Virtualization: The Very
Definition of Teamwork
Certified Master IT Architect
Certified Sr. Consulting IT Architect
• Started IT in Merced in 1973. Moved to Fresno in 1978.
• 35 years in IT.
• Operations, Applications, IT Management.
• Jr. Operator (Safeguard-Partex, Fresno) CIO (DemandTec, San Francisco,
• 6 books, 5 videos, 200+ articles on Information Technology
• As Me: Bank of America, Mirage Resorts, Levi Strauss, Ernst & Young, etc.
• As IBM: Cabella’s, Country of Bahamas, Shop Vac, Columbus Distributing,
Bass Pro Shops, Bank of China, Tru Green, Wheaton Van Lines, Fender,
Discount Tire, County Bank of Merced, Foster Farms, and many more.
• IBM Certified Senior Consulting IT Architect.
• Open Group Certified Master IT Architect.
• Non-coin operated, brand agnostic.
• Trivia: While in Fresno, worked at KYNO (Top 40), 96FM (Rock), KMAK (C&W), KHOT (C&W), and
• Gartner on virtualization: “The pooling of
resources in a way that masks the
physical nature and boundaries of those
resources from resource users.“
• Neely on virtualization: “Doing more for
less and with less better than before.”
Multiple Forces Driving a transformation of the data center and Information
Operational issues have IT Accelerated pace of
at a break point business and technology
Costs & Service Delivery
Rising costs of systems and networking operations
Explosion in volume of data and information
Difficulty in deploying new applications and services
Security of your assets & information
Business Resiliency & Security
Landslide of compliance requirements
Systems and applications need to be available
Rising energy costs & rising energy demand
Power & thermal issues inhibit operations
Energy Requirements Environmental compliance & governance mandates
Information Technology Management is
more than just technology
40% > Hardware and software
Getting there requires…
> Definition/design, compliance
60% and continuous improvement
> Roles & responsibilities,
management, skills development
> Stop and ask for directions.
Management is Key
• IDC projects that use of server virtualization
will result in a significant increase in the number
of servers (physical + virtual) to be managed.
• The projected increase is not yet reflected in
their forecast of server management costs. 60 Base (Millions)
$300 50 Physical
45 Base (Millions)
Power and Cooling Costs 40
Server Mgt and Admin Costs 35
New Server Spending 30
Source: IDC, May 2006
Consider the Reality, Not the
• Data volumes and bandwidth consumed are
doubling every 18 months.
• Devices accessing data over networks doubling
every 2.5 years.
• 10GB Ethernet ports tripling over the next 5
years. 100 GB common today.
• Costs to power and cool systems has risen
anywhere from 2x to 8x, depending on the
survey you read.
• Costs to manage all of this- rising 400% in the
last 5 years and projected to continue to grow at
least 10% a year.
• “Hardware virtualization support is the most significant addition to Intel
compatible (x86) PC processor architecture in more than 20 years and will
permanently change the way PC software relates to PC hardware.” –
• Virtualization is the process of presenting computing resources in ways
that users and applications can easily get value out of them, rather than
presenting them in a way dictated by their implementation, geographic
location, or physical packaging. In other words, it provides a logical rather
than physical view of data, computing power, storage capacity, and other
resources. - Jonathan Eunice
• “Virtualization will be the single biggest disruptor in the datacenter over
the next few years.” - Goldman Sachs
Keys / Rationale / Messages
• Begin/Balance storage utilization.
• Build heterogeneous infrastructure across the whole organization that are more
responsive to the organization's needs.
• Consolidate with virtualized server systems to drive up utilization – begin initially
with like-to-like systems.
• Deliver on SLA response times during spikes in production and test scenarios.
• Drive cost out of IT.
• Dynamic resource provisioning capability.
• Gather information and collaboration across the organization to increase both the
utilization of information and its effective use.
• Lower the cost of existing infrastructure by reducing operation and systems
management cost while maintaining needed capacity.
• Managing physical and virtual system resources together.
• Migration to a highly virtualized and more resilient IT infrastructure.
• Pool resources.
• Reduce complexity of adding to infrastructure.
• Reduce redundant asset/license ownership/costs.
• Server & storage virtualization to improve application availability.
• Server & storage virtualization to reduce cost of disaster recovery infrastructure.
• Service Management: Process-driven automation. Service orchestration. Process-
based provisioning and workload management.
• View multiple resources from a single view.
• Virtualize systems to allow for easier access of/to resources
• Virtualized systems to allow for delivery of IT resources as services.
Provisioning, Orchestration Mgmt
Enterprise Service Bus
Common Console Virtual Machines
Dynamic LPAR, Virtual I/O
Virtual Controller &
Key Definitions, I
• Application Virtualization
– Creates a "wrapper" around installed applications.
– App resources now no longer closely coupled to the
– Instead, app objects, files, registry settings, etc are
handled within/by the container and the container links
to underlying resources of the OS.
• Net-Net: App configuration is standardized to the container
and it deals with OS issues.
• Server Virtualization Software
– Allows a user to simultaneously run multiple OSs — or multiple
sessions of a single OS — on a physical server.
Key Definitions, II
• Machine Virtualization
• Machine, or OS, virtualization on a server decouples OS hardware
drivers and interfaces from server hardware through an
interposed software layer.
