Document Sample

```					       Science Curriculum Guide

Part Three

Baltimore City Public School System

QUARTER THREE
Unit 5. Mechanics
4 weeks
On the Move
Unit 6. Thermodynamics
3 weeks
From Hot to Cold
Unit 7. Wave Interaction
2 weeks
Sound Effects

Unit Five: Physics: A. Mechanics/On the Move!
Quarter Three
(Days 91 - 110; four weeks)

MARYLAND SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS

5.0 Physics - Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter
and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

1.0 Skills and Processes – Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the
practice of science.

MARYLAND SCIENCE INDICATORS

3.5.A.1.    Mechanics
 Cite evidence from observations to describe the motion of an object using position
and speed.

3.5.A.2.    Mechanics
 Explain that changes in the ways objects move are caused by forces.

3.1.A.1.    Constructing Knowledge
 Gather and question information from many different forms of scientific investi-
gations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what
things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analy-
sis, and doing experiments.

3.1.B.1.    Applying Evidence and Reasoning
 Seek better reasons for believing something than “Everybody knows that…” or “I
just know” and discount such reasons when given by others.

3.1.C.1.    Communicate Scientific Information
 Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because
it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criti-
cism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the
world.

BCPSS SCIENCE CONTENT OBJECTIVES

Introducing and Developing
3.5.A.1.a.   Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object
or to its background.
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3.5.A.1.b.       Using information from multiple trials, compare the speeds (faster or
slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of
time.

3.5.A.1.c.       Using information from multiple trials, compare the distances that objects
moving at different speeds travel in the same amount of time.

3.5.A.2.a.       Observe and describe the way an object’s motion changes in a variety of
situations (rolling a ball, bouncing a ball, dropping a yo-yo, winding up a
toy, etc.) and identify what may have caused the change.

3.5.A.2.b.       Describe changes in the motion of objects as they move across different
textured surfaces and suggest possible causes for the change.

3.5.A.2.c.       Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something
holds them up (gravity).

BCPSS SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESS OBJECTIVES

3.1.A.1.a.       Support statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and
identify the sources used and expect others to do the same.

3.1.A.1.b.       Select and use appropriate tools hand lens or microscope (magnifiers),
centimeter ruler (length, spring scale (weight), balance (mass), Celsius
thermometer (temperature), graduated cylinder (liquid volume), and stop-
watch (elapsed time) to augment observations of objects, events, and pro-
cesses.

3.1.A.1.c.       Explain that comparisons of data might not be fair because some condi-
tions are not kept the same.

3.1.A.1.f.       Identify possible reasons for differences in results from investigations in-
cluding unexpected differences in the differences in the methods used or
in the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and some-
times just because of uncertainties in observations.

3.1.B.1.a.       Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from ob-
servations, reliable print resources, and investigations.

3.1.B.1.b.       Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others.

3.1.B.1.d.       Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes
actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed,
and is understandable weeks or months later.

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3.1.C.1.a.       Make use of and analyze models, such as tables and graphs to summarize
and interpret data.
.

3.1.C.1.b.       Avoid choosing and reporting only the data that show what is expected by
the person doing the choosing.

3.1.C.1.c.       Submit work to the critique of others.

3.1.C.1.d.       Construct and share reasonable explanations for questions asked.

3.1.C.1.e.       Recognize that doing science involves many different kinds of work and
engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.

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Quarter Three
Unit Five Physics: A. Mechanics/On the Move!
(Days 91 - 110; four weeks)
Content Standard: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy trans-
formations that occur.

Indicators                  “Big Ideas”      Instructional                      Sample Item or Task                Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                              Focus
K.5.A.1.                       Mechanics       K.5.A.1.a.                    How do objects move?                          Maintaining    Discovery
Students are able to:   The motion of objects Given many different             Close your eyes and imagine that you                       Works,
Compare the different is caused by force.      objects, make them            are back in kindergarten or first grade.                     Kindergar-
ways objects move.      Force is the push or   move and describe and         Think about the games you played and the                     ten,
pull on an object. Mo- compare how they              songs you sang. The games and song al-                       Pushes and
3.1.B.1.                tion is described as a move.                         most always required you to move or do                       Pulls unit.
Students are able to:   change in position and  Straight                    something. Can you demonstrate a game
Seek better reasons for speed is a change in    Round and round             or song and then describe the movements                      Discovery
believing something     position over time.     Back and forth              you made? Title a chart “How Objects                         Works,
than “Everybody                                 Zig-zag                     Move” and list the movements.                                Grade Two,
knows that…” or “I        Applying Evidence                                    As students demonstrate and describe                       Energy and
just know” and dis-         and Reasoning      3.1.B.1.a.                    record the name on the song or game and                      Motion
count such reasons      Students must support Develop explanations           then engage the class in a discussion of                     unit.
when given by others. their statements with    using knowledge pos-          the movement. Record the motion in the
facts and evidence and sessed and evidence           terms listed in the objective. Help stu-
3.1.C.1.                ask, “How do you       from observations, re-        dents understand that these for categories
Students are able to:   know?” when others     liable print resources,       classify movement.
Recognize that clear    make unsubstantiated   and investigations.            Straight – Head, Shoulders, Knees, and
communication is an     statements or claims.                                   Toes (song), relay race (game)
essential part of doing                        3.1.C.1.c.                     Round and Round – Duck, Duck,
science because it en-       Communicate       Submit work to the               Goose (game)
ables scientists to in-         Scientific     critique of others.            Back and forth – playing on the swing,
form others about their       Information                                       Tug of War
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
work, expose their           Science is a collabora-                                  Zig-zag – roller skating, tag game
ideas to criticism by        tive effort that requires      3.1.C.1.d.
other scientists, and        the ability to com-            Construct and share        Note: Students may only think of
stay informed about          municate ideas and             reasonable explana-      movement as going from point A to point
scientific discoveries       share information with         tions for questions      B. Discuss movements in which objects
around the world.            fidelity and clarity,          asked.                   change direction, speed up or slow down.
with understanding.

3.5.A.1.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.1.a.               How can we describe the traffic going by       Introducing    Ask the art
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Describe the position    on the street?                                                teacher to
Cite evidence from           is caused by force.            of an object by locat-     Discuss the concept of perspective. As                      come to the
observations to de-          Force is the push or           ing it relative to an-   they look around the room their eyes rec-                     class to
scribe the motion of an      pull on an object. Mo-         other object or to the   ognize distance. They can describe what                       discuss and
object using position        tion is described as a         background.              they see in the foreground (up close) and                     demon-
and speed.                   change in position and                                  in the background. Give the students                          strate per-
speed is a change in                                    drawing paper and have them draw a sce-                       spective.
3.1.B.1.                     position over time.                                     ne that shows perspective. For example,
Students are able to:                                                                a still life of fruit in front of a vase of
Seek better reasons for                                                              flowers with a curtained window in the
believing something            Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.                          background.
than “Everybody                  and Reasoning      Develop explanations               Go to a location where the class can
knows that…” or “I           Students must support using knowledge pos-              watch traffic moving along the street (or
just know” and dis-          their statements with  sessed and evidence              get a video of street traffic, an athletic
count such reasons           facts and evidence and from observations, re-           event, movement in space and of a space-
when given by others.        ask, “How do you       liable print resources,          craft re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere,
know?” when others     and investigations.              skydivers, including free fall parachute
3.1.C.1.                     make unsubstantiated                                    drops.) Ask students how they sense mo-
Students are able to:        statements or claims.                                   tion in the scene they are watching.
Recognize that clear                                                                   Ask the students to describe motion of
communication is an              Communicate                3.1.C.1.c.               the car, truck, or bus using the buildings
essential part of doing            Scientific               Submit work to the       (or objects) in the background as a refer-
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                             Focus
science because it en-             Information              critique of others.        ence point(s). If you are able to find a
ables scientists to in-      Science is a collabora-                                   video of movement in space, point out
form others about their      tive effort that requires                                 that it is hard to register motion unless an
work, expose their           the ability to com-            3.1.C.1.d.                 object (like earth) as a reference point.
ideas to criticism by        municate ideas and             Construct and share
other scientists, and        share information with         reasonable explana-
stay informed about          fidelity and clarity,          tions for questions
around the world.            with understanding.

