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Earning Like a Woman_ The Gender Gap in Professional

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Earning Like a Woman_ The Gender Gap in Professional Powered By Docstoc
					                      Michael J. Haupert
              University of Wisconsin – La Crosse

This research was made possible in part by a SABR Yoseloff Grant
The war years scrambled labor markets
   24-8, 1.10 ERA, 4.1 K/9 IP




               Jean Faut, $1725
   January 1942 FDR gives MLB
    the green light
   Fall of 1942 Office of War
    Information warns MLB of
    potential shut down in 1943
   Phillip Wrigley organizes
    AAGPSL that winter
       Rockford, South Bend, Kenosha,
        Racine
   Debuted in 1943 as the All American Girls
    Professional Softball League
   Morphed into AAGBBL by 1945
   Name change reflected game change
   Game resembled MLB more than structure
    of league ever did
   Non profit
       Wrigley provided half the start up captial ($100,000)
       Local businesses provided the other half
   Player contracts resembled actors more than MLB
       Player option to become free agent
       No reserve clause
       No provision to buy/sell player contracts
   Franchise fee $25,000, min capital $50,000
   Average team generated $63,000 in revenue
   1943 average MLB team revenue $678,000
   1945 Yankees sell for $2.8 million
   The Phillies are a bargain at $400,000
   The average player
       Clerical worker
       City league softball player
        somewhere in Illinois
       20 years old
       5’5” and 130 lbs
   Her paycheck
       $825 for four months work
   How does this $825 salary compare?
   $1960 average mfg wage
   $1300 average female clerical worker
   $6600 average MLB player
            Female/Male Wages in Manufacturing and Baseball



70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%
                                           F/M mfg    F/M bb
30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

 0.0%
     1946    1947     1948     1949     1950         1951      1952   1953
   Of course MLB players were paid more
       The season was longer
       Attendance was higher
       Revenue was greater
   But were women compensated fairly?
   Women earned 60% of what men did on the
    line but less than 10% of what they earned
    between the lines
   How much revenue does a worker contribute
   Change in team revenue due to the presence
    of one particular player
   Team revenue affected by
       Attendance
       Win%
       Pennant race
   Player impacts revenue through impact on
    team performance
   How does a player’s salary compare to the
    amount of revenue s/he generates?
   In a competitive market they would be the
    same
   Compare player’s marginal revenue (MR) to
    salary
   1938 New York Yankees
       Average player MR/salary 8.1
       Joe Gordon 7.0
            $6500 salary, 458 AB, 25 HR, 97 RBI, .502 SLG
       Joe Glenn 0.7
            $8000, 123 AB, .260 BA, 0 HR, 10 RS
       Joe DiMaggio 2.5
            $25,000, 599 AB, .324 BA, 32 HR, 140 RBI
   1948-52 hitters
       Average salary $1230
       Average MR $2490
       MR/salary = 2.0
   1948-52 pitchers
       Salary $1230
       MR $5580
       MR/salary 4.8
   Salaries based more on experience than
    output
   AAGBBL was definitely a pitcher’s league
       3.5 runs per game, 401 AB/HR, .202 BA
       MLB 4.5 runs per game, 53 AB/HR, .257 BA
       Jean Faut 1952, 20-2, 0.909
       Lillian Faralla 1949, 19-9, 1.36
       Dorothy Mueller 1952, 10-2, 1.56
   Women were paid less than men
   But they were paid a greater percentage of
    the revenue they generated
   Two primary reasons for this
       Non profit structure of league
       Absence of reserve clause
                 Baseball v Manufacturing Wages


7.00


6.00


5.00


4.00


3.00
                                 Women     Men

2.00


1.00


0.00
   1946   1947   1948     1949           1950    1951   1952   1953
   Women ballplayers earned less than men
   They also earned less than their counterparts in
    the office
   But . . .
       It was only a four month job
       They were paid more of the revenue they generated
       It was a rare opportunity
       It was an early step in the direction of gender equity

				
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posted:4/8/2013
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