• This layer controls access to the server's physical resources and
makes virtualized versions of them available to virtual machines
(VMs) running above.
• Each VM provides a full set of virtualized server resources and can
be loaded with a OS as if it were hardware.
• There are two types of machine virtualization:
– Hosted, in which the virtualization layer runs on top of another "host"
– Hypervisor-enabled, in which the virtualization layer runs directly on
hardware. -- Gartner
– I see one view of applications and knowledge.
– There are many applications, perhaps on different OS
and servers, perhaps even in different locations..
– The access is federated, the presentation is federated.
– The apps are individual, and so are the users.
• Data Federation
– I see one data repository.
– There are many repositories.
– The data is federated, the image is federated.
– The data is individual, and so are the images.
• Database Normalization
– Eliminating redundant data.
– I see data described once… because it is!
– The view is “X Logical Files” vs. Terabytes of Physical
• SaaS and ASP
– Ask yourself:
• “Does this application accrue positively to our
organization in the eyes of our customers?”
• “Is this application strategic or merely necessary?”
– Pricing code application vs. Payroll, for example.
• Virtual Tape
• Tertiary-level HSM
• POCS Technology: Plain Old Common Sense
– Write it twice at once.
– Update the major, then the minor.
Know the Forms
• Network (VPN)
• Network (Virtual Ethernet)
• Data, etc… Federation, etc
• Operating Systems
• QA, Dev, Test servers, networks, storage, OS, etc
Determine the Strategy
• Write it down
• Flow it out… FreeMind
• Layers upon layers
• Know when to ask for help
And you may already have the
Virtualization Evolution, I
Highly responsive and
business goal driven
Rapid deployment of new
infrastructure and services • Virtualization of IT as a
service - “cloud”
• Highly virtualized resource • Business-driven service
Drives IT efficiency pools management
• Integrated IT service • Service oriented delivery
• Physical consolidation and
management of IT
• Green by design • Open, standards-driven
• Virtualization of individual systems
• Systems, network and energy
Virtualization Evolution, II
Suppliers, partners, customers
and external resources
Enterprise wide Grids and
IT Virtualization: Heterogeneous
systems, application based Grids and
IT Simplification: Homogenous
systems, storage and networks
IT Infrastructure Today:
Application silos driving hardware
silos and operational hurdles
Virtualization Evolution, III
Windows Servers Virtual Servers,
Servers Unix Server
Linux Servers Server SAN Networking
IT Simplification / Physical Multiple virtual servers
Complex Fewer sites
(OS’s) per physical server
1 workload per server Significant savings – fewer
Use of larger servers / SAN’s servers, higher utilization
Manual provisioning Mostly environmental savings Rapid “provisioning”
No sharing Disparate management tools Automatic workload mgmt
Vertical silo’s Labor intense provisioning Preserve logical “server to
Disparate mgmt tools Workload mgnt and isolation issues application” relations
Virtualization Evolution: ODOE Architecture
Pick a Model: Here, the On Demand Operating Environment is based upon the
concepts of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Each element of the
architecture is a service that together implemented the Operating Environment
Business Application Services
User Business Process Information
Interaction Choreography Management
Services Services Services
Performance Enterprise Service Bus
Utility Business Services
Service Level Automation and Orchestration
Resource Virtualization Services
Reduce the Storage
• Too much spend on disk. Too much time backing up data.
• Storage virtualization
• Most storage infrastructure upgrades no longer require outage windows.
• Circuit City has replaced 90% of the disks in the data center—all with
minimal to zero disruption to users.
• “…storage virtualization has transformed our IT storage infrastructure so
we can respond quickly to user needs. And the IT team has the tools to
work productively. Today, our team spends much more of their time
Fewer Can Be Better
• Robust infrastructure needed to handle unpredictable spikes.
• Operational costs increase as servers proliferate.
• Servers are over-provisioned to ensure capacity – resources not easily
adjusted to provide availability.
• Consolidate/virtualize 60 servers into ONE.
• Active management & prioritization of web hosted workloads.
• Dynamically allocates system resources based on workload requirements.
• Visits grown 130%; Cost per visit reduced by over 70%.
Reduce the Number of Moving Parts
• The large infrastructure lacked flexibility, and the time and resources
required to deploy new hardware to support additional applications were
getting out of control.
• The company replaced its 300 physical servers with only 15 virtualized
servers. The servers run VMware virtualization software, which allows for
greater IT resource utilization and flexibility.
• Each of the 15 servers is configured with about 20 logical partitions.
• The new server infrastructure is 50 percent more productive than the
previous environment, and it saves the company 30 percent in IT costs,
including costs for connectivity, installation and other infrastructure
Stretching the Virtual Truth
• Blade Technology:
– In and of itself is it “virtualization” … not really.
• Server-based Computing:
– As in serving a single instantiation of an app to N-
number of people.
– In and of itself is it “virtualization” … not really.
“Danger, Will Robinson!”
• HA, DR, and BC strategy, tactics, and
plans MUST allow for virtualization.
– Even daily server virtualization via VM Ware
and the likes is important.
– Backup, restoration, and archive.
– Keep two tape (for example) machines, not
Kris Neely, Bruce Adams, and IBM