3.5.A.1.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.1.b.                 How fast or slow to things go?                  Developing     STARS
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Using information             Students will work with a partner or in                     Pushes and
Cite evidence from           is caused by force.            from multiple trials,      teams. Show the class a collection of toy                      Pulls,
observations to de-          Force is the push or           compare the speeds         cars and toy trucks. Tell the class that you                   Down the
scribe the motion of an      pull on an object. Mo-         (faster or slower) of      are interested in finding out which cars or                    Ramp.
object using position        tion is described as a         objects that travel the    trucks are fast or faster ( the flip side is
and speed.                   change in position and         same distance in dif-      slow or slower). Point out that in order to                    Discovery
speed is a change in           ferent amounts of          be a “fair race” each vehicle must travel                      Works,
position over time.            time.                      over the same distance.                                        Grade 3,
Teams can decide how long to make its                       Matter, En-
3.1.A.1.                           Constructing             3.1.A.1.b.                 track and how to lay out the track. There                      ergy and
Students are able to:               Knowledge               Select and use appro-      are a number of variables in the testing                       Forces,
Gather and question          For any given collec-          priate tools hand lens     procedure that the students should consid-                     Gravity
information from             tion of evidence, it is        or microscope (magni-      er e.g., flat surface or down a ramp, the                      Roll, pages
many different forms         usually possible to in-        fiers), centimeter ruler   height of the ramp, amount of force used                       C62-C63.
of scientific investiga-     vent different explana-        (length, spring scale      in the push. Do not set limits on how the
tions which include          tions, and it is not al-       (weight), balance          cars or trucks are tested. Do discuss the                      Discovery
reviewing appropriate        ways easy to tell              (mass), Celsius ther-      importance of conducting at least three                        Works,
print resources, ob-         which will prove to be         mometer (tempera-          trials of each vehicle and recording data                      Grade 3,
serving what things          best. For this reason,         ture), graduated cylin-    on each trial.                                                 Matter, En-
are like or what is          it is important to pay         der (liquid volume),          As teams gather data, ask them to share                     ergy and
happening somewhere,         attention to ideas that        and stopwatch              them with the class. Ask questions that                        Forces,
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                    Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                Focus
collecting specimens         differ from ones own.          (elapsed time) to aug-     make clear the testing procedure used.                           Roll On,
for analysis, and doing                                     ment observations of       For example, a team might report that its                        pages C60-
experiments.                                                objects, events, and       red car is the fastest. Another team will                        C61.
processes.                 surely argue that its green car is the fast-
est. Suggest testing the cars against each                       Discovery
3.1.A.1.c.                 other. At this point differences in the pro-                     Works,
Explain that compari-      cedure will become apparent. Discuss the                         Grade 3,
sons of data might not     need to test each car under the same con-                        Science
be fair because some       ditions. Trials can be done using each                           and Math
conditions are not kept    procedural set up (if there are differences).                    Tool Box,
the same.                  Point out that this in the only way to en-                       Making a
sure a “fair test.”                                              Char to
3.1.A.1.f.                   Note: Do not go beyond the parameters                          Organize
Identify possible rea-     of the objective at this level. Students will                    Data,
results from investiga-      Students should use comparative ex-
tions including unex-      pression such as, fast, faster, fastest, slow,
pected differences in      slower, slowest, high, higher (ramp de-
the differences in the     scriptors).
methods used or in the       Students at this level should be able to
circumstances in           design and draw a data table. If not, take
which the investiga-       the time to work with them to decide what
tion is carried out, and   information is needed and then give out
sometimes just be-         straight edges and take the time to teach
cause of uncertainties     them how to draw the data table in their
in observations.           science journals.

3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.
Students are able to:               Scientific              Make use of and ana-
Recognize that clear               Information              lyze models, such as
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        tables and graphs to
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      summarize and inter-
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                             Focus
science because it en-       the ability to com-            pret data.
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and
form others about their      share information with 3.1.C.1.d.
work, expose their           fidelity and clarity,  Construct and share
ideas to criticism by        and to read and listen reasonable explana-
other scientists, and        with understanding.    tions for questions
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.A.1.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.1.c.                 How do we measure water in motion?             Introducing    Discovery
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Using information            Give each team a smooth board, a drop-                      Works,
Cite evidence from           is caused by force.            from multiple trials,      per, and a stopwatch (see grade 3, Unit C                     Grade 3,
observations to de-          Force is the push or           compare the distances      kit). Cover each board with a sheet of                        Matter, En-
scribe the motion of an      pull on an object. Mo-         that objects moving at     wax paper. Have each team draw a start-                       ergy and
object using position        tion is described as a         different speeds travel    ing line on the waxed paper with a crayon.                    Forces,
and speed.                   change in position and         in the same amount of      Put one end of the board on books about                       Unit C Ma-
speed is a change in           time.                      10 cm high. Show how to use the stop-                         terials Kit.
position over time.                                       watch. Tell the class that they will time
the motion of a drop of water for 4 se-
3.1.A.1.                           Constructing             3.1.A.1.b.                 conds. Direct students to put a drop of wa-
Students are able to:               Knowledge               Select and use appro-      ter on the starting line. Time for 4 se-
Gather and question          For any given collec-          priate tools hand lens     conds and draw a line where it is after 4
information from             tion of evidence, it is        or microscope (magni-      seconds.. Write Trial #1 on the wax pa-
many different forms         usually possible to in-        fiers), centimeter ruler   per. Repeat this at least three times.
of scientific investiga-     vent different explana-        (length, spring scale      Mark the 4 second placement of the drop
tions which include          tions, and it is not al-       (weight), balance          and record the Trial # on the wax paper.
reviewing appropriate        ways easy to tell              (mass), Celsius ther-        Repeat this activity at least three more
print resources, ob-         which will prove to be         mometer (tempera-          times but time the drop for 8 seconds.
serving what things          best. For this reason,         ture), graduated cylin-      Add more books to make the ramp
are like or what is          it is important to pay         der (liquid volume),       higher. Repeat the previous two activities
happening somewhere,         attention to ideas that        and stopwatch              on the steeper ramp for 4 seconds and
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
collecting specimens         differ from ones own.          (elapsed time) to aug-     then 8 seconds. Compare the distances
for analysis, and doing                                     ment observations of       traveled at the two different amounts of
experiments.                                                objects, events, and       time and the two different ramp heights.
processes.                   Discuss the data the students collected.
Ask, “Did the water drops move at the
3.1.A.1.f.                 same speed (distance over time) at both
Identify possible rea-     ramp heights?” (No, both the 4 second
sons for differences in    drop and the 8 second drop moved faster
results from investiga-    on the steeper ramp and hence went far-
tions including unex-      ther for the same amount of time. Ramp
pected differences in      height caused the distance traveled
the differences in the     change.)
methods used or in the
circumstances in
which the investiga-
tion is carried out, and
sometimes just be-
cause of uncertainties
in observations.

3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.
Students are able to:                Scientific             Make use of and ana-
Recognize that clear               Information              lyze models, such as
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        tables and graphs to
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      summarize and inter-
science because it en-       the ability to com-            pret data.
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and
form others about their      share information with         3.1.C.1.d.
work, expose their           fidelity and clarity,          Construct and share
ideas to criticism by        and to read and listen         reasonable explana-
other scientists, and        with understanding.            tions for questions
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                    Sample Item or Task                   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                Focus
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.A.1.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.1.c.                 How far can your truck or car go in X            Developing     STARS
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Using information          number of seconds?                                              Pushes and
Cite evidence from           is caused by force.            from multiple trials,        This investigation is essentially the                         Pulls,
observations to de-          Force is the push or           compare the distances      same as the previous one. But now time                          Down the
scribe the motion of an      pull on an object. Mo-         that objects moving at     is a variable. Use the ramp, stopwatch                          Ramp.
object using position        tion is described as a         different speeds travel    and the cars and trucks used before. Each
and speed.                   change in position and         in the same amount of      team can decide on the amount of time to                        Discovery
speed is a change in           time.                      be used. When students try to compare                           Works,
position over time.                                       the vehicles, they must be tested for the                       Grade 3,
same amount of time.                                            Matter, En-
3.1.A.1.                           Constructing             3.1.A.1.b.                   Ask students to bring in more wheeled                         ergy and
Students are able to:               Knowledge               Select and use appro-      vehicles from home. Balls of different                          Forces,
Gather and question          For any given collec-          priate tools hand lens     sizes and mass can also be tested.                              Gravity
information from             tion of evidence, it is        or microscope (magni-                                                                      Roll, pages
many different forms         usually possible to in-        fiers), centimeter ruler     Note: Do not go beyond the parameters                         C62-C63.
of scientific investiga-     vent different explana-        (length, spring scale      of the objective at this level. Students will
tions which include          tions, and it is not al-       (weight), balance          return to this concept in fifth grade.                          Discovery
reviewing appropriate        ways easy to tell              (mass), Celsius ther-        Students should use comparative ex-                           Works,
print resources, ob-         which will prove to be         mometer (tempera-          pression such as, far, farther, farthest,                       Grade 3,
serving what things          best. For this reason,         ture), graduated cylin-    high, higher (ramp descriptors).                                Matter, En-
are like or what is          it is important to pay         der (liquid volume),                                                                       ergy and
happening somewhere,         attention to ideas that        and stopwatch                                                                              Forces,
collecting specimens         differ from ones own.          (elapsed time) to aug-                                                                     Roll On,
for analysis, and doing                                     ment observations of                                                                       pages C60-
experiments.                                                objects, events, and                                                                       C61.
processes.

