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					                                                                                       April 9, 2013




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FOOD SANITATION AND SAFETY
PREVENTING FOOD BORNE ILLNESS

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What is Foodborne Illness?
The “sickness (or disease) that results from eating foods that are contaminated
  with harmful bacteria and/or other microorganisms”.


SLIDE 3
“Potentially Hazardous Foods”
Perishable foods, those that are made of milk, eggs, meats, poultry, fish, or shellfish, that can
   support the rapid growth of bacteria, are usually responsible for the spread of foodborne
   illnesses. The definition also excludes those foods with a pH level of 4.6 or less (high acidity);
   or a water activity of .85 or less. However, harmful bacteria have recently been found in raw
   fruits, vegetables, and unpasteurized juices!



SLIDE 4
Some Types of Food Borne Illnesses
There are some 250 types of Food Borne Illnesses – we’ll cover just five today:

Salmonella – bacterial infection
Staphylococcus – intoxication
E. coli – bacterial infection
Hepatitis A – viral infection
Bacillus cereus – bacterial infection AND intoxication

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Salmonella (Infection)
 Transmission: ingestion of under-cooked, infected foods; or, oral/fecal
  contamination from infected food handler.
 Onset: usually 12 - 36 hours.
 Foods usually involved: poultry, eggs, meats, raw fruit & vegetables.



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Staphylococcus (Intoxication)
   Transmission: ingestion of foods contaminated by an infected worker.
   Onset: usually 2-4 hours.
   Foods usually involved: pastries, custards, sandwiches, cold salads, cheese.
   NOTE: Heat does not kill this toxin.


SLIDE 7
E. Coli 0157:H7 (bacteria)
 Transmission: ingestion of contaminated food.
 Onset: usually 3-4 days.
 Foods usually involved: under-cooked ground meat (usually beef), raw milk.


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Hepatitis A (Virus)
 Transmission: person-to-person; or, ingestion of food contaminated by an
  infected worker.
 Onset: usually 28-30 days.
 Foods usually involved: items that are not cooked after handling, salads &
  produce.


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Bacillus cereus (Intoxication)
 Transmission: ingestion of food that has been stored at ambient temps after
  cooking.
 Onset: 1-24 hours (shorter on-sets usually begin with vomiting, longer on-sets
  usually begin with diarrhea).
 Food frequently involved: cooked rice, spices, mixes.




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SLIDE 10
Preventing Food Borne Illnesses
The transference of food borne diseases can be prevented through safe food
  handling practices. These are simple steps that can be followed during the
  purchase, storage, preparation, and cooking phases of food handling that will
  minimize the risk of spreading food borne illness.
These practices are based on a food safety system known as Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Points (“HACCP”) that “focuses on preventing hazards ... by
applying science-based controls (on food handling), from raw materials to finished
products.”

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Step 1: Identifying Hazards
 Chemical
   –   toxic metal (mercury)
   –   Pesticides
   –   cleaners
 Biological
   –   bacteria
   –   viruses
 Physical
   –   glass
   –   hair
   –   cigarette butts




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STEP 2: Identifying Critical Control Points
   A “CCP” is any point or “step” in the food handling procedure at which
    biological, chemical and/or physical contamination could occur which can be
    prevented or reduced.”
                                    FLOW CHART
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STEP 3: Establish Preventative Measures
This is the setting of controls for each step in       the flow of the food item.
  This includes, but is not limited to, setting time and temperature limits for
  each step in the food preparation process, establishing and enforcing
  employee hand washing policies, maintaining adequate
       cleaning schedules and utilizing proper           sanitizer solutions.

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STEP 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures
In order to verify all pro-
  posed controls are in place,
  a written plan assigning
  personnel to perform
  routine observations and/
  or measurements for each CCP,
  and delineating how the results
  of these measurements should
  be recorded, should be in place.

