large radius) and rear wheels (small radius)
       Danger points of backing (page 149)

Push-pull versus Hand-over-hand steering techniques

Setting the automatic choke – press accelerator to floor once and release

After starting the engine – check gauges before driving (oil pressure)

Foot pressure to stop vehicle depends on size, weight, road surface, and brake type

Stopping & starting Automatic & Manual transmissions

Locking brakes – decrease effectiveness, cause skid, increases stopping distance

Finding average speed = total distance divided by total time

Speed and rate of acceleration or rate of deceleration (page 144)

Less time to steer to avoid a hazard than to brake to avoid hitting hazard

Short Answer – Steps to put automatic transmission in motion when engine is already running
CHAPTER 9 (study worksheets also)

Use of turn signals for any lateral maneuver (may need to use hand signal)

Altitude effects on driver

Altitude effect on vehicle

Four basic kinds of driver communication

You are at an increased risk when you are not driving with the flow of traffic.

Automatic transmission – may need to reduce gear (D1 or D2) to increase power on steep hills and slowing on
      steep downhills also

Manual transmission – downshift to gain power uphill
                    downshift to increase control, reduce speed and wear on brakes downhill

Use of cruise control

Steps to changing lanes (page 163)

Passing and being passed
        It takes an acceleration of 10-15 mph increase to pass another vehicle
        Can not legally exceed speed limit when passing
        Returning to original lane – see both headlights in rearview mirror before attempt
        Do not accelerate to prevent a person from passing you
        Slow down and move to right side of your lane when being passed
CHAPTER 10 (study worksheets also)

More than 1/3 of all collisions occur at intersections (34%-36%)

Prepare/plan for turn 8-12 seconds in advance = 500 feet

Signal 150 feet in advance of turn

Making turns from proper lanes

Making turns into proper lanes

Time gaps in traffic at intersections
       4-5 seconds to go through
       6-8 seconds to turn right
       7 seconds left & 9 seconds right to turn left

Turnabouts / turning around

Considerations before turning around (page 181) Visibility, Space & Time

        Two-point turn using a driveway
              Backing into drive on left                   Backing into drive on right
              Heading into drive on left                   Heading into drive on right (most dangerous)

        Three-point turn
               When is it safe and unsafe?

        U-turns – legal vs. illegal               Why not perform a U-turn?

        Around the block - Safest method of turning around but takes longer

Angle parking 5-6 feet from parked cars before entering

Perpendicular parking 7-8 feet from parked cars before entering

Parallel parking 3 feet from side of car in front of space and then back into

Parking beyond an intersection

Driveway parking

Garage parking

Parking on a hill (wheel direction & gear selection for parking)
        Uphill with a curb
        Uphill without a curb
        Downhill with a curb
        Downhill without a curb

Parking restrictions (page 189-190)
        Do not park near curves or hilltops on roadway

          Perception Distance
        + Response/Reaction Distance
        + Braking Distance
        Total Stopping Distance
Any time the speed is doubled, you need 4 times the distance to stop.

Most entrance and exit ramps on controlled-access highways are on what side?

Dirty headlights can reduce illumination by what percent?

When is the best time to use low beam headlights?

Braking distance is dependent on speed, tires, road surface, car size & weight.

Initial driver reaction time = ½ to ¾ second.

Space margin to the sides of a vehicle when driving should = 8 feet.

Is a jackrabbit start fuel-efficient?

The best way to manage visibility is to keep your eyes moving.

What are the possible dangers to speeding up to beat a changing light?

Compare speed limits in the city to rural roads –

To minimize risk, you have to manage what 3 things when driving?

Exit and entrance ramp speed limits range from 25 to 45 MPH.

Identify objects and conditions in your path of travel how far in advance?

Manage space ahead, behind, and to the sides at all times.

Know the following and their differences:
       Controlled/Limited-access Highway
ESSAY: How can you manage visibility BEFORE starting your car?
       (page196) need 4 of 6

If snow is falling too heavily with windshield wipers on fastest speed, pull off the road.
        Do not use defroster and keep driving – causes a buildup of ice on outside of windshield.

When are the roads the slickest during rain?

Define hydroplaning –

What are the safety conditions for driving in fog?

Decreased light = difficulty seeing others and them seeing you.

Parking lights were designed for what purpose?

A dirty or scratched windshield causes increased sun glare.

Why drive in the tracks of the vehicle in front of you when on wet (rain or snow) pavement?

When is sun glare most dangerous?

Snow tires reduce fuel economy.

Where do you look and why when an oncoming car has on its high beam headlights?

Define overdriving headlights –

Why is visibility ahead reduced when driving at night?

Why should you not use parking lights when driving at night?

Steps for rocking a car in snow when stuck – page 222

Why should you replace a badly scratched or cracked windshield?

Why is it a good habit to use hand signals with the car’s turn signals when driving in glaring sun?