3.1.A.1.f.
Identify possible rea-
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”         Instructional                            Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                      Focus
sons for differences in
results from investiga-
tions including unex-
pected differences in
3.1.C.1.                                          the differences in the
Students are able to:                             methods used or in the
Recognize that clear                              circumstances in
communication is an         Communicate           which the investiga-
essential part of doing         Scientific        tion is carried out, and
science because it en-        Information         sometimes just be-
ables scientists to in- Science is a collabora- cause of uncertainties
form others about their tive effort that requires in observations.
work, expose their      the ability to com-
ideas to criticism by   municate ideas and        3.1.C.1.d.
other scientists, and   share information with Construct and share
stay informed about     fidelity and clarity,     reasonable explana-
scientific discoveries  and to read and listen    tions for questions
around the world.       with understanding.       asked.

K.5.A.2.                            Mechanics               K.5.A.2.a.                How can the motion of an object be             Maintaining     Discovery
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Observe and describe      changed?                                                       Works,
Explain that there           is caused by force.            the ways in which a         Give each team or pair of students a                         Kindergar-
must be a cause for          Force is the push or           variety of objects’ mo-   3 ”x 5” index card and a marble. Demon-                        ten,
changes in the motion        pull on an object. Mo-         tion can be changed.      strate how to crease about 2 cm on each                        Pushes and
of an object                 tion is described as a          Sped up from a          side of the file card to make the sides of a                   Pulls.
change in position and             stand still           ramp. Place one end of the “ramp” on a
3.1.A.1.                     speed is a change in            Slow down to a          book to make an inclined surface.                              Discovery
Students are able to:        position over time.                stop                    Challenge the pairs or teams of students                     Works,
Gather and question                                          Go faster               to move the marble in as many ways as                          Grade 2
information from                 Constructing                Go slower               they can without touching it. They may                         Energy and
many different forms              Knowledge                  No change               release it at the top of the ramp and from                     Motion,
of scientific investiga-     For any given collec-           Change direction        them on they can’t touch it (they may                          Exploring
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                    Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                               Focus
tions which include          tion of evidence, it is                                   blow on it).                                                   Pushes,
reviewing appropriate        usually possible to in-        3.1.A.1.a.                   After about five minutes of exploration,                     pages B48-
print resources, ob-         vent different explana-        Support statements         ask how they made the marble speed up                          B51.
serving what things          tions, and it is not al-       with facts found in        from a standstill. Have students share
are like or what is          ways easy to tell              books, articles, and       what they have done. Ask how the marble                        Discovery
happening somewhere,         which will prove to be         databases, and identify    slowed down to a stop. If no one re-                           Works,
collecting specimens         best. For this reason,         the sources used and       sponds. Tell them to release the marble                        Grade 2
for analysis, and doing      it is important to pay         expect others to do the    from the top of the ramp and observe what                      Energy and
experiments.                 attention to ideas that        same.                      occurs with out their doing anything.                          Motion,
differ from ones own.                                       Write the following on a chart, chalk                        Resource
Explain that compari-       Make the marble go faster.                                   Forces and
sons of data might not      Make the marble go slower.                                   Motion,
be fair because some        Make the marble change direction.                            pages B52-
conditions are not kept                                                                   B54.
the same.                    Ask teams to share and or demonstrate
how they accomplished all the motion
3.1.A.1.f.                 changes asked for. After a class discus-
Identify possible rea-     sion, ask the students to write a brief con-
sons for differences in    structed response (BCR) on the following,
results from investiga-    “How were you able to change the direc-
tions including unex-      tion or speed of the marble?” Suggest that
pected differences in      they make labeled drawings and then
the differences in the     write captions explaining how they were
methods used or in the     able to make the changes in motion.
circumstances in
which the investiga-
tion is carried out, and
3.1.C.1.                                                    sometimes just be-
Students are able to:                                       cause of uncertainties
Recognize that clear                                        in observations.
communication is an              Communicate
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                           Focus
essential part of doing              Scientific             3.1.C.1.c.
science because it en-             Information              Submit work to the
ables scientists to in-      Science is a collabora-        critique of others.
form others about their      tive effort that requires
work, expose their           the ability to com-            3.1.C.1.d.
ideas to criticism by        municate ideas and             Construct and share
other scientists, and        share information with         reasonable explana-
stay informed about          fidelity and clarity,          tions for questions
around the world.            with understanding.

3.5.A.2.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.2.a.                Observe and describe objects on the            Developing     Writing in
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Observe and describe      move.                                                         Science,
Explain that changes         is caused by force.            the way an object’s         Display an assortment of items such as,                     examples and
in the ways objects          Force is the push or           motion changes in a       balls of various sizes, yo-yos, wind-up                       stems
move are caused by           pull on an object. Mo-         variety of situations     toys. Pictures of athletes in action can
forces.                      tion is described as a         (rolling a ball, bounc-   also be used.
change in position and         ing a ball, dropping a      Students should work in pairs. Give
speed is a change in           yo-yo, winding up a       each pair a ball, yo-yo or wind-up toy.
position over time.            toy, etc.) and identify   Have them work together to move the
what may have caused      object in as many different ways they can
the change.               imagine and do physically.
After working with the object each pair
3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.b.                of students is to produce a product that
Students are able to:                Scientific             Avoid choosing and        introduces the object in motion to a person
Recognize that clear               Information              reporting only the data   who has never had any prior experience
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        that show what is ex-     with the object. For example: they could
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      pected by the person      write and illustrate the object’s motion so
science because it en-       the ability to com-            doing the choosing.       that a student with limited vision could
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and                                       “see” the object in motion. Students may
form others about their      share information with         3.1.C.1.c.                write a poem, news report, song, rap, or
work, expose their           fidelity and clarity,          Submit work to the        another product you accept.
Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 5 Mechanics (On the Move!)                                                                                              14/43
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
ideas to criticism by        and to read and listen         critique of others.
other scientists, and        with understanding.
scientific discoveries                                      Recognize that doing
around the world.                                           science involves many
different kinds of work
and engages men and
women of all ages and
backgrounds.

3.5.A.2.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.2.b.                How do surfaces differ and what is the          Developing     STARS
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Describe changes in       result?                                                        Pushes and
Explain that changes         is caused by force.            the motion of objects       For this investigation you will need a                       Pulls,
in the ways objects          Force is the push or           as they move across       1”x 6” piece of board about 1 meter long                       Surfaces
move are caused by           pull on an object. Mo-         different textured sur-   (ramp), carpet samples, foam wrap, rubber                      and
forces.                      tion is described as a         faces and suggest pos-    treads, a towel, wax paper and a toy truck,                    Friction.
change in position and         sible causes for the      car or ball.
speed is a change in           change.                     Show all these materials to the class.                       Discovery
position over time.                                      Ask them to predict which surface they                         Works,
think will allow the truck, car or ball to                     Grade 3,
roll the farthest and which surface will                       Matter,
3.1.B.1.                       Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.                           cause the car to roll the least. Record pre-                   Energy and
Students are able to:            and Reasoning      Develop explanations              dictions in science journal.                                   Forces,
Seek better reasons for      Students must support using knowledge pos-                 Ask the students to design the testing                       Gravity
believing something          their statements with  sessed and evidence               apparatus. Each team needs to make a                           Roll, pages
than “Everybody              facts and evidence and from observations, re-            ramp of the same height (X number of                           C62-C63.
knows that…” or “I           ask, “How do you       liable print resources,           books high) with the surface to be tested
just know” and dis-          know?” when others     and investigations.               at the bottom. Have students work in                           Discovery
count such reasons           make unsubstantiated                                     teams to test their predictions using each                     Works,
when given by others.        statements or claims.  3.1.B.1.b.                        surface provided. Have them design a                           Grade 3,
Offer reasons for their           data collection table in their science jour-                   Matter,
findings and consider             nals.                                                          Energy and
Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 5 Mechanics (On the Move!)                                                                                               15/43
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                    Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                              Focus
reasons suggested by         Work with the class to determine what                        Forces,
others.                    they want to know and the information                          Roll On,
they need to include in the data table i.e.,                   pages C60-
3.1.B.1.d.                 distance traveled, type of surface, force                      C61.
