Ba - OIRED - Virginia Tech

Document Sample
Ba - OIRED - Virginia Tech Powered By Docstoc
					      Combined Trip Report for Bangladesh, India and

                       22 January to 8 February, 2003
Sally Miller (Ohio State Univ.), George Norton (Virginia Tech), Ed Rajotte (Penn State),
Site Chair,
Bangladesh portion only: Robert Gilbertson (U.C., Davis), Greg Luther (Virginia Tech)

Norton, Miller, Luther, Gilbertson and Rajotte left the U.S. on 22 January and arrived in
Dhaka on 24 January.

  Trip Report: Bangladesh and India, 22 January to 2 February,

25 January
Project Review
U.S. Team: Ed Rajotte, Site Chair, George Norton, Sally Miller, Greg Luther, Robert
Gilbertson. Robert Gilbertson joined us as a plant virology expert to address extensive
virus problems in vegetables. Dr. Rezaul Karim, the research team leaders and other
BARI staff were present. Also present Noel Magor (PETRRA, IRRI), Latifur Rahman
(USAID), Nurul Alam (BARC Executive Chair), Shahidul Islam (DG, BARI), Sukhen
Chandra Paul and Md. Gias Uddin Talukder (CARE), Abu Taher (Helen Keller

Norton explained USAID agency-wide IPM review. In addition, he explained that since
we would have to write a proposal to continue IPMCRSP, our planning for Year 11 (to
begin October 2003) should refrain from starting any new lines of research and
concentrate instead on finishing on-going research and moving research results to
technology transfer programs and producing publications.

S. Islam stated that the IPMCRSP is appreciated and that information from IPMCRSP
will be used in the National workshop on pesticide residues in Dhaka.

Noel Magor IRRI (PETRRA project) is promoting a practical relationship between IRRI
and IPM CRSP in order to increase livelihood of Bangladesh farmers. Scale up of
technology transfer needs to be a priority IPM most critical on vegetables due to residue
Latifur Rahman (US AID Bangladesh mission): Eleventh year of IPM CRSP, 6th year in
Bangladesh. Results of project are impressive. Also emphasized technology transfer.
$50,000-100,000 per year needed to move technology to farmers. Working on P.L. 480
funds for this purpose, but haven’t got them yet. Hopeful that funds will come through.
Also supports continuation of project for another 5 years.

Ed Rajotte – technology transfer – Several technologies ready to go and must be
integrated into a package for technology transfer. Some of the technologies must be
imported (pheromones, sprayable Bt, etc.) – we need help from government of
Bangladesh to register these technologies. The IPMCRSP is a research project, and funds
are generally spent on research. Moving P.L. 480 process forward quickly is critical for
technology transfer to happen.

Dr. Nurul Alam (Executive Chairman, BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Council)). Entomologist. IPM is very important for health, environmental safety and
economics. Some new technologies have been developed and should be disseminated to
the farmers. Need field testing of Bt eggplant. Bangladesh bio-safety rules have been
approved by the necessary ministries. However, a national implementation committee has
to be formed to move the process forward. It is important that there is a review of
technologies developed already as well as technologies that can be brought in, e.g. Bt-
eggplant. Government policy is to promote IPM. Formal independent review of IPM
CRSP is being done by BARC, which should be useful in renewal process.

Research team leaders presented results of Year 9 (and partial Year 10) research.


I.1 Crop pest monitoring (Alam and Nassirudin) (2001-2002) See Year 9 annual report
    • Insect pests
            o Fruit and shoot borer in eggplant
            o Diamondback moth
            o Spodoptera
            o Fruit fly (bottle gourd)
    • Diseases (Rahman) (mainly copper and Bordeaux mixture used – really only thing
       available for chemical disease control for most farmers.
            o Bacterial wilt, Foot and root rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), RKN nematode
            o Tomato “virus”, soft rot
    • Weeds (long list- see Year 9 Progress report)
    Conclusion: Current practice of frequent pesticide use by farmers indicates IPM
    knowledge at the field level is very inadequate for growing healthy and economically
    profitable vegetable crops.

II.1a Varietal screening eggplant for resistance to bacterial wilt (BW), root knot
nematode, fruit and shoot borer
    • Screening using bacterial wilt-infested seedbeds
           o   37 selected varieties/lines screened
           o   Several moderately resistant
           o   Some fruit and shoot borer resistance
           o   Six varieties highly resistant; EG 203 resistant (and others)
           o   Four varieties are being tested in Jessore farmers’ fields (see Year 9
           o Summary (HT = heat tolerant, BT=borer tolerant, WT=wilt tolerant)
                  BL SA/2002 (HT, WT, BT) BL 009 (HT, WT, BT)
                  BL 083 (HT)
                  Ultara (HT)
                  BL 097 (NT, WT)
                  BL 102
                  BL 113
                  BL 114
                  BL 095

II.1b(a). Pilot production of grafted eggplant at two intensive growing areas (Jessore,
    • Grafting success 95% in low cost polyhouse
    • Non-grafted 30% mortality
    • Grafted 245-280% higher yield
    ~300% increased income
    • Tomato
            o Non-grafted 32% mortality
            o Fruit bearing 175% higher in grafted
            o Yield 145% higher in grafted
            o Income 140% higher in grafted
            o Farmer training for eggplant grafting in Jessor
    • e Aug 10, 2002
            o Simple polyhouse for grafting
            o Expert farmer can graft 350 per day
            o Economics of producing grafted seedlings (Dr. Hossain)
            o BARC willing to work with IPM CRSP in setting up training (five sites
                initiated in PETRRA program (women farmers particularly))

II.1D Pumpkin germplasm screening (potyvirus)
    • Five varieties have good resistance

   •   Working on okra virus screening; okra yellow vein mosaic (Geminivirus)

II.2a Management of lepidopteran pests using an integrated approach-cabbage
• IPM practice of hand-picking (4 times) larvae kept infestation level within 9-11% vs
    60-65% in untreated control
       o Hand-picking twice a week for 2 weeks during head formation resulted in no
         infestation (vs. spraying 11 times); may take more than two weeks depending
         on when the insects peak (in this case Spodoptera and diamond back moth)
                 CARE, MCC, Helen Keller will take these technologies
                 Will take some $$ from core funds for training horticultural
                 technicians from these groups (decided during visit by Bob Hedlund
                 and S.K. DeDatta in December)
                 Soil management, fruit fly baiting, IPM (hand-picking), grafting are
                 mature technologies that are going out for tech transfer.
       o Yield of IPM practice 16-23 % higher than farmer practice
       o Income increased 25-34% ($1,000 per hectare higher)
       o 2003: three locations: Sripur, Comilla and Jessore
       o Many farmers at IPM CRSP trial sites are starting to hand-pick on their own