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STEP 5: Establish Corrective Actions
If, during the monitoring process, a control measure is discovered to be non-
    effective, the deviation needs to be acted upon immediately, and an agreed
    upon corrective action should occur.
                               Corrective Actions:
 disposal of food item
 repair equipment
 re-heating of food item
 quick chill of food item
 adjust cleaning schedules




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STEP 6: Recordkeeping
An effective system to record observations and measurements made during
  the food handling process must be established. Records may include flow
  charts, temperature logs, HACCP team assignments, corrective action plans,
  lists of regulations governing establishment, equipment maintenance logs, etc.


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STEP 7: Verification System
Once the basics of a HACCP plan are set, verification procedures need to be
  applied to ensure the plan is in operation:
    review of equipment maintenance logs
    review of temperature logs are being utilized correctly
    ensuring all handwash stations functional
    review of records
    review of corrective action plans
    routine visual observation


SLIDE 19
Receiving Shipments/Shopping
Use wholesome, undamaged foods only:
• Canned Goods
• Packaging
• Whole Eggs
• Infestation
• Produce
Also important,
“Buy Cold Food Last; Get It Home Fast!”

SLIDE 20
Food Storage (Temperatures)
Prevent the growth of harmful bacteria by storing perishable food at the proper
  temperatures:
 Frozen - 5F
 Refrigerated - 41F
 Heated - 140 F
          KEEP FOOD TEMPERATURES OUT OF THE DANGER ZONE!




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SLIDE 21
Food Storage (Methods)
Prevent cross-contamination by storing:
 raw meats/eggs below/away from cooked/ready-to-eat items
 all food items off the floor
 food in covered/labeled containers



SLIDE 22
Food Storage (Labeling)
   Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and held for more than 24 hours
    in a facility shall be clearly marked with the date of preparation.


SLIDE 23
Preparation
   Cleaning!! Start with clean hands, surfaces, and utensils
   Wash produce prior to preparation
   Do not re-use utensils that have been in contact with raw meats/eggs


SLIDE 24
Raw Animal Products
Using color coded cutting boards seems to be an effective tool to keep raw meat
  products separate from ready-to-eat foods.


SLIDE 25
Heating/Cooking/Re-Heating
Minimum cooking/heating temperatures:

   Poultry/Stuffed Meats - 165°F
   Beef/Fish - 145°F
   Pork -145°F
   Eggs - 145°F

Leftovers that are to be re-served to be rapidly re-heated to 165°F




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SLIDE 26
Thawing/Chilling
Four accepted methods of thawing:

   Under refrigeration at 41°F or less
   Under cool running water
   As part of the cooking process
   In a microwave


Accepted methods to rapidly chill hot foods that are to be re-served:

        Ice bath
        Chill/Ice sticks
        Frequent stirring
        Transfer to shallow pan
        Flash/Blast freezing


SLIDE 27
Time/Temperature
Controls
  Provide accurate thermometers to all refrigeration and freezer units!
 Use a probe thermometer frequently throughout preparation/cooking
   process!
 Keep perishable foods refrigerated until the last minute!
For perishable salads, begin with refrigerated ingredients!
Pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria can grow rapidly in the "Danger Zone," but they
do not generally affect the taste, smell, or appearance of a food.


SLIDE 28
Why Refrigeration is Important!
   Refrigeration slows bacterial growth. Bacteria exist everywhere in nature, including in the
    foods we eat. When bacteria have nutrients (food), moisture, and favorable temperatures, they
    grow rapidly, increasing in numbers to the point where some types of bacteria can cause
    illness.
   You can also limit the amount of food out at one time!




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SLIDE 29
Communicable Diseases
Access to all food handling areas should be limited to only those persons
  necessary for the prep and service of the meal. Any person with a known
  communicable disease, or open wound or sore, should not have access
  until they are well!


SLIDE 30
Food Service Employee Hygiene
   Employees should wear clean clothing.
   Employees should bathe daily.
   Employees are not permitted to use tobacco in any form in the food prep and
    service areas!!