Keep a notebook that       used to push the object, etc. See sample
describes observations     below.
guishes actual obser-
vations from ideas and                     Surface Tests
Surface          Distance Traveled
what was observed,
#1
and is understandable                      #2
weeks or months later.                     #3
#1
3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.                                 #2
Students are able to:                                       Make use of and ana-                       #3
Scientific
Recognize that clear               Information              lyze models, such as
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        tables and graphs to         Have teams post their results and ask the
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      summarize and inter-       class to compare their predictions to the
science because it en-       the ability to com-            pret data.                 results. Discuss the conditions that appear
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and                                        to have caused the changes observed.
form others about their      share information with         3.1.C.1.c.                 Draw a general conclusion that explains
work, expose their           fidelity and clarity,          Submit work to the         the relationship between distance traveled
ideas to criticism by        and to read and listen         critique of others.        and surface. Tell them that they most
other scientists, and        with understanding.                                       support their explanations with data from
stay informed about                                                                    the tests they conducted.
scientific discoveries                                                                   Students could retest the surfaces using
around the world.                                                                      the force system used in Roll On.

3.5.A.2.                           Mechanics                3.5.A.2.c.                 How do forces act on objects?                   Introducing    Discovery
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Observe and describe         In this investigation students will work                     Works,
Explain that changes         is caused by force.            that objects fall to the   in teams with bar magnets and paper clips.                     Grade 3,
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”           Instructional                          Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                     Focus
in the ways objects          Force is the push or   ground unless some-               Show the class a bar magnet and a hand-                        Matter,
move are caused by           pull on an object. Mo- thing holds them up               ful of paper clips. Direct each student to                     Energy and
forces.                      tion is described as a (gravity).                        predict the number of paper clips they can                     Forces ma-
change in position and                                   hang in a chain from the bar magnet.                           terials kit.
speed is a change in                                     Record predictions in science journals.
position over time.                                        Have each team member test his or her
prediction of the number of paper clips the
bar magnet can hold. Teams should rec-
ord data on a single class data table for
3.1.B.1.                       Applying Evidence            3.1.B.1.d.                easy comparison.
Students are able to:            and Reasoning              Keep a notebook that        Discuss the results/findings with the
Seek better reasons for      Students must support          describes observations    class. Ask students to describe the forces
believing something          their statements with          made, carefully distin-   acting on the paper clips (magnetic force
than “Everybody              facts and evidence and         guishes actual obser-     holds clip to bar magnet until the weight
knows that…” or “I           ask, “How do you               vations from ideas and    becomes to large then they fall). In sci-
just know” and dis-          know?” when others             speculations about        ence journals, students are to show the
count such reasons           make unsubstantiated           what was observed,        forces in drawings. Use arrows to show
when given by others.        statements or claims.          and is understandable     the direction in which the forces are act-
weeks or months later.    ing. Students need to understand that sev-
eral forces may act on one object at the
3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.                same time.
Students are able to:                Scientific             Make use of and ana-        Note: The force of gravity causes ob-
Recognize that clear               Information              lyze models, such as      jects to have weight. At this stage stu-
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        tables and graphs to      dents observe weight as a force and this is
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      summarize and inter-      sufficient. The concept of gravity is intro-
science because it en-       the ability to com-            pret data.                duced in fifth grade.
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and                                         Show the class a collection of objects
form others about their      share information with         3.1.C.1.d.                that can be held up by string or rubber
work, expose their           fidelity and clarity,          Construct and share       bands. If they are not held up, they fall.
ideas to criticism by        and to read and listen         reasonable explana-
other scientists, and        with understanding.            tions for questions
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                   Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                              Focus
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.A.2.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.2.c.                 Do objects fall to the ground?                  Developing     Bubble
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Observe and describe         Note: This activity is best done outside                     Formula
Explain that changes         is caused by force.            that objects fall to the   on a calm “high humidity” day (bubbles
in the ways objects          Force is the push or           ground unless some-        will last longer). If done in the classroom,
move are caused by           pull on an object. Mo-         thing holds them up        cover an open space of the floor with mul-
forces.                      tion is described as a         (gravity).                 tiple layers of newsprint.
change in position and                                      Have student work in teams. One team
speed is a change in                                      member at a time blows bubbles while the
position over time.                                       other team members observe the bubbles.
Non-blowing students are to take descrip-
tive notes on the action of the bubbles in
3.1.B.1.                       Applying Evidence            3.1.B.1.d.                 science journals. Continue until all stu-
Students are able to:            and Reasoning              Keep a notebook that       dents have blown some bubbles.
Seek better reasons for      Students must support          describes observations       Discuss the observations made by the
believing something          their statements with          made, carefully distin-    teams. Ask, “Were any teams able to pre-
than “Everybody              facts and evidence and         guishes actual obser-      vent the bubbles from falling? “What
knows that…” or “I           ask, “How do you               vations from ideas and     strategies (force) did you use to try and
just know” and dis-          know?” when others             speculations about         keep the bubbles up in the air?” (Blew on
count such reasons           make unsubstantiated           what was observed,         them, waved their hands…)
when given by others.        statements or claims.          and is understandable        Ask each team to test objects found in
weeks or months later.     the classroom. Answer the question, “Do
all objects fall to the ground?” Make a
3.1.C.1.                         Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.                 data table in science journals and record
Students are able to:               Scientific              Make use of and ana-       all test data. Have teams share test re-
Recognize that clear               Information              lyze models, such as       sults.
communication is an          Science is a collabora-        tables and graphs to         In science journals, students make anno-
essential part of doing      tive effort that requires      summarize and inter-       tated drawings showing the direction in
science because it en-       the ability to com-            pret data.                 which forces are acting (arrows). Air
ables scientists to in-      municate ideas and                                        drafts and gravity are the forces observed.
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”      Instructional                                Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                          Focus
form others about their share information with 3.1.C.1.d.                              Through direct observations, point out
work, expose their      fidelity and clarity,  Construct and share                     that even very light objects are pulled
ideas to criticism by   and to read and listen reasonable explana-                     down by a force.
other scientists, and   with understanding.    tions for questions
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.A.2.                            Mechanics               3.5.A.2.c.                 Does everything up in the air fall down?        Developing     STARS
Students are able to:        The motion of objects          Observe and describe         Ask the class the question show above.                       Wings and
Explain that changes         is caused by force.            that objects fall to the   Have them work in teams to discuss the                         Wheels,
in the ways objects          Force is the push or           ground unless some-        question and share their thinking. Suggest                     Exploring
move are caused by           pull on an object. Mo-         thing holds them up        that each team make a list of objects that                     the Proper-
forces.                      tion is described as a         (gravity).                 they have observed in the air/sky that have                    ties of Air.
change in position and                                    and have not fallen to earth/floor.
speed is a change in                                        Have teams brainstorm ideas about what                       STARS
position over time.                                       keeps objects that do not fall to the ground                   Wings and
up in the air. Only give an example if                         Wheels,
3.1.B.1.                       Applying Evidence            3.1.B.1.d.                 needed, e.g., birds do not fall to the                         Testing the
Students are able to:            and Reasoning              Keep a notebook that       ground. “Why?” (Other examples in-                             Flying T..
Seek better reasons for      Students must support          describes observations     clude helicopters, airplanes, kites, hot air
believing something          their statements with          made, carefully distin-    balloons, helium filled balloons.)                             STARS
than “Everybody              facts and evidence and         guishes actual obser-        Ask teams to share their thinking and                        Wings and
knows that…” or “I           ask, “How do you               vations from ideas and     examples. Have students record any ex-                         Wheels,
just know” and dis-          know?” when others             speculations about         amples that they have not already listed as                    Streamlin-
count such reasons           make unsubstantiated           what was observed,         a result of their team work. Structure the                     ing the
when given by others.        statements or claims.          and is understandable      discussion so that students identify the                       Wings.
weeks or months later.     forces at work and show these in science
3.1.C.1.                                                                               journals with arrows and a written de-                         STARS
Students are able to:            Communicate                3.1.C.1.a.                 scription.                                                     Wings and
Recognize that clear               Scientific               Make use of and ana-                                                                      Wheels,
communication is an               Information               lyze models, such as                                                                      Gliding
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”        Instructional                   Sample Item or Task   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                              Focus
essential part of doing Science is a collabora- tables and graphs to                                                        Through
science because it en- tive effort that requires summarize and inter-                                                       Air.
ables scientists to in- the ability to com-      pret data.
form others about their municate ideas and
work, expose their      share information with 3.1.C.1.d.
ideas to criticism by   fidelity and clarity,    Construct and share
other scientists, and   and to read and listen   reasonable explana-
stay informed about     with understanding.      tions for questions
around the world.

Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 5 Mechanics (On the Move!)                                                                     20/43
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Unit Six: Physics: B. Thermodynamics/From Hot to Cold
Quarter Three
(Days 111 - 125; three weeks)

MARYLAND SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS

5.0 Physics - Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter
and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

1.0 Skills and Processes – Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the prac-
tice of science.

MARYLAND SCIENCE INDICATORS

3.5.B.1.    Thermodynamics
 Recognize and describe that heat is transferred between objects that are at differ-
ent temperatures.

3.1.A.1.    Constructing Knowledge
 Gather and question information from many different forms of scientific investi-
gations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what
things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analy-
sis, and doing experiments.