II.2b Management of cabbage pests using a net barrier
       Program dropped; too expensive

II.2 c Assessment of virus infestation at different stages of okra production
• Jassids and whitefly, if excluded for first month of okra growth should help reduce
    virus infections.
II.6a Management of Soilborne Pathogens
    Pythium sp., Meloidogyne sp., bacterial wilt, TYLCV
    Suppression of tomato seedling diseases in the seedbed
        Best= Poultry refuse, sawdust burning, mustard oil cake
        Cost: benefit- poultry refuse best; mustard oil cake also good
    Tomato disease (field): poultry refuse highest yield
        Cost:benefit – mustard oil cake and poultry refuse best
        Poultry refuse: “half-decomposed” 3-6 months in a pile (cleaned out of poultry
        house); (Sally has pictures of poultry house in Sripur)
        Rate of 3 T/HA
        Poultry are bedded in rice hulls

Diffusion of IPM technologies

Indications of positive acceptance of technologies by farmers; next year’s plan will
include quantitative survey (starts in year 10 and continues in year 11).

Participatory Rural Appraisals recently completed in Jessore, Rangpur, and Comilla
        90 surveyed; including male and female farmers
        Gender issue – women not much involved in vegetable production, except
        homestead vegetables
        Comilla and Jessore are surplus areas for vegetable production
        Farmers in these areas all spray insecticides
        Results still in process of being summarized in a report
Economic analyses are being completed for each IPM technology or package; with basic
 cost and return data collected from scientists for each experiment according to a
 standardized format developed by Jerry Shively.

26 January
Toured Sripur experimental site
Sweet gourd, tomato and eggplant plots were toured. In addition, we spoke to the farmers
who owned the plots. All of the technologies seemed to be working well although it was
still early in the season. Dr. Gilbertson sampled the extensive and varied virus infections
in tomato.

Year 11 planning
Since Year 11 will end a phase of IPMCRSP, Year 11 plans fell into 2 categories:
Finishing up on-going research, and combining proven technologies into commodity-
based packages to be tested.

The group split up into disciplinary teams to address the research topics. Year 11 research
topics will be formalized into research activity proposals and presented at the Technical
Committee Meeting in April in Indianapolis.

Commodity-based IPM Implementation Packages
IPM Packages for year 11 are calendar-based activities that integrate the discipline-based
technologies. Activities that support each technology are arranged on a timeline from
seedbed soil preparation through post harvest. For each activity, inputs types, amounts
and timings are listed. In addition, explicit instructions for carrying out the technology
will be included when the plans are fully developed.

Coupled with each activity are evaluation procedures including timing, data
requirements, person responsible, etc. In addition, to biological data gathering, human
time, motion and materials records are kept for later socioeconomic analysis.

Eggplant IPM Package

Major pest management issues
       Variety selection
       Soil amendments

        Shoot and fruit borer
            o Resistant varieties
            o Trethala, larval-pupal parasitoid
        Jassids (leafhoppers)
          o Resistant varieties
       Bacterial wilt
          o Resistant varieties
          o Grafting
       Root knot nematode
          o Resistant varieties
       Weed Management
          o Reduced hand weeding

Calendar-based implementation of “Best IPM Tactics”

       Variety selection- If possible, select a variety that is favored by consumer, but
       also has resistance to one or more pests.
       60 days before planting
           o Incorporate mustard oil cake
       45 days before planting –
           o Sow rootstocks (S. sissyimbriifolium)
           o Plant scion -Sripur (B009) or Jessore (ISD006)
   • 21 days before planting
           o Amend soil with poultry refuse
           o Cultural – weed control
           o Chemical fertilization – P-K
   • Raised beds
   • Between row irrigation

10 days after planting
   • N-K application

32 days after planting
   • EFSB once per week removal of fruit and shoot borer
   • Bacterial wilt
           o Avoid transmission to healthy plants during EFSB shoot (mainly) and fruit
           o Wash hands, don’t touch (remove) wilted plants until after EFSB removal
40 days after planting
   • Hand weeding
   • Place ESFB pheromone

60 days after planting
   • Release Trathala
   • Remove Phomopsis fruits weekly
Postharvest management
   • Remove and burn plants
   • Turn soil as deep as possible
   • Do not plant tomato or potato next season to prevent bacterial wilt
   • If RKN, don’t plant tomato, potato, eggplant, okra, cucurbits; grow crucifers,
       amaranth, rice

   • Evaluate fields every two weeks
          o Scout for Bacterial wilt symptoms, EFSB wilted shoots
   • Select a companion field – compare farmer practice (have them plant unimproved
      local variety corresponding to B009 and ISD 006 (provide farmers with these
      unimproved varieties

IPM Package fact sheets
   • Fact sheets describing the IPM package demonstration should be prepared for
      local farmers. These fact sheets will allow farmers to observe trials, and they can
      be used later in educational situations by scientists, extension workers and NGO
      technicians. Fact sheet must be prepared in Bangla

Education plan
Simultaneous with the package implementation will be a farmer education plan. This plan
will consist of written materials and public events. Before the package plots are
established, introductory meetings will be held in each village. At various points during
the season field activities can be used as educational opportunities. For instance, during
seedbed preparation, local farmers can be assembled for a demonstration of soil
amendment incorporation.