ESSAY: What precautions can be taken so you can see other drivers better?
       (page 220-221) need 6 of 9

5300 pedestrians killed and 77,000 injured each year in the USA

Where do most collisions occur?

Define Jaywalking –

When waiting at an intersection with a red signal, wait for the green light AND check for pedestrians before

If children are present in the area when backing a vehicle where should you look before backing up?

When on a 2 lane road in an area where there is a high chance of animals being present, drive with your
headlights on and close to the center of the road. This allows for better reaction time if the animal should
attempt to run onto the road.

Why is there a greater danger of hitting a deer at dusk?

Motorcycle/moped/bicycle are less stable than cars, can easily be in a driver’s blind spot, and drivers tend not to
look for them.

After passing a truck/semi/tractor-trailer DO NOT pull in too closely in front of it because of the need for room
between vehicles when the truck has to brake to avoid an obstacle or to stop.

Why do smaller cars need more time and space to pass another vehicle?

If stopping near railroad crossings, what is the minimum required distance on either side?

Why should you never pass a tractor-trailer on the right side?

What should you be alert for when approaching or passing a stopped bus on either side of a roadway?

If a bus has its red light flashing and it is on a 2-lane non-divided roadway, you MUST STOP.

What should you do if your car stalls on the railroad tracks and a train is approaching?

Why is the likelihood of being involved in a fatal car crash greater in a rural area instead of in the city?

What clues can you look for to be alert for children that could be playing in the area you are driving?

Know the definitions of the following terms:
       Banked Road
       Center of Gravity
       Centrifugal Force
       Directional Control
       Kinetic Energy

Friction overcomes centrifugal force when turning or cornering.

Are you helpless to control the outcome of a skid?

Top braking efficiency = threshold braking NOT locking the brakes/wheels.

How can a driver/passenger reduce the effects of inertia?

Under-inflated tires grip the roadway unevenly and with what part of the tires coming in contact with the road

Thread depth on tires should be a minimum of ______ of an inch.

When using properly inflated tires with good tread and driving in water, what happens to the water in relation to
the tire?

Driving on ice or snow causes less traction than in rain. Traction is poorest near 32 F and the chance of a skid
is increased as well.

Why do rough roads decrease or worsen traction?

If a vehicle’s weight doubles, so does its momentum.

Which is safer, a low center of gravity or a high center of gravity? Why and in what relation to the vehicle’s
base of support?

What can you do to reduce force of impact in a head on collision?

List the 4 types of skids and describe how they are caused.

First thing to do in the event of brake failure is to …

When brake failure occurs, the brake may yield little or no resistance.

Engine failure is caused by …

What is affected if your engine stalls?

If your engine is flooded, how will you be able to tell?

What is the most common type of steering failure?

What should you do if you have total steering failure?

If a tire loses air pressure while you are driving, you should …

If you are using an undersized or low-mileage spare tire after changing a flat, you should drive …

What may cause a stuck accelerator pedal?

Engine fires are usually very smoky and caused by what?

What should you do if there is an engine fire?

It is important to treat a shock victim by keeping him warm.

The pulse of a person in shock will be _____________ and _____________.

Lack of oxygen for ____ to ____ minutes may result in permanent brain damage.

If you apply the parking/emergency brake too abruptly in an emergency situation, you may lock the wheels and
cause the car to spin out of control.

Matching terms
       Brake fade
       Direct pressure
       Jumper cables
       Lug wrench

Define a flooded engine –

How do you start a flooded engine?

Which type of vehicle will cost more to maintain, new or used and why?

Most fatalities occur when the collision is head-on and the driver …

Which type of vehicle has the highest death rates?

The more cylinders an engine has, the more fuel it needs. This results in reduced fuel efficiency.

A manually driven vehicle will use less fuel than an automatic vehicle if it is driven properly.

Does power steering affect fuel efficiency?

A burnt smell from the transmission dipstick may indicate that the vehicle has an …

Insurance companies will pay for damages based on the type of damage, not on the value of the car’s worth.

The 2 types of liability insurance are ___________ ____________ and ____________ ____________.

A _______________ is when you pay a fixed amount of damage first and then the insurance company pays the

What type of insurance pays for on-road repair costs?

Carpooling will decrease the cost of your insurance.

Antilock brakes decrease the time and distance it takes for a vehicle to stop. (Compared to locking conventional
braking systems)

Vehicle death rate of 2 per 10,000 is not a good vehicle to buy!

What colors are considered high visibility?

What colors are considered low visibility?

Fuel consumption depends on …

What is an advantage to selecting a vehicle with an automatic transmission?

Define axle-gear ratio –

When checking the radiator, you should be looking for clean coolant fluid and leaks.

What is the BLUE BOOK used for?

Why do men have higher insurance rates than women?

Why do young married men pay less for insurance than single men the same age?

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