3.1.B.1.    Applying Evidence and Reasoning
 Seek better reasons for believing something than “Everybody knows that…” or “I
just know” and discount such reasons when given by others.

3.1.C.1.    Communicate Scientific Information
 Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because
it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criti-
cism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the
world.

BCPSS SCIENCE CONTENT OBJECTIVES

Introducing and Developing
3.5.B.1.a.   Recognize and describe that the temperature of an object increases when
heat is added and decreases when heat is removed.

3.5.B.1.b.       Recognize and describe that heat will flow between objects at different
temperatures until they reach the same temperature.

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Maintaining
3.4.C.1.c.         Cite examples of similar changes that heating and cooling have on the ob-
servable properties of various other materials.

BCPSS SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESS OBJECTIVES

3.1.A.1.a.       Support statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and
identify the sources used and expect others to do the same.

3.1.A.1.b.       Select and use appropriate tools hand lens or microscope (magnifiers),
centimeter ruler (length, spring scale (weight), balance (mass), Celsius
thermometer (temperature), graduated cylinder (liquid volume), and stop-
watch (elapsed time) to augment observations of objects, events, and pro-
cesses.

3.1.B.1.a.       Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from ob-
servations, reliable print resources, and investigations.

3.1.B.1.b.       Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others.

3.1.B.1.d.       Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes
actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed,
and is understandable weeks or months later.

3.1.C.1.a.       Make use of and analyze models, such as tables and graphs to summarize
and interpret data.

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Quarter Three
Unit Six Physics: B. Thermodynamics/From Hot to Cold
(Days 111 – 125; three weeks)

Content Standard: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy trans-
formations that occur.

Indicators                 “Big Ideas”                Instructional                 Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
3.4.C.1.                       States of Matter        3.4.C.1.c.               Look back at baking cookies or making           Maintaining
Students are able to:      Matter exists as a sol-     Cite examples of simi-   ice cream.
Provide evidence from      id, a liquid or a gas.      lar changes that heat-     Students will review what they learned
investigations to de-      Material can change         ing and cooling have     in Unit 4 States of Matter. Ask the stu-
scribe the effect that     from one state to an-       on the observable        dents to write a paragraph that references
changes in tempera-        other when enough           properties of various    investigations done in class to describe the
ture have on the prop-     heat is added to it or      other materials.         effect that heating or cooling materials has
erties of materials.       taken away from it.                                  on observable changes in their properties.
Ask students to brainstorm examples of
3.1.B.1.                     Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.                       heating or cooling objects that do not
Students are able to:          and Reasoning      Develop explanations          make changes in the properties of materi-
Seek better reasons for    Students must support using knowledge pos-           als (warming hands on radiator, hands
believing something        their statements with  sessed and evidence           don’t get cooked or burned just warmed
than “Everybody            facts and evidence and from observations, re-        up).
knows that…” or “I         ask, “How do you       liable print resources,
just know” and dis-        know?” when others     and investigations.
count such reasons         make unsubstantiated
when given by others.      statements or claims.  3.1.B.1.b.
Offer reasons for their
findings and consider
reasons suggested by
others.

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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”            Instructional                       Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                  Focus
3.5.B.1.                       Thermodynamics       3.5.B.1.a.                     Can we add heat without changing the            Introducing    STARS
Students are able to:       Heat energy naturally Recognize and de-                properties of the material?                                    The Heat Is
Recognize and de-           flows from the warmer scribe that the temper-             For this demonstration you will need a                      On
scribe that heat is         substance to the cooler ature of an object in-         hot plate and sauce pan. Fill the pan with                     Reading
transferred between         substance.              creases when heat is           water, measure and record the temperature                      Tempera-
objects that are at dif-                            added and decreases            of the water. Bring the water to a boil.                       ture
ferent temperatures.                                when heat is removed.          Remove the pan from the hotplate and set
it on an insulated surface. Ask the stu-                       Discovery
3.1.A.1.                          Constructing          3.1.A.1.a.                 dents to predict what will happen to the                       Works,
Students are able to:              Knowledge            Support statements         temperature of the water.                                      Grade 4,
Gather and question         For any given collec-       with facts found in           Tell the students to write the prediction                    Matter,
information from            tion of evidence, it is     books, articles, and       and give their reasons in science journals.                    Energy and
many different forms        usually possible to in-     databases, and identify    Observe and record the temperature over                        Forces,
of scientific investiga-    vent different explana-     the sources used and       time.                                                          Bottle
tions which include         tions, and it is not al-    expect others to do the                                                                   Thermome-
reviewing appropriate       ways easy to tell           same.                                                                                     ter, pages
print resources, ob-        which will prove to be                                                                                                C40-C41.
serving what things         best. For this reason,      3.1.A.1.b.
are like or what is         it is important to pay      Select and use appro-                                                                     Discovery
happening somewhere,        attention to ideas that     priate tools hand lens                                                                    Works,
collecting specimens        differ from ones own.       or microscope (magni-                                                                     Grade 3,
for analysis, and doing                                 fiers), centimeter ruler                                                                  Science
experiments.                                            (length, spring scale                                                                     and Math
(weight), balance                                                                         Toolbox,
3.1.B.1.                      Applying Evidence         (mass), Celsius ther-                                                                     Using a
Students are able to:           and Reasoning           mometer (tempera-                                                                         Thermome-
Seek better reasons for     Students must support       ture), graduated cylin-                                                                   ter,
believing something         their statements with       der (liquid volume),                                                                      page H8.
than “Everybody             facts and evidence and      and stopwatch
knows that…” or “I          ask, “How do you            (elapsed time) to aug-
just know” and dis-         know?” when others          ment observations of
count such reasons          make unsubstantiated        objects, events, and
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Indicators                 “Big Ideas”               Instructional                 Sample Item or Task   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                             Focus
when given by others.      statements or claims.       processes.

3.1.B.1.a.
Develop explanations
using knowledge pos-
sessed and evidence
from observations, re-
liable print resources,
and investigations.

3.1.B.1.b.
Offer reasons for their
findings and consider
reasons suggested by
others.

3.1.B.1.d.
Keep a notebook that
3.1.C.1.                    Communicate           describes observations
Students are able to:           Scientific        made, carefully distin-
Recognize that clear          Information         guishes actual obser-
communication is an     Science is a collabora- vations from ideas and
essential part of doing tive effort that requires speculations about
science because it en- the ability to com-        what was observed,
ables scientists to in- municate ideas and        and is understandable
form others about their share information with weeks or months later.
work, expose their      fidelity and clarity,
ideas to criticism by   and to read and listen    3.1.C.1.a.
other scientists, and   with understanding.       Make use of and ana-
stay informed about                               lyze models, such as
scientific discoveries                            tables and graphs to
around the world.                                 summarize and inter-
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                               Focus
pret data.

3.5.B.1.                       Thermodynamics           3.5.B.1.a.                 How can heat be taken away?                      Introducing
Students are able to:       Heat energy naturally       Recognize and de-               Note: Start this investigation in the
Recognize and de-           flows from the warmer       scribe that the temper-    morning and have students record temper-
scribe that heat is         substance to the cooler     ature of an object in-     ature (and time) periodically for the entire
transferred between         substance.                  creases when heat is       day.
objects that are at dif-                                added and decreases          Give each team of students a thermome-
ferent temperatures.                                    when heat is removed.      ter, and one 240 ml (8 oz) plastic cup.
Pour warm water ( 40o C +-) into each
3.1.A.1.                          Constructing          3.1.A.1.a.                 team’s cup. The team should predict and
Students are able to:              Knowledge            Support statements         observe the how the temperature of the
Gather and question         For any given collec-       with facts found in        water changes. Record temperature
information from            tion of evidence, it is     books, articles, and       changes over time in science journals.
many different forms        usually possible to in-     databases, and identify      Ask students what heat and temperature
of scientific investiga-    vent different explana-     the sources used and       are. Get their ideas about how heat and
tions which include         tions, and it is not al-    expect others to do the    temperature are related. Through ques-
reviewing appropriate       ways easy to tell           same.                      tioning, help pupils explain why their pre-
print resources, ob-        which will prove to be                                 dictions matched or did not match the ob-
serving what things         best. For this reason,      3.1.A.1.b.                 servations they made.
are like or what is         it is important to pay      Select and use appro-        Note: Students can easily confuse heat
happening somewhere,        attention to ideas that     priate tools hand lens     and temperature. The distinction is that
collecting specimens        differ from ones own.       or microscope (magni-      heat is a quantity of energy and that tem-
for analysis, and doing                                 fiers), centimeter ruler   perature is the response of the material to
experiments.                                            (length, spring scale      the input (or loss) of energy. It is not nec-
(weight), balance          essary to pursue this concept at this level.