Test regions:
Gazipur/Sripur, Jessore, Rangpur

CARE involvement:
Mostly working with female farmers (homesteads)
       -work out some tactics for them
       -send CARE trainers to IPM CRSP training session


      Same as eggplant except cover seedbed with nylon mesh (whitefly exclusion);
      isolated (> 1 km from any tomatoes) seedbed– provide plants to farmers
      Use S. syssimbriifolium rootstock
      Use Scion – ‘Rattan’
       3 weeks before planting – same as eggplant plus staking
       2 days before planting, apply N-P-K

       Same as eggplant

20 days after planting
       1st hand weeding

Scouting -Weekly monitoring
       For whiteflies; apply cypermethrin as soon as any whiteflies are seen –spray when
       needed up until flowering
       Remove any plants with bacterial wilt

35 days after planting
       Apply N-K
       2nd hand weeding

Late blight, December –
        If rain, spray with Ridomil Gold/Dithane rotation every ten days (2-3 sprays total)
        Early blight-Spray 2 x at 10 day intervals with Rovral

       Remove culls

       Same as eggplant


Smaller demonstration plots; will be designed separately.

Greg Luther showed the summary of publications for this site and urged team members to
publish their work and also to make a more complete reporting of the papers, workshops,
fact sheets, etc. that they have published already.
Impact Assessment
George Norton urged the group to be sure to gather the economic data from their
experiments, and to start to develop information that will allow a projection of adoption
of the various technologies.

Sally Miller suggested that team co-leaders take leadership for each crop:
       Rashid/Nasiruddin – eggplant
       Hoque/Rahman - tomato

Year 11 planning

Economics (M.I. Hossain)
      Baseline surveys in Jessore, Rangpur, and Comilla
      Integration and diffusion of IPM technologies
      Impact analysis
          o George Norton has a student at VT who will project impacts of grafting in
              the Philippines and Bangladesh
          o Three students in Bangladesh

Plant Pathology (Rahman)
       Continue II.6

Entomology (M. Nasiruddin/S.N. Alam)
      Continue III.1 (Trichogramma)
      Continue I.1 (Survey of white fly and natural enemies)
      Continue II.2 (fruit fly management

       Continue II.2c (Off-season vegetable production)

Weed Science
      Continue integrated management of soilborne diseases in eggplant
      Continue effect if time and N application in weed management by two hand
      weeding on okra growth and yield (may be considered a new activity)

       Popularization of BW & FSB resistant eggplant varieties – demonstration to
       Pilot production of grafted tomato at Jessore, Sripur and one other location

Deadline for proposals is early February – from scientists.

   1. Grafting training in Sripur (Rashid)
   2. CARE, MCC training on five technologies; they will choose the ones of interest,
      then IPM CRSP staff will train 20 trainers and disseminate technologies to
      farmers through farmer field schools. CARE will make learning visits on all sites.
   3. Facts sheets – will be prepared by each group
   4. Mass media (radio, newspaper)
          a. Specifically work towards a radio message; work with BARI training
   5. Extension specialists will be called for training


       Team leaders proposed training and prioritized the list.

       Degree program priorities based on 1) performance of scientist, 2) duration of
       time on IPM CRSP, and 3) contribution to the IPM CRSP).

27 January
Visit USAID at embassy
Rajotte, Norton, Luther, Karim
USAID personnel: Charles Uphaus, Latifur Rahman, Allen Fleming, Mr. Mohatir (ATDP
export project)

PL480 funds were held up in one of the Bangladeshi ministries for about 6 months, but
have recently been signed. Dr. Karim will provide the necessary paperwork to move the
funds through the Ministry of Agriculture. All were optimistic that the PL480 funds
would be available for IPM in the near future. Rahman suggested that technology transfer
was a real need given the new technologies developed by IPMCRSP and that PL 480
funds should be spent on this.

It was suggested that a collaborative project be developed with ATDP to take advantage
of the value of IPM and other pest management procedures in export goods. Pre-
inspection, lowered residues and consumer recognition of IPM were all mentioned.

We discussed the difficulty of importing IPM materials such as sprayable Bacillus
thurigiensis and fruit fly pheromones. Apparently in Bangladesh, private companies must
make application to the government for new imports. Syngenta, Cargill and others were
mentioned as moving in this direction, but these companies are not typical purveyors of
pesticide alternatives. In other countries, small specialty companies usually market these
products. The lack of availability of these products would severely hinder IPM in
Bangladeshi vegetable production.

Visit Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural
University (BSMRAU) (Miller, Gilbertson)

A meeting was held with Mrs. Mossammat Shamsunnahar’s Ph.D. committee to discuss
her progress on research at Ohio State University. Mrs. Nahar is being trained in a Ph.D.
sandwich program with BSMRAU and OSU. S. Miller reported that Nahar’s progress is
excellent, and that she will be able to return to Bangladesh in October 2003 to complete
her classes. Her committee requested that Mrs. Nahar write her thesis as much as
possible while she is in Ohio. Miller and Gilbertson toured the BSMRAU campus
briefly and met with several other faculty.

Finished planning
In the afternoon we completed the planning process for Year 11.

Socioeconomic planning
Four activities are planned in the socioeconomics area. The first is to complete the report
on the participatory appraisal.

The second is the baseline surveys in Jessore, Rangpur, and Comila. The steps include
revising and reviewing the questionnaire, training enumerators, pretesting the
questionnaire, transferring data to the computer, and preparing the report and article.

The third activity includes completing the basic cost and return budgets for the latest

The fourth is aggregate impact assessment.

It was agreed that a computer would be purchased soon for the socioeconomic work and
placed in the office of I. Hossain, so that the survey information could be entered by his
assistants. Norton will send a letter authorizing its placement there.

Two students from BAU are currently completing theses on socioeconomic topics and a
third one will be added from BSMRAU (Muhmuda Akter) who will be supervised by
Fakrul Islam at BSMRAU.

Virology Training
Gilbertson trained a group of IPM CRSP scientists in preparation of squash blots for virus
samples. Squash blots will be analyzed by Gilbertson at UC-Davis to determine the
identity of the viruses observed in the field. IPM CRSP scientists may send additional
samples to the U.S. later for evaluation.
Miller provided commercial ELISA kits (purchased from Agdia, Inc, Elkhart, Indiana)
for testing vegetables crops for several viruses.

28 January
Traveled by air to Jessore, Bangladesh to attend IPMCRSP field day. Officials from
BARI, USAID and others joined us. In addition, the Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Matiur
Rahman Nizami, traveled with us. At the BARI field station in Jessore, Norton first
made a presentation to the Minister and other officials and scientists that summarized
progress on the IPM CRSP in Bangladesh followed by lunch. We then drove to the field
plots where we were met by several hundred farmers. Project scientists gave brief
presentations at the plots about their research. Gilbertson collected more tomato samples
with virus symptoms. We then moved to a village schoolyard where a tent and stage had
been erected. Between 1500 and 2000 local people came to hear speeches by local
agricultural leaders, Dr. Karim and Minister Rahman Nizami. We returned to Dhaka in
the evening.

