Family Advocacy Program - GSA by hcj


									Child Abuse & Neglect Training
          Program Agenda
1. Reasons for Training
2. Training Objectives
3. Types of Child Abuse
4. Definitions
5. Recognizing Abuse
6. Reporting Abuse
            Reasons for Training

• First, you see both children & parents and are in a position
  to see changes, problems, possible child abuse and to help
  parents find resources

• Second, Anyone in a caregiving position can abuse or be
  accused of abuse. Awareness creates protection for
  everyone involved.
          Training Objectives

•   Define 4 types of child abuse.
•   Explain how to recognize child abuse.
•   Know how to report suspected child abuse.
•   How to prevent becoming an abuser
                  Physical Abuse
    The inappropriate, excessive, and/or inconsistent corporal
    punishment causing severe or frequent injury(s). Non-
    accidental physical injury
•   Indicators: location, shape, color, physical, behavioral,
    parent explanation
•   Comprises about 25% of all child abuse in the U.S.
•   Infants are the most vulnerable and often die from being
    shaken (More in FCC homes than in center based)
•   Mongolian spots (cupping)
•   Nurse Maid elbow – grabbing a child’s wrist
•   Spanking: is it abuse?
             How to Recognize Physical Abuse
•   GIVE OUT STICK FIGURE and show pictures
•   Demonstrate how a child falls and where they would hurt themselves
• Normal Bruises in children
      •   Facial scratches in babies from long fingernails
      •   Knee and shin bruises
      •   Forehead bruises
      •   Bruises over bony prominences
• Bruises that may be caused by physical abuse – typical sites
      •   Buttocks an lower back (paddling)
      •   Genitals and inner thighs
      •   Cheek (slap marks)
      •   Ear lobe (pinch marks)
      •   Upper lip and frenulum (forced feeding)
      •   Neck (choke marks)
      •   Cupping
      •   Petechial hemorrhages (racoon eyes)
      •   Munchhausen’s syndrome by proxy – a parent purposely invents symptoms & falsifies
          records resulting in unnecessary levels of tests, hospitalization or even surgery. The
          parents is mentally ill.
       How to Recognize Physical Abuse
• Human Hand Marks (pressure bruises)
  –   Oval grab marks (finger tips)
  –   Trunk encirclement bruises
  –   Linear Marks (fingers)
  –   Hand print
  –   Pinch marks
  –   Nurse Maid elbow
  –   Issue of developing bones in a child’s wrist
       Emotional Abuse/Neglect
• Emotional Abuse
• Pattern of active, intentional berating, disparaging,
  making a child engage in destructive, antisocial
  behavior or other behavior which results in
  impaired emotional and/or educational
• Comprises 10% of all child abuse/neglect in the
• Frequently occurs as verbal abuse or excessive
  demands on the child’s performance. This form of
  abuse is the hardest to prove legally.
• Indicators: physical, behavioral
• Video clip – china doll
      How to Recognize Emotional Abuse
• Difficult to recognize but utterances such as the
  following are indicators, (will at times be reflected by
  the child):“ These indicators mimic other medical &
  psychological conditions and complicate its diagnosis.
• “Come here, and right now!"
• "Don't you ever do that again!"
• "Are you stupid or something? I've told you a million times not to
  do that!"
• "Can't you do anything right?" You are just like your dumb daddy
• "Quit snacking between meals. Do you want to be a fat pig all
  your life?"
• Talking to anybody in that way is rude and cruel. Communication
  that is heavy with harsh orders, threats, and insults destroys any
• Belittling,ridicule, teasing, unfair treatment, excessive demands,
  verbal attacks, inadequate nurturance
                        Sexual Abuse
• Any sexual activity between adult and child (or older