(mass), Celsius ther-
mometer (tempera-
der (liquid volume),
and stopwatch
(elapsed time) to aug-
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Indicators                 “Big Ideas”               Instructional                 Sample Item or Task   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                            Focus
ment observations of
objects, events, and
processes.

3.1.B.1.                     Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.
Students are able to:          and Reasoning      Develop explanations
Seek better reasons for    Students must support using knowledge pos-
believing something        their statements with  sessed and evidence
than “Everybody            facts and evidence and from observations, re-
knows that…” or “I         ask, “How do you       liable print resources,
just know” and dis-        know?” when others     and investigations.
count such reasons         make unsubstantiated
when given by others.      statements or claims.  3.1.B.1.b.
Offer reasons for their
findings and consider
reasons suggested by
others.

3.1.B.1.d.
Keep a notebook that
describes observations
Students are able to:           Scientific        guishes actual obser-
Recognize that clear          Information         vations from ideas and
communication is an     Science is a collabora- speculations about
essential part of doing tive effort that requires what was observed,
science because it en- the ability to com-        and is understandable
ables scientists to in- municate ideas and        weeks or months later.
form others about their share information with
work, expose their      fidelity and clarity,     3.1.C.1.a.
ideas to criticism by   and to read and listen    Make use of and ana-
other scientists, and   with understanding.       lyze models, such as
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                              Focus
stay informed about                                     tables and graphs to
scientific discoveries                                  summarize and inter-
around the world.                                       pret data.

3.5.B.1.                       Thermodynamics           3.5.B.1.a.                 What happens to a bowl of ice water if          Introducing
Students are able to:       Heat energy naturally       Recognize and de-          we let it sit for a day?
Recognize and de-           flows from the warmer       scribe that the temper-      Note: Start this investigation in the
scribe that heat is         substance to the cooler     ature of an object in-     morning and have students record temper-
transferred between         substance.                  creases when heat is       ature (and time) periodically for the entire
objects that are at dif-                                added and decreases        day.
ferent temperatures.                                    when heat is removed.        Pose the question, “What happens to a
bowl of ice water if we let it sit for a
3.1.A.1.                          Constructing          3.1.A.1.a.                 day?” to the class and ask for their predic-
Students are able to:              Knowledge            Support statements         tions. Ask if their observations of the cup
Gather and question         For any given collec-       with facts found in        of hot water help them. Give each team
information from            tion of evidence, it is     books, articles, and       of students a thermometer, and one 240
many different forms        usually possible to in-     databases, and identify    ml (8 oz) plastic cup. Pour cold water (
of scientific investiga-    vent different explana-     the sources used and       10o C +-) into each team’s cup and add
tions which include         tions, and it is not al-    expect others to do the    several ice cubes.
reviewing appropriate       ways easy to tell           same.                        The team should predict and observe the
print resources, ob-        which will prove to be                                 how the temperature of the water changes.
serving what things         best. For this reason,      3.1.A.1.b.                 Record temperature changes over time in
are like or what is         it is important to pay      Select and use appro-      science journals. Discuss the temperature
happening somewhere,        attention to ideas that     priate tools hand lens     changes over time and ask them to look at
collecting specimens        differ from ones own.       or microscope (magni-      the data collected for hot water. Ask if
for analysis, and doing                                 fiers), centimeter ruler   they see any pattern(s) in the data.
experiments.                                            (length, spring scale        It may be necessary to make a class data
(weight), balance          table (showing both hot and cold water)
(mass), Celsius ther-      that is representative of the individual
mometer (tempera-          team’s data. Students can then discuss
ture), graduated cylin-    one set of uniform data.
der (liquid volume),
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Indicators                 “Big Ideas”                Instructional                Sample Item or Task   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                            Focus
and stopwatch
(elapsed time) to aug-
ment observations of
objects, events, and
processes.

3.1.B.1.                     Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.
Students are able to:          and Reasoning      Develop explanations
Seek better reasons for    Students must support using knowledge pos-
believing something        their statements with  sessed and evidence
than “Everybody            facts and evidence and from observations, re-
knows that…” or “I         ask, “How do you       liable print resources,
just know” and dis-        know?” when others     and investigations.
count such reasons         make unsubstantiated
when given by others.      statements or claims.  3.1.B.1.b.
Offer reasons for their
findings and consider
reasons suggested by
others.

3.1.B.1.d.
Keep a notebook that
3.1.C.1.                    Communicate           describes observations
Students are able to:           Scientific        made, carefully distin-
Recognize that clear          Information         guishes actual obser-
communication is an     Science is a collabora- vations from ideas and
essential part of doing tive effort that requires speculations about
science because it en- the ability to com-        what was observed,
ables scientists to in- municate ideas and        and is understandable
form others about their share information with weeks or months later.
work, expose their      fidelity and clarity,
ideas to criticism by   and to read and listen    3.1.C.1.a.
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Indicators                  “Big Ideas”                Instructional                   Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                              Focus
other scientists, and       with understanding.         Make use of and ana-
stay informed about                                     lyze models, such as
scientific discoveries                                  tables and graphs to
around the world.                                       summarize and inter-
pret data.

3.5.B.1.                       Thermodynamics           3.5.B.1.b.                 Can we observe the flow of heat?                Developing     Flow of
Students are able to:       Heat energy naturally       Recognize and de-            In this investigation, students will put a                   Heat
Recognize and de-           flows from the warmer       scribe that heat will      covered cup of hot water inside a larger                       Energy
scribe that heat is         substance to the cooler     flow between objects       cup of cold water, measure the tempera-
transferred between         substance.                  at different tempera-      ture of each and observe the temperature                       Heat: The
objects that are at dif-                                tures until they reach     of both become the same. Each team will                        Flow of
ferent temperatures.                                    the same temperature.      need two thermometers, two cups, and                           Energy
hot and cold water. Refer to the Flow of                       from One
3.1.A.1.                          Constructing          3.1.A.1.a.                 Heat Energy resource.                                          Thing to
Students are able to:              Knowledge            Support statements           When the temperatures stop changing,                         Another
Gather and question         For any given collec-       with facts found in        read and record the temperatures in sci-                       (03:11)
information from            tion of evidence, it is     books, articles, and       ence notebooks. Through questioning,
many different forms        usually possible to in-     databases, and identify    help students explain that heat flowed
of scientific investiga-    vent different explana-     the sources used and       from the hot water (it cooled
tions which include         tions, and it is not al-    expect others to do the    down/temperature went down). I know
reviewing appropriate       ways easy to tell           same.                      this because the cold water got warmer
print resources, ob-        which will prove to be                                 (the temperature went up). Write one or
serving what things         best. For this reason,      3.1.A.1.b.                 two sentences that describe what the tem-
are like or what is         it is important to pay      Select and use appro-      perature readings tell you.
happening somewhere,        attention to ideas that     priate tools hand lens       Ask, how much did the hot water drop?
collecting specimens        differ from ones own.       or microscope (magni-      How will you find out? How much did
for analysis, and doing                                 fiers), centimeter ruler   the temperature of the cold water in-
experiments.                                            (length, spring scale      crease? How will you find out?
(weight), balance
(mass), Celsius ther-
mometer (tempera-
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Indicators                 “Big Ideas”                Instructional                 Sample Item or Task              Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                       Focus
der (liquid volume),                Temperature Table
and stopwatch
(elapsed time) to aug-        Sample           Start      Stop
ment observations of       Hot water “A”
objects, events, and       Cold water “B”
processes.
Note: View and discuss the video clip
3.1.B.1.                     Applying Evidence 3.1.B.1.a.                        at the end of the unit.
Students are able to:          and Reasoning      Develop explanations
Seek better reasons for    Students must support using knowledge pos-
believing something        their statements with  sessed and evidence
than “Everybody            facts and evidence and from observations, re-
knows that…” or “I         ask, “How do you       liable print resources,
just know” and dis-        know?” when others     and investigations.
count such reasons         make unsubstantiated
when given by others.      statements or claims.  3.1.B.1.b.
Offer reasons for their
findings and consider
reasons suggested by
others.

3.1.B.1.d.
Keep a notebook that
3.1.C.1.                    Communicate           describes observations
Students are able to:          Scientific         made, carefully distin-
Recognize that clear          Information         guishes actual obser-
communication is an     Science is a collabora- vations from ideas and
essential part of doing tive effort that requires speculations about
science because it en- the ability to com-        what was observed,
ables scientists to in- municate ideas and        and is understandable
form others about their share information with weeks or months later.
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Indicators                 “Big Ideas”                 Instructional               Sample Item or Task   Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                           Focus
work, expose their         fidelity and clarity,
ideas to criticism by      and to read and listen      3.1.C.1.a.
other scientists, and      with understanding.         Make use of and ana-
stay informed about                                    lyze models, such as
scientific discoveries                                 tables and graphs to
around the world.                                      summarize and inter-
pret data.