29 January
Norton, Miller, Rajotte and Karim traveled from Dhaka to Coimbatore, India to confer
with Tamil Nadu Agricultural University collaborators. Luther and Gilbertson returned to
the US via Bangkok.

30 January
Met with TNAU Centre for Plant Molecular Biology (CPMB) scientists (S. Sadasivam,
Director; D. Sudhakar, V. Udayasuriyan, S. Mohankumar, and others) and Dr. Ananda
Kumar from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute in Delhi. We discussed the
disposition of the IPMCRSP Special Grant ‘Development of Shoot and Fruit Borer
Resistant Bt Transgenic Brinjal.’

The CPMB has 21 technical staff and offers courses and graduate training. Most research
is on rice, but a growing segment is on vegetables

The CPMB has excellent experience in traditional host plant resistance breeding as well
as the manipulation and transformation of Bt delta-endotoxins in plant tissues. They have
mainly worked on transforming plants with the Cry1ab strain. Their goals are to increase
expression, try other endotoxin strains against various pests and field test transformed
eggplant against Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (EFSB).

To date, laboratory and greenhouse testing has revealed 10 traditionally bred hybrids to
be resistant to EFSB (eggplant hybrids and crosses with wild Solanum, S. viarum). The
mechanisms of resistance include skin toughness and probably some secondary plant

In their transgenic work CPMB is targeting Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer as well as
Epilachna beetle in brinjal. Eleven endotoxins have been tested. The top performers
against EFSB (in descending order) have been Cry2Aa, Cry1C, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1B
and Cry1Aa. These determinations were made by laboratory bioassays using diet-
incorporated toxins. In limited field tests done under netting up to 75% protection of
transformed plants has been achieved. Open field-testing has not yet been allowed by the
government. Multi-location field-testing was approved for 2002 under protected
conditions. Transformed plants showed an average fruit damage of 9 – 30% compared
with the check average of 34 – 48%.

Next steps include pyramiding Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac as well as testing Cry2 genes.
Bt cotton is already being grown on substantial acreage in India. Nevertheless,
transformed brinjal will have to be approved before field testing can take place. India
does have bio-safety policies for this work.

The collaborative IPMCRSP project will allow TNAU and U.S. scientists to work in the
transformed brinjal system. In addition, collaborative relationships will be developed
among TNAU and existing IPMCRSP sites in Bangladesh and Philippines. The transport
of transformed germplasm from India to other countries has not yet been approved,.
Therefore, TNAU suggested that while official requests are being made for transfer of Bt-
Co2 (transformed brinjal line), the Cry1ab construct can be provided to the Philippines
for transformation of eggplant there. Regeneration of eggplant is simple and fast, and
transformed eggplant may be available in 6-9 months. This has the advantage that a
variety acceptable to Philippines consumers will be used. In anticipation of transfer of the
transformed brinjal Bt-Co2) from India, the non-transformed brinjal isoline (Co2) can be
tested in both countries. Tamil Nadu does not have substantial bacterial wilt whereas
Bangladesh and Philippines do. Work will have to be done to assure that Co2 can be
grafted onto bacterial resistant rootstock. The second activity is testing Bt proteins
against local strains of EFSB. Bt proteins will be delivered to BARI and PhilRice. Diet
incorporation tests with locally captured EFSB can begin almost immediately.

We toured the CPMB laboratories and transgenic greenhouses in the afternoon.

31 January
We met with Vice Chancellor Ramasamy to discuss the biotech project and he expressed
an interest in having a socioeconomic component of the project in which he would like to
be personally involved. Norton made a presentation entitled “Collaborative Research in
Integrated Pest Management: the Role of Biotechnology” to 100+ faculty and students at
TNAU. The lecture, hosted by Dr Ramasamy, was followed by discussion.

Miller arranged for Dr. Murali Bandla, of Agdia, Inc., to discuss the use of ELISA kits
for Bt quantification with TNAU scientists. Bandla brought kits and trained the scientists
in their use. These kits will be used for quantification and detection of Bt expression in
transformed plants. Miller, Norton and Rajotte toured Departments of Entomology, Plant
Pathology and Agricultural Economics. Miller was asked to present a 20-minute
impromptu lecture on plant disease diagnostics to a group of 30 scientists from various
parts of India taking part in a diagnostics training course in Plant Pathology. TNAU
facilities and expertise in several areas including biological control and host plant
resistance are excellent. We are proposing extended training leaves for Bangladeshi
scientists at TNAU.

We met in the late afternoon with TNAU scientists to discuss the proposal and workplan
in more detail. The TNAU group proposed that the budget in the proposal be adjusted
since the TNAU budget was not adequate for the amount of travel programmed and for
the socioeconomic component.

1 February
Visited farms around Coimbatore. These farms are typical of those that may be used for
testing of transgenic eggplant. Farms are privately owned and average about 3 acres in
size. One farm (3 acres) had mixed vegetable plantings with eggplant being the dominant
species. The farmer stated that he planted eggplant because of its relative drought
tolerance and long period of cash flow. The farmer was very profit conscious and stated
that low or unpredictably variable prices were his major concern.

The second farmer had a larger holding (25 acres). In addition to extensive vegetable
plantings, he grew table grapes, bananas and sugar cane. His major vegetable crops
included eggplant, okra and a local bean (lap lap). He had installed extensive irrigation
piping and drew water from a 300m well. . He also used partially composted poultry
manure as a fertilizer for the grapes.

The farmers are served by an extension system using the training and visit system. A
hierarchy of extension officers, some living in the local villages provide an information
transfer network.

We then met back at TNAU to finish discussion on the proposal. Five specific objectives
were agreed to for Phase 1 (up to Sept 2004) and two for Phase 2 (assuming IPM CRSP
funding continues). Milestones were identified with timelines. Three scientists from
Bangladesh will come to TNAU for two to three months training and hopefully someone
will also travel to India from the Philippines, depending on the need.

