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Michael J. Haupert University of Wisconsin – La Crosse This research was made possible in part by a SABR Yoseloff Grant The war years scrambled labor markets 24-8, 1.10 ERA, 4.1 K/9 IP Jean Faut, $1725 January 1942 FDR gives MLB the green light Fall of 1942 Office of War Information warns MLB of potential shut down in 1943 Phillip Wrigley organizes AAGPSL that winter Rockford, South Bend, Kenosha, Racine Debuted in 1943 as the All American Girls Professional Softball League Morphed into AAGBBL by 1945 Name change reflected game change Game resembled MLB more than structure of league ever did Non profit Wrigley provided half the start up captial ($100,000) Local businesses provided the other half Player contracts resembled actors more than MLB Player option to become free agent No reserve clause No provision to buy/sell player contracts Franchise fee $25,000, min capital $50,000 Average team generated $63,000 in revenue 1943 average MLB team revenue $678,000 1945 Yankees sell for $2.8 million The Phillies are a bargain at $400,000 The average player Clerical worker City league softball player somewhere in Illinois 20 years old 5’5” and 130 lbs Her paycheck $825 for four months work How does this $825 salary compare? $1960 average mfg wage $1300 average female clerical worker $6600 average MLB player Female/Male Wages in Manufacturing and Baseball 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% F/M mfg F/M bb 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 Of course MLB players were paid more The season was longer Attendance was higher Revenue was greater But were women compensated fairly? Women earned 60% of what men did on the line but less than 10% of what they earned between the lines How much revenue does a worker contribute Change in team revenue due to the presence of one particular player Team revenue affected by Attendance Win% Pennant race Player impacts revenue through impact on team performance How does a player’s salary compare to the amount of revenue s/he generates? In a competitive market they would be the same Compare player’s marginal revenue (MR) to salary 1938 New York Yankees Average player MR/salary 8.1 Joe Gordon 7.0 $6500 salary, 458 AB, 25 HR, 97 RBI, .502 SLG Joe Glenn 0.7 $8000, 123 AB, .260 BA, 0 HR, 10 RS Joe DiMaggio 2.5 $25,000, 599 AB, .324 BA, 32 HR, 140 RBI 1948-52 hitters Average salary $1230 Average MR $2490 MR/salary = 2.0 1948-52 pitchers Salary $1230 MR $5580 MR/salary 4.8 Salaries based more on experience than output AAGBBL was definitely a pitcher’s league 3.5 runs per game, 401 AB/HR, .202 BA MLB 4.5 runs per game, 53 AB/HR, .257 BA Jean Faut 1952, 20-2, 0.909 Lillian Faralla 1949, 19-9, 1.36 Dorothy Mueller 1952, 10-2, 1.56 Women were paid less than men But they were paid a greater percentage of the revenue they generated Two primary reasons for this Non profit structure of league Absence of reserve clause Baseball v Manufacturing Wages 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 Women Men 2.00 1.00 0.00 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 Women ballplayers earned less than men They also earned less than their counterparts in the office But . . . It was only a four month job They were paid more of the revenue they generated It was a rare opportunity It was an early step in the direction of gender equity
"Earning Like a Woman_ The Gender Gap in Professional "