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Unit Seven: Physics: D. Wave Interactions/Sound Effects
Quarter Three
(Days 126 - 135; two weeks)

MARYLAND SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS

5.0 Physics - Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter
and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

1.0 Skills and Processes – Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the prac-
tice of science.

MARYLAND SCIENCE INDICATORS

3.5.D.2.     Wave Interactions
 Identify and describe the relationship between a sound and the vibrations that
produce it.

3.1.A.1.     Constructing Knowledge
 Gather and question information from many different forms of scientific investi-
gations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what
things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analy-
sis, and doing experiments.

3.1.B.1.     Applying Evidence and Reasoning
 Seek better reasons for believing something than “Everybody knows that…” or “I
just know” and discount such reasons when given by others.

3.1.C.1.     Communicate Scientific Information
 Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because
it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criti-
cism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the
world.

BCPSS SCIENCE CONTENT OBJECTIVES

Introducing and Developing
3.5.D.2.a.   Based on observations of objects that produce sound, relate vibration to
the back and forth motion of parts of the object.

3.5.D.2.b.        Pose questions concerning the relationship between loudness or pitch and
the vibration of an object.

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BCPSS SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESS OBJECTIVES

3.1.A.1.a.        Support investigative findings with data found in books, articles, and data-
bases, and identify the sources used and expect others to do the same.

3.1.B.1.a.        Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from ob-
servations, reliable print resources, and investigations.

3.1.B.1.b.        Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others.

3.1.B.1.d.        Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes
actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed,
and is understandable weeks or months later.

3.1.C.1.d.        Construct and share reasonable explanations for questions asked.

3.1.C.1.e.        Recognize that doing science involves many different kinds of work and
engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.

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Quarter Three
Unit Seven Physics: D. Wave Interactions/Sound Effects
(Days 126 – 135; two weeks)
Content Standard: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy trans-
formations that occur.

Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                What can we hear walking around the             Introducing    Introduc-
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations     school?                                                        tion
(01:23)
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce     Tell the students that they will take a
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      listening walk around the school starting
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     in the classroom. They are to keep very
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     quiet during the activity. Tell them they
it.                                                         of the object.            will talk about the sounds they heard
3.1.B.1.                        Applying Evidence          3.1.B.1.a.                   Discuss what was heard as they walked
Students are able to:             and Reasoning            Develop explanations       around the building. Students may record
Seek better reasons for       Scientific discussions       using knowledge pos-       the sounds in science journals.
believing something           must be grounded in          sessed and evidence          Note: Hearing impaired students will
than “Everybody               observations and data.       from observations, re-     need support in this unit. Visual demon-
knows that…” or “I            These form the evi-          liable print resources,    strations and attention to the vibrations as
just know” and dis-           dence needed to argue        and investigations.        sounds are produced will help. It is im-
count such reasons            a conclusion or to pre-                                 portant that children be sensitive to those
when given by others.         sent a new idea.              3.1.B.1.d.                who are hearing impaired.
Keep a notebook that
describes observations
guishes actual obser-
vations from ideas and
what was observed,
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
and is understandable
weeks or months later.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                Can you identify that sound?                   Introducing    Discovery
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations       Ask the music teacher if she or he has a                    Works,
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce   tape of familiar sounds e.g., car engine,                     Grade 2,
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      birds singing, children singing, a piano                      Energy and
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     playing, footsteps, a water faucet running,                   Motion,
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     and to identify what they are. Record dif-                    Teaching
it.                                                         of the object.            ferent students in the class speaking and                     Guide,
ask classmates to identify who they are.                      Name That
3.1.B.1.                        Applying Evidence           3.1.B.1.b.                  Discuss what it was about the sound or                      Sound,
Students are able to:             and Reasoning             Offer reasons for their   voice that enabled them to identify.                          page B64.
Seek better reasons for       Scientific discussions        findings and consider
believing something           must be grounded in           reasons suggested by                                                                    Meaning
(02:03)
than “Everybody               observations and data.        others.
knows that…” or “I            These form the evi-
just know” and dis-           dence needed to argue
count such reasons            a conclusion or to pre-
when given by others.         sent a new idea.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                How do musical instruments make                Developing
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations     sounds?
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce     Students will work in groups to explore
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      a range of simple musical instruments
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     such as drums, triangles, xylophone, cas-
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     tanets, stringed instrument, recorders, and
it.                                                         of the object.            other objects such as rattles, spoons card-
board to find out how these objects make
3.1.C.1.                          Communicate               3.1.C.1.d.                sounds. Note: Ask the music teacher for
Students are able to:               Scientific              Construct and share       some instruments.
Recognize that clear               Information              reasonable explana-         Ask students to discuss how they made
Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 7 Wave Interactions (Sound Effects)                                                                                      36/43
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”       Instructional                             Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                      Focus
communication is an     Science is a collabora- tions for questions                   sounds. Did they shake, pluck, bang, or
essential part of doing tive effort that requires asked.                              blow them? Through questioning, help
science because it en- investigators to share                                         the students classify the instruments by
ables scientists to in- information and care-                                         how they made sound. List the “produc-
form others about their ful descriptions that                                         tion” descriptors on a chart and list the
work, expose their      are as detailed as pos-                                       instruments in the correct category. Point
ideas to criticism by   sible.                                                        out to the class that each of the ways they
other scientists, and                                                                 got the musical instrument to make sound
stay informed about                                                                   required a “force” such as a bang, tap,
scientific discoveries                                                                pluck, blow (of air), or shake. Keep the
around the world.                                                                     chart for future reference.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                How can we describe the sounds of the          Developing     Music
(00:39)
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations     instruments?
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce     Give each group of students an instru-
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      ment from the previous day. Ask them to
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     explore the sounds made and to describe
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     the sound made by each instrument using
it.                                                         of the object.            words such as, high, low, loud, and quiet.
The descriptions of the instruments should
3.1.B.1.                        Applying Evidence           3.1.B.1.b.                be recorded in science journals.
Students are able to:             and Reasoning             Offer reasons for their     Ask groups to share their descriptions
Seek better reasons for       Scientific discussions        findings and consider     with the class. Ask the class to describe
believing something           must be grounded in           reasons suggested by      “noise” and “sound.” (They are the same
than “Everybody               observations and data.        others.                   but we usually refer to sounds we don’t
knows that…” or “I            These form the evi-                                     like as “noise.”) Suggest that students
just know” and dis-           dence needed to argue                                   make their own tape recording of sounds
count such reasons            a conclusion or to pre-                                 and include their descriptions. Provide
when given by others.         sent a new idea.                                        time to share tape recordings that the stu-
dents make.
3.1.C.1.                          Communicate               3.1.C.1.d.
Students are able to:               Scientific              Construct and share
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”        Instructional                            Sample Item or Task                Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                                     Focus
Recognize that clear          Information         reasonable explana-
communication is an     Science is a collabora- tions for questions
essential part of doing tive effort that requires asked.
science because it en- investigators to share
ables scientists to in- information and care-
form others about their ful descriptions that
work, expose their      are as detailed as pos-
ideas to criticism by   sible.
other scientists, and
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                How many ways can we make sounds?             Developing     Vibrations
(01:57)
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations       Have students work with a partner tak-
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce   ing turns making sounds. The partner
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      who is not making sound can record the
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     way the sound was made such as, talking,
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     whistling, humming, clapping, stomping.
it.                                                         of the object.              Ask them to feel their faces and throats
while they are talking or singing and
3.1.C.1.                           Communicate              3.1.C.1.d.                while they are not making sound. It is not
Students are able to:                Scientific             Construct and share       essential to introduce the work “vibrate”
Recognize that clear                Information             reasonable explana-       at this stage.
communication is an           Science is a collabora-       tions for questions
essential part of doing       tive effort that requires     asked.
science because it en-        investigators to share
ables scientists to in-       information and care-
form others about their       ful descriptions that
work, expose their            are as detailed as pos-
ideas to criticism by         sible.
other scientists, and
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                             Focus
scientific discoveries
around the world.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                How are sounds made?                            Developing     Sound and
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations       In this investigation, students will ob-                     Motion
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce   serve that sound is caused by the vibration
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      of an object (tuning fork). Refer to the                       Discovery
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     Sound and Motion resource. Students will                       Works,
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     work in teams, make and record observa-                        Grade 2,
it.                                                         of the object.            tions and illustrations in science journals.                   Energy and
Motion,
3.1.A.1.                           Constructing             3.1.A.1.a.                                                                               Observing
Students are able to:               Knowledge               Support investigative                                                                    Motion and
Gather and question           Science is grounded in        findings with data                                                                       Sound,
information from              observations and data         found in books, arti-                                                                    pages B30-
many different forms          from many sources.            cles, and databases,                                                                     B31.
of scientific investiga-      These form the evi-           and identify the
tions which include           dence needed to argue         sources used and ex-                                                                     Discovery
reviewing appropriate         a conclusion or to pre-       pect others to do the                                                                    Works,
print resources, ob-          sent a new idea.              same.                                                                                    Grade 2,
serving what things                                                                                                                                  Energy and
are like or what is                                                                                                                                  Motion,
collecting specimens                                                                                                                                 Resource,
for analysis, and doing         Applying Evidence           3.1.B.1.d.                                                                               Wiggles
experiments.                      and Reasoning             Keep a notebook that                                                                     and Waves,
Students construct            describes observations                                                                   pages B32-
3.1.B.1.                      their understandings          made, carefully distin-                                                                  B33.