SLIDE 31
Frequent Handwashing...
“is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases” including
   food borne illnesses. Always wash hands after eating, drinking, smoking,
   changing a diaper, handling raw meat items, feeding pets, coughing, sneezing,
   etc. prior to handling food.


SLIDE 32
Frequent Handwashing...
 You can prevent the spread of Salmonella, Hepatitis A and Shigella just by washing
     your hands. It also works to combat germs like those that cause the flu or the
                                    common cold.
                                HANDWASHING TIPS:
    Keep nails natural, short and clean. Nail polish and artificial nails are prohibited
     unless gloves are worn. Bacteria can grow under artificial nails. Avoid wearing
                   rings, watches and bracelets while preparing foods.



SLIDE 33
Minimize Hand Contact
Especially those food items that are not cooked prior to service….




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SLIDE 34
Smooth and Easily Cleanable
All food contact equipment, including cooking and/or eating utensils, is to be cleaned &
   sanitized between uses.
Surfaces that are no longer smooth and easily cleanable must be repaired or replaced. This
   includes frayed pastry brushes, tattered rubber spatulas and heavily scored cutting boards!



SLIDE 35
Dishwashing Facilities
Proper sanitization of dishware can be accomplished by:
 Manually washing, rinsing & sanitizing all multi-use equipment in a three
  compartment sink; or,
 Utilizing a mechanical dishmachine with hot water or chemical sani-cycles.



SLIDE 36
                   Manual Dishwashing Procedure


SLIDE 37
Mechanical Dishmachines
   Hot water sanitizing machines must reach a minimum of 180°F for the final
    rinse.
   Low temp machines must reach a minimum of 120°F for the wash cycle & a
    minimum of 50 ppm Cl2 on the final rinse.


SLIDE 38
Approved Sanitizers
Sanitization, or disinfection, is “the effective treatment of clean surfaces of equipment and
   utensils” which removes harmful bacteria.
APPROVED SANITIZERS – TEST STRIPS ARE REQUIRED
Chlorine - minimum 50ppm = 1 tsp. per gallon of water
Iodine - min 12.5 ppm = 2 Tbs. per gallon of water
Quaternary Ammonium - Usually 100 - 200ppm = per manuf. instructions




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SLIDE 39
Storage of Clean Kitchenware
Handle Up
Inverted
Same Direction
Cleanable Surface

SLIDE 40
Continued.
Clean, sanitized food equipment should be allowed to completely air-dry prior to
storage. No “wet-nesting”!


SLIDE 41
Vermin Control
Food preparation areas are to be free of insect and rodent infestation.
  Screening/Vermin proofing is required. Extermination via the application of
  pesticides, traps &/or glue boards is to be performed in a sanitary manner.


SLIDE 42
Toxics Storage
   Personal belongings stored separately from food and food contact
    equipment/surfaces!
   Tobacco use not permitted in food prep areas!
   Cleaners, medicines, pesticides, chemicals stored separately from food and
    food contact equipment /surfaces!


SLIDE 43
General Maintenance
   Floors, walls and ceiling in food preparation areas to be constructed of
    smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. Food contact equipment to be maintained in
    good repair. Areas to be well lighted. Pets/animals not permitted into prep
    areas.




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SLIDE 44
General Maintenance
   Garbage to be stored and disposed of in a sanitary manner.


SLIDE 45
General Maintenance (Plumbing)
 Plumbing installed and maintained properly - no cross-connections. Waste
  water to be disposed of properly. Laundry facilities not be installed within
  food prep area.


SLIDE 46
Preventing
Foodborne Illness!
“Ultimately, prevention depends on educating food handlers about proper practices in
   cooking and storage of food and personal hygiene.”
    Dr. James Chin, Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 2000
    •     Education is the key! Learn all there is to know about the different
          pathogens and the means to prevent them from contaminating food
          prepared in your facility. Pass it along!
    •     To learn more about HACCP and how its principles can help prevent
          Food Borne Illness, visit www.fightbac.org on the Internet!




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