Phase I objectives: Feb 2003-Sept 2004:

1. Test the efficacy of brinjal transgenic lines from IARI, India under greenhouse and
field conditions at TNAU, Coimbatore
2. Study the level of toxin expression in cry1Ab brinjal lines at different growth stages
and in different tissues.
3. Conduct academic exchanges and provide training to scientists in Bangladesh and the
Philippines at TNAU
4. Evaluate Bt toxin proteins with Leucinodes population of India, Philippines, and
5. To compare the economic viability of Bt brinjal compared to alternative means of
controlling Leucinodes orbonalis and to project the potential economic impacts of Bt
brinjal in Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines.
Phase II objectives (if funding after September 2004):

1. Transformation and pyramiding of brinjal with cry1Ab, cry2Aa (TNAU), and cry3Aa
(Rutgers) genes
2. Develop trnasgenic brinjal lines expressing Bt genes that are free of antibiotic markers

2 February
Wrote reports at hotel. Left for airport and Manila at 6:30 pm

Trip Report
Southeast Asia Site in the Philippines
February 3-8, 2003

Sally Miller (site chair), Ed Rajotte, George Norton

       Trip Report: Philippines: 3 February - 8 February, 2003

Miller, Norton and Rajotte arrived in Manila mid-afternoon from Coimbatore, Tamil
Nadu, India (Bt-eggplant project). Met at airport by Aurora Baltazar (site coordinator)
and proceeded to PhilRice. Arrived at PhilRice approximately 7:30 p.m.

Tuesday, February 4
Met with Dr. Leo Sebastian, PhilRice Executive Director. PhilRice is willing to assign
someone in Biotech to work on transgenic (Bt) eggplant project. PhilRice is currently
field-testing transgenic rice with bacterial leaf blight resistance. Golden rice and rice
with tungro virus resistance are next. As indicated by cooperators at Tamil Nadu
Agricultural University, it will become necessary to stop using antibiotic resistance as a
selectable marker for transgenics and will be looking at other markers. PhilRice
scientists are working on this.

It is clear that PhilRice is moving toward integrated farming systems, at this point
focusing on vegetables and rice. At the PhilRice field site a farming systems study is
highlighted with rice, high-value vegetables and poultry in a farmstead display. While
we were there, a JICA-sponsored month-long workshop for 30 Technicians from the
autonomous region of Mindanao on diversified systems was in progress. They will visit
the IPM CRSP field plots as part of their training.

The status of the PL 480 proposal was also discussed. At this time, the project funds
have still not been released. Five projects (Fulbright, Biotech, and three livelihood
enhancement) were funded for 2003. Dr. Sebastian agreed to set up a meeting with the
new Minister of Agriculture on Friday to discuss the status of this project.
Research Review meeting:
Meeting opened by Aurora Baltazar, Site Coordinator; welcome by Asst Director Ronnie
Boronio. Miller, Norton and Rajotte also addressed the group briefly.

Results of IPM CRSP research is being used in training programs in Mindanao

Progress Reports

    Social Science Activities:
     Social Impact Assessments completed
     • NPV
     • Rice Hull Burning
     • Stale Seedbed Technologies

     Current assessments underway
    • Sex Pheromone Trapping
     • Communities perception of pheromone device
     • Identified social impacts

    •   Results
    •   Farmers prefer planting Red Pinoy. Some shifting to other varieties because of
        reduced inputs and Spodoptera concerns
    •   Farmers apply pesticides themselves because of high wage rates
    •   Spodoptera insecticides 30 –45 days after transplant
    •   Applied 1-2 times per week
    •   Water field to force worms to surface from soil cracks
    •   Use mostly cypermethrin; 3-10 bottles (liter per hectare
    •   Cost $30-102 per season

    o   Negative
        • May not minimize spray costs because of other pests
        • Adjacent farmers won’t adopt so their worms will come over
        • Positive
        • Effective for spodoptera
        • Wanted to know how to purchase

o       Analysis
    •   Pesticide use will decrease
    •   Income will increase
    •   Mandate in village requiring farmers to use pheromones

o       Constraints
    •   All farmers must adopt
   •   Need full package to include other pests
   •   Availability of pheromones
   •   Farmers lack of knowledge about pest biology

Papers presented rice hull burning and weed management at national and regional

Future assessments:
•      Grafting of eggplants
•      Management of fruit and shoot borer

Poster: at Va Tech in May 2002

Technology transfer

Designed 8 week and 4 week rice-based vegetable training curriculum. Will be used in
JICA training mentioned above.

Conducted PAs to prioritize IPM research
•     Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya and Pangasinan
   o ID crops, pests, practices, etc.
   o Major vegetable production areas
   o Major vegetable producing villages in region
   o Traditional high pesticide use
   o Male and female farmers interviewed
   o Involved in rice – vegetables for at least 3 years
•     Focus group , semi structure questionnaire
•     Participatory mapping
•      Secondary data
•     Developed IPM problem identification matrix
   o Onion tomato eggplant
   o Farmers shift to different crops because of price and pest problems
   o Pesticide use market driven (price of vegetables
   o Varieties determined traders
   o Perceived incidence of pests drives pesticide used
   o Off season production most profitable
   o Women more involved in input procurement and marketing, men in farm
   o Both sexes share common beliefs about pests
•     Needs:
   o Field pest survey
   o Indigenous pest mgmt practices
   o Yield loss assessment
   o Pheromone trap use
   o Screening resistant varieties
Worked with MMSU, Pangasinan State Univ and one other university

Conducted field days in 3 locations, 50-100 attending in each, municipal agricultural
officer participated

Developed manual for vegetable production and had several field days (hundreds of

Publishing special IPM CRSP newsletter

Gender sensitivity training with Colette Harris

Planned activities:
•      Publication of field guide for onions
•      Publication of field guide for eggplant
•      Publish vegetable training manual in module form
•      Create public awareness through jingles, public lectures, contests, etc., Work with
college student groups and elementary schools
•      IPM advocacy seminar to higher-level organizations (IRRI, Inter. Rural
Reconstruction, DA, etc.

Economic analyses not presented, since Serge is on leave at AVRDC. we are unsure
about where data is or disposition of analysis. He arrived and visited with us later in the
week, but Bethsaida will pull the data together for impact assessments and send them to
George using standardized format.