Students are able to:         over time and it is im-       guishes actual obser-
Seek better reasons for       portant that they have        vations from ideas and
believing something           a record of observa-          speculations about
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                  Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                             Focus
than “Everybody               tions to be reviewed          what was observed,
knows that…” or “I            and used as documen-          and is understandable
just know” and dis-           tation of positions and       weeks or months later.
count such reasons            conclusions taken.
when given by others.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.a.                Why does the rice jump and dance to the         Developing     Vibrating
Students are able to:         Sound is a type of en-        Based on observations     drum beat?                                                     Objects
Identify and describe         ergy detected by the          of objects that produce       In this investigation, students will ob-
the relationship be-          ears. Sound is made           sound, relate vibra-      serve that sound is produced when objects
tween a sound and the         by vibrating objects          tions to the back and     vibrate. Refer to the Vibrating Objects
vibrations that produce       and travels in waves.         forth motion of parts     resource. Students will rotate through
it.                                                         of the object.            centers: drum and rice, rubber bands, ra-
dio, voice box. They will work in teams,
3.1.B.1.                        Applying Evidence           3.1.B.1.d.                make and record observations and illustra-
Students are able to:             and Reasoning             Keep a notebook that      tions in science journals.
Seek better reasons for       Students construct            describes observations
believing something           their understandings          made, carefully distin-
than “Everybody               over time and it is im-       guishes actual obser-
knows that…” or “I            portant that they have        vations from ideas and
just know” and dis-           a record of observa-          speculations about
count such reasons            tions to be reviewed          what was observed,
when given by others.         and used as documen-          and is understandable
tation of positions and       weeks or months later.
conclusions taken.
3.1.C.1.
Students are able to:             Communicate               3.1.C.1.d.
Recognize that clear                 Scientific             Construct and share
communication is an                Information              reasonable explana-
essential part of doing       Students must be en-          tions for questions
ables scientists to in-       questions because
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Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
form others about their       questions are a starting
work, expose their            point in science. As
ideas to criticism by         their understanding of
other scientists, and         science grows, they
stay informed about           begin to develop ways
scientific discoveries        to answer the ques-
around the world.             tions.

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.b.                How can sounds be different?                   Developing     Pitch (03:25)
Students are able to:         The ear detects sounds        Pose questions con-         For this investigation you will need a                      Cue this
Identify and describe         as loud or soft and           cerning the relation-     variety of simple instruments or simple                       clip to the
the relationship be-          high or low. Unlike           ship between loudness     percussion instruments need to be con-                        review sec-
tion. You
tween a sound and the         light which can travel        or pitch and the vibra-   structed from cans, glasses, metal rods or
will get the
vibrations that produce       through the vacuum of         tion of an object.        other classroom materials. Provide time                       pitch sec-
it.                           space, sound waves                                      for the class to experiment with the in-                      tion with-
must travel through                                     struments by making different sounds.                         out seeing
3.1.A.1.                      matter, such as air,                                      Discuss the sounds that the students                        the vibra-
Students are able to:         water, wood, metal.                                     made. Ask teams to make a loud sound                          tion clip
Gather and question                                                                   and a soft. As the sounds are made, have                      again
information from                   Constructing             3.1.A.1.a.                other students put their hands over their                     Harmonic Se-
ries on a Vibrat-
many different forms                Knowledge               Support statements        ears if the sound is loud or the index fin-                   ing String (java
of scientific investiga-      Science is grounded in        with facts found in       ger of the mouth to indicate if they hear a                   applet) simula-
tion
tions which include           observations and data         books, articles, and      soft. Compile a list of objects that stu-
reviewing appropriate         from many sources.            databases, and identify   dents associate with being “loud” or                          Discovery
print resources, ob-          These form the evi-           the sources used and      “soft.”                                                       Works,
serving what things           dence needed to argue         expect others to do the   Now, ask teams to make a high-pitched                         Grade 2,
are like or what is           a conclusion or to pre-       same.                     sound and a low-pitched sound. As the                         Energy and
happening somewhere,          sent a new idea.                                        sounds are made, have other students put                      Motion,
collecting specimens                                                                  a thumb up or down to indicate if they                        Reading
for analysis, and doing                                                               hear a high-pitched sound or a low-                           Resource,
experiments.                                                                          pitched sound.                                                High and
Ask students to work with a partner or                      Low, Loud
Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 7 Wave Interactions (Sound Effects)                                                                                      41/43
4/9/2013
Maryland School Assessment limits shaded in yellow.

Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                           Focus
3.1.C.1.                          Communicate               3.1.C.1.d.                in teams to brainstorm a list of animals or                   and Soft,
Students are able to:                Scientific             Construct and share       objects that make loud low-pitched to soft                    pages B36-
Recognize that clear                Information             reasonable explana-       high-pitched sounds.                                          B39.
communication is an           Students must be en-          tions for questions         Show the students the interactive re-
essential part of doing       couraged to ask many          asked.                    source Harmonic Series on a Vibrating                         Experi-
science because it en-        questions because                                       String. They will see that the lower the                      menting
ables scientists to in-       questions are a starting                                pitch vibrates the slower the vibrations.                     with Low
form others about their       point in science. As                                    The higher the pitch the faster the vibra-                    and High
work, expose their            their understanding of                                  tions.                                                        Sounds
ideas to criticism by         science grows, they
other scientists, and         begin to develop ways                                                                                                 Drawing of
scientific discoveries        tions.                                                                                                                and
around the world.                                                                                                                                   High/Soft
Sounds

3.5.D.2.                        Wave Interactions           3.5.D.2.b.                What things are hard to explain about          Developing     The Magic
Students are able to:         The ear detects sounds        Pose questions con-       sound?                                                        School Bus
Identify and describe         as loud or soft and           cerning the relation-       Imagine that you are going to a first                       in The
the relationship be-          high or low. Unlike           ship between loudness     grade classroom to make a presentation                        Haunted
tween a sound and the         light which can travel        or pitch and the vibra-   about sound. What questions do you need                       House
(29:15)
vibrations that produce       through the vacuum of         tion of an object.        to be able to answer about loud and soft
it.                           space, sound waves                                      sounds and the vibration of the object that
must travel through                                     makes it? What questions do you need to
water, wood, metal.                                     low-pitched tones and the vibration of the
object that makes it?
3.1.C.1.                          Communicate               3.1.C.1.d.                  Questions might include the following.
Students are able to:               Scientific              Construct and share        Why do some kids have high (or low)
Recognize that clear               Information              reasonable explana-          voices?
communication is an           Students must be en-          tions for questions        How does the sound get into the TV or
Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 7 Wave Interactions (Sound Effects)                                                                                      42/43
4/9/2013
Maryland School Assessment limits shaded in yellow.

Indicators                   “Big Ideas”                  Instructional                  Sample Item or Task                 Instructional   Resources
Objectives                                                            Focus
science because it en-        questions because                                      Why does the sound get louder when I
ables scientists to in-       questions are a starting      3.1.C.1.e.                turn the radio knob?
form others about their       point in science. As          Recognize that doing     Does my voice sound different under
work, expose their            their understanding of        science involves many     water?
ideas to criticism by         science grows, they           different kinds of work  Can we see sound?
other scientists, and         begin to develop ways         and engages men and      How do we make loud (soft) sounds?
stay informed about           to answer the ques-           women of all ages and  Why is some sound low (soft)?
scientific discoveries        tions. All children           backgrounds.             Why can’t I make my Aunt Jane make
around the world.             should see themselves                                   her voice loud?
as scientists, authors,
and illustrators. This                                    Have students work with a partner or on
is a fundamental equi-                                  a team to generate and answer questions.
ty issue for all chil-                                  If they ask questions they can’t answer,
dren.                                                   refer them to a class discussion. Discuss
the questions and try to decide if they can
do an investigation to get the answer of if
they need to do some research to find the
Show the video of The Magic School
Bus in The Haunted House as both a cul-
minating activity and a review of the con-

Part 3, Grade 3, Physics, Unit 7 Wave Interactions (Sound Effects)                                                                                    43/43
4/9/2013
Maryland School Assessment limits shaded in yellow.

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