Village Level Integration:

•       Third year
•       Promote farmer adoption
•       Farmer to farmer interaction
•       Farmer participation in process
•       Objectives
o       Involve farmers
o       Obtain feedback
o       Test integrated technologies
•       Rice hull burning, stale seedbed, raised strips, modified weed control, withhold
sprays for 20 days, npv, preventative fungicide- compared with local farmer practices
•       Weed expts
•       IPM practices only the result of educating farmers and letting them make field
decisions. This confounds test since farmers are risk averse and would tend to go back to
traditional practices.
•       IPM came out better overall in evaluation, but design of the project makes the
significance of this difficult to discern (there is not a farmer’s practice control alongside
IPM practices – farmer’s practice is done elsewhere by non-adopters – which is a
problem because the better farmers are more likely to adopt IPM).
Post harvest activities:
•      Effect of field-applied nitrogen on bulb rot in storage
•      This is going on in 2003
•      Results of previous years
o      Curing effective
o      Cold storage effective whether bulbs cured or not
o      Storage units (bags or boxes) did not affect rotting if onions handled gently
o      4 rot species identified- Fusarium most important in cold storage
o      Preparing publications and fact sheets

2.3 Anthracnose management:
•      Improve management and timing of treatments
•      Treatments
o      Varied spacing, nitrogen and fungicide applications
•      Year 9 results
o      Identified pink root resistant varieties
o      ID anthracnose resistant varieties
o      Bacterial antagonists reduced pink root incidence
o      2 publications
o      3 papers presented
•      Year 11 plans
o      Continue anthracnose with a couple of new treatments

2.2 Biological Control of Trianthema
•      Spodelea recurvalis life cycle in relation to host plant
•      S. recurvalis is an effective defoliator of Trianthema 71-86 %; flowers and seeds
       reduced also.
•      S.r. need to be released early in plant development
•      Specific to Portulaca and Amaranthus
•      Edwin will defend M.S. at end of February

Onion leafminer population dynamics
•      No significant difference in flies for sprayed vs nonsprayed onions
•      Parasitoids lower in sprayed plots
•      Farmers spraying without receiving any benefit
•      No relationship among percent damaged leaves and bulb weight meaning that
       plants can take a lot of leafminer damage before showing yield impact.
•      Plan to survey for leafminer incidence in several regions
•      Trap catch in relation to mass trapping

1.7 Onion defoliation
•      Simulated damage to onion leaves (cutting with scissors)
•      10 –50% defoliation had no effect on yield.
•      Onion plant compensates for defoliation
2.4 Seed borne diseases of pepper
•      2 disease isolated
•      Seed treatments showed Benlate+dithane suppressed disease
•      Only Benlate performed well thereafter – however Benlate is removed from
       market in U.S.
•      Varietal screening showed little resistance to fungal disease
•      Several varieties showed resistance to bacterial spot – it is necessary to determine
       which races of the bacterial spot pathogen are present in these areas.

2.1b Mycorrhizae on onion root knot nematode (RKN)
•     Yield reduced by increasing RKN infection
•     Rice hull burning improved yields
•     Mycorrhizae treatments did not reduce RKN
•     Mycorrhizae improved yield only in absence of RKN in Red Creole
•     Mycorrhizae mixture improved yield of Yellow Granex for both RKN or no RKN
•     Many papers and awards

VAM plus organic amendments against RKN
•    VAM and organic amendments can reduce RKN
•    VAM economical

Nematicidal activity of plant species-soil incorporated powders
•     13 species showed nematicidal activity
•     Antagonistic plantings reduced RKN; especially marigold (Tagetes) and

Soil-borne pathogen management with Trichoderma
•      Sclerotium, Phoma and Fusarium infested soil; planted onions
•      Trichoderma reduced damping off by Sclerotium, Fusarium and pink root

1.4 Breeding for insect resistance in eggplant
•      Unreliable results

1.5 Breeding for Bacterial Wilt resistance
•      BW resistance ranged from 25-86% due to grafting
•      Pangasinan data unreliable since some harvest evaluations missed

1.7 Sex pheromone-based spray timings
•      S. litura, S. exigua, Helicoverpa and Leucinodes
•      Repeating onion experiments as demo in more areas
•      Repeating L. orbonalis pheromones to confirm last year

Farmer indigenous practices against EFSB
•     Tagetes intercropping, burned rice hull dust, shoot removal
•      Ongoing research

Weed management
•     Combination of rice hull burning and stale seed bed (mechanical and chemical)
•     Combination reduced hand weeding costs by 90%
•     Herbicide application alternatives (shielded sprayers, paint brush)
•     Estimating labor inputs

Cyperus rotundus population dynamics
•     Nasrul Islam from Bangladesh is working on his M.S. thesis on this subject

Wednesday 5 February 2003
Field visits (morning): We visited field experiment sites in San Jose (Palestina and
Talavera). All plots for this area were established and experiments were well underway.
We also visited with local farmers and diagnosed root knot nematode in a cooperating
farmer’s onion field (not part of the experiments).

Afternoon. Development of implementation packages. Session led by Ed Rajotte.

A series of implementation packages were developed to form the basis for experimental
work, technology transfer, and impact assessment in year 11.

1. Onion, bulb + multiplier (+ = 2 yrs field data; abbreviations following for name of
person with data)

Palestina (bulb - Red Pinoy)
        Root knot nematode/damping off/pink root
               Rice hull burning + EG
               VAM+ EG
               Good land preparation+ EG
               Poultry manure+ EG
               Fallow - Tagetes
               Host plant resistance
               Trichoderma + RG
               Crop rotation+ EG/RA

       Insect pests
               Pheromone trapping+ DA
               20 days no spray+ DA
               No spray (OPs, PYRs, CARB) for leaf miners + DA
               NPV (pending availability)+
               Stale seedbed+ AB
               RHB+ AB
               1 herbicide plus 1 handweeding+ AB

Palestina (Multiplier/Tanduyong)
        Root knot nematode/damping off/pink root
               VAM (only one season) EG

       Insect pests
               20 days no spray+ DA
               No spray (OPs, PYRs, CARB) for leaf miners + DA

               Stale seedbed+ AB
               RHB+ AB

Bongabon (bulb only – Yellow Granex)
      Root knot nematode/damping off/pink root/soil borne pathogens
             VAM+ EG
             Good land preparation+ EG
             Poultry manure+ EG
             Fallow - Tagetes
             Host plant resistance + RA
             Trichoderma+ RG
             Crop rotation (?) Pepper after onion+ EG

       Insect pests
               Pheromone trapping+ DA
               20 days no spray+ DA
               No spray (OPs, PYRs, CARB) for leaf miners + DA
               NPV (pending availability)+ LP
               Stale seedbed
               1 herbicide plus 1 handweeding
               Post-plant glyphosate with covered nozzle sprayer
       Post-harvest drying+ DE


               Straw mulching
               Grafting + NO/RA
               Host plant resistance + NO/RA (Bacterial wilt)
               Damaged shoot and fruit removal + reduced insecticide spray + Serge

Package – Bulb Onions in Palestina


October 2003
                             Variety selection
                                    Red Pinoy (resistant to pink root)
                             Rice hull burning                             1.5 wks BT
                             Raised bed                                    1 wk BT
                             VAM + manure + Trichoderma                    1 day BT

                             No spray for 20 days

                             Stale seedbed                                 21 days BT
                             (Option: one herbicide before RHB)            7 days BT
                             Rice hull burning                             7 days BT
                             1 plowings + 1 harrowing 6 in deep            3 days BT
                             Place pheromone traps for Spodoptera          At
                             Broadcast Trichoderma                         AT
                             Trap counts 3/week                            Whole season
                                      If > threshold, spray NPV
                             If rain, check for anthracnose
                                      No check again at next rain
                                      Yes – 2 fungicides at 2 wk intervals – Topsin M
                                                                            (check with
                             Scout weeds                                    7-14 days AT
                                      If broadleaf, apply Goal or Ronstar
                                      If grasses, apply Oneside
                             Handweed                                       40 days AT
                                      Stop irrigation                       10 days before
                                      Harvest                               When neck of
                                                                            onion is closed
                                      If ambient storage, sundry for 5 days
                                      If cool storage, no curing
Package – Bulb Onions in Bongabon


October 2003
                         Variety selection
                                Robbins (resistant to pink root)
                         Rice hull burning (if available) or deep
                         Plowing and solarization                      1.5 wks BT
                         Raised bed                                    1 wk BT
                         VAM + manure + Trichoderma                    1 day BT

                         No spray for 20 days
                         Stale seedbed                                 21 days BT
                         (Option: one herbicide before RHB)            7 days BT
                         1 plowing + 1 harrowing 6 in deep             3 days BT
                         Place pheromone traps for Spodoptera          At
                         Broadcast Trichoderma                         AT
                         Trap counts 3/week                            Whole season
                                  If > threshold, spray NPV
                         If rain threatens, check for anthracnose
                                  No check again at next rain
                                  Yes – 2 fungicides at 2 wk intervals – Topsin M
                                                                        (check with
                         Scout weeds                                    7-14 days AT
                                  If broadleaf, apply Goal or Ronstar
                                  If grasses, apply Oneside
                         Handweed                                       40 days AT
                                  Stop irrigation                       10 days before
                                  Harvest                               When neck of
                                                                        onion is closed
                                  If ambient storage, sundry for 5 days
                                  If cool storage, no curing

Eggplant (Dry Season Nov 2003-Aug 2004)
                               Variety selection
                                      EG 203 + Abar (if San Jose)
                                      Tisay (A300) or Casino with grafting (to EG 203) if
                                      not San Jose)

                                      If Pangasinan Casino (grafted) + Tisay + egg type
                                      Rootstock                            21 days BT

                               Scout and remove damaged shoots            30 days AT
                               Remove damaged shoots and roots            weekly
                               Spray insecticide for FSB                  ?????
                               Scout leafhoppers                          30 days AT
                                      If > 5/leaf, spray Actara

Eggplant (Wet Season June 2003-Nov 2004)

                               Variety selection
                                      EG 203 + Abar (if San Jose)
                                      Tisay (A300) or Casino with grafting (to EG 203) if
                                      not Pangasinan or San Jose)

                                      If Pangasinan Casino (grafted) + Tisay + egg type
                                      Rootstock                            21 days BT

                               Scout and remove damaged shoots            30 days AT
                               Remove damaged shoots and roots            weekly
                               Spray insecticide for FSB                  ?????
                               Scout leafhoppers                          30 days AT
                                      If > 5/leaf, spray Actara

Target number of farmers

Onions (bulb): Bongabon – 5
               Talavera – 5
               Palestina – 5

Onions (multiplier): Palestina –5
Eggplant:      Abar –5
               Pangasinan -5

       Flyers on IPM package
               Set up as a calendar with all technologies
               Aurora will assign responsibility
       Comic Books
       Radio script/commercial
       Video/CD instructions
       Series of press release
       Train extension people; supply with fliers and posters (onions)
               Workshop with extension people and selected farmers May 2003 (fallow
                       Include farmer field school technicians
               Workshop before planting in October 2003
       Farm tour – Jan or Feb 2004 (onion) – include policymakers and traders, PRRM
       and other NGOs
       Field days - Harvest (concentrate on storage) – include cold storage operators
       Set up eggplant educational activities the same as for onions
       Finish TechnoBulletin

New research activities: implementation of several of these activities is dependent on
release of P.L. 480 funds.

•     1.1 is finished
•     Year 12
o     Start weed control in eggplant
o     Weed control in Ilocos
o     Crop rotation for Cyperus

•      Year 2 of leafminer parasitoids

•      Continue wet season evaluation of grafted eggplant (Opina)
•      Continue HPR and grafting (Gapasin)

•      Continue screening crosses

•      Continue indigenous practice survey

•      Continue anthracnose plus mist irrigation

•      Continue EFSB pheromone evaluation

•      Finished

•      Year 12
o      Test delivery systems for Trichoderma

•      Continue VAM treatments?
•      Test plant extracts (PL480)

•      Continue nitrogen test (depends on PL 480)

•      Grow Trianthema herbivore on artificial diet

•      Finished

•      Continue social impact assessments

•      Continue economic impact assessment

•      Link with 3.2

•      Done under PhilRice budget

Proposals due to Aurora by third week in February; to Sally by second week of March

Thursday February 6
The research group and U.S. cooperators traveled to Bongabon to review field plots at
Demo Farm and Village Level Integration plots nearby. In the afternoon, we attended a
meeting of NOGROCOMA. This group, led by Mrs. Dulce Gozon, continues to be
supportive of IPM CRSP activities. During the meeting, presentations were made by
members of the research group, who also answered questions from the growers about
specific IPM issues. Approximately 30 growers attended.

We discussed the IPM package for onions developed previously in the week (see above).
Only two growers were using the onion variety Robbins Yellow, determined in IPM
CRSP experiments to have good disease resistance. However, it has some limitations in
horticultural qualities, especially shape. Currently produced varieties are Takei’s Rio
Colorado, Red Pinoy and Asgrow Yellow Granex. Rice hull burning is not appropriate
for Bongabon due to shortage of rice hulls and windy conditions. Alternatives may be
deep plowing and solarization. Biological controls, including poultry manure and
Trichoderma, were of interest of the farmers as long as they can be purchased. Four
farmers are already using poultry manure. For field production, the stale seedbed
technique is already being used by many of the farmers, resulting in reduced weed
populations and consequently reductions in herbicide sprays and handweeding. For
insect pest management, the farmers thought the “no spray in the first 20 days” might be
appropriate. Currently the first insecticide spray is applied with the first herbicide, as
farmers think the pests come into onions when the weeds are killed. The farmer group
was positive about the concept of using pheromone traps to further reduce insecticide use,
further emphasizing the need to finalize registration of these materials in the Philippines.
Fungicides are currently sprayed once per week; usually a combination of Dithane,
Ridomil, Benlate and/or Score. Clearly there is a need for IPM related to fungicide use.
For storage, the growers were willing to try stopping irrigation 10 days before harvest,
and a 5-day sun curing if cold storage would not be used. In developing the final IPM
package, for Year 11 evaluation, grower input will be especially important.

Late afternoon: departed for Manila.

Friday February 7
At the Philippines Department of Agriculture, Norton, Rajotte, Miller, Baltazar,
Sebastian and Mrs. Gozon met with Undersecretary of Agriculture Dr. Arsenio Baliscan,
an agricultural economist. Dr. Baliscan outlined the current fiscal difficulties of the
Philippine government, and the chances (relatively small) for the P.L. 480 funds to be
released. He suggested that we prioritize activities in the project and re-submit the
proposal to him by Monday, February 10 (see below). His office is particularly interested
in agricultural diversification; for vegetables, better access to high quality seeds is

George Norton departed for Los Baños to visit cooperators in IRRI.

Due to time constraints we were unable to meet with David Miller of USDA FAS. Sally
Miller spoke to him by phone. David Miller had planned to visit Undersecretary Baliscan
on Monday and requested our original P.L. 480 proposal and revised objectives. These
were prepared later in the afternoon and emailed to Baltazar and Sebastian by Miller after
returning to the U.S. (February 8).

Miller, Rajotte, Baltazar and Mrs. Gozon then visited the Philippines USAID Mission.
The Mission is currently defining a new strategy for the next five years. A contractor has
been commissioned for this work. The current strategic objectives are: 1) health; 2)
economic growth; 3) environment; 4) livelihood for returning rebels in Mindanao, and 5)
agriculture assessment. The agriculture assessment objective has a sustainable
agriculture component. In another project, eco-labeling will be launched in the
Philippines by March. The Philippines is also part of a Regional IPM project on cacao
(joint with Indonesia); under the acronym “SUCCESS” (Sustainable Cacao Extension
Services for Small Landholders), the project partners with the World Cacao Partnership.
The regions involved in the Philippines are Mindanao, Palawan and Nueva Viscaya. This
is a 3-year, $3 million project, with $500,000 for the Philippines.


Prioritized Objectives
Submitted 10 February 2003

Project Title:
Enhancing the Implementation of IPM to Improve Farmer Competitiveness,
Minimize Environmental Risks and Insure Food Security and Safety

Project Proponent:
Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM
Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija

     The IPM CRSP, funded by USAID and operated through PhilRice in
cooperation with Philippine and U.S. universities, has invested more than $2
million towards development of sustainable pest management systems for
vegetable crops in the Philippines. The program focus has been on onion
and eggplant grown in rice-vegetable cropping systems. Economic impact
estimates for onion IPM indicate that the adoption of IPM CRSP technologies
results in a 30% reduction in input costs. Combined with an estimated
average yield increase of 10% as a result of improved disease and weed
control, the benefit to the farmer is an approximately 25% increase in net
income. These technologies are ready for widespread dissemination in the
Philippines to 1) encourage vegetable cultivation among small land holders,
2) reduce inputs costs, improve pest management and increase economic
returns to farmers, and 3) minimize environmental contamination and human
exposure to pesticides. Further, these technologies can be adapted to
additional high-value vegetable crops.
     In 2000, PL 480 funds were approved to expand vegetable IPM to additional
crops in additional geographic regions of the Philippines. To date, these
funds have not been released. At the request of Dr. Arsenio Balisacan,
Undersecretary of Agriculture, the project objectives have been prioritized.
These activities are designed to be completed over a five-year period; year-
by-year budgets are shown.

Priorities for Year 1

I. Explore and Implement Developed IPM Technologies and Generate New
Technologies for High-Value Vegetable Crops for Reduced Pesticide
Misuse, Increased Farm Product Marketability, and Farm Profitability.
Year 1 Php 4,283,400
Year 2 Php 4,038,012
Year 3 Php 4,169,660
Year 4 Php 4,421,485
Year 5 Php 4,421,485

II. Develop Training Materials and Implement Season-Long Vegetable
Collaborative IPM Training Programs
Year 1 Php 1,949,651
Year 2 Php 4,312,221
Year 3 Php 4,318,821
Year 4 Php 4,318,821
Year 5 Php 4,318,821

III. Assess Economic Impacts of Improved IPM Technologies in Rice-
Vegetable Production Among Small Farm Units.
Year 1 Php 810,700
Year 2 Php 684,860
Year 3 Php 713,900
Year 4 Php 684,860
Year 5 Php 713,900

IV. Develop Transgenic Crops for Improved Vegetable Production.
Year 1 Php 1,230,075
Year 2 Php 1,230,075
Year 3 Php 1,560,143
Year 4 Php 1,593,143
Year 5 Php 1,593,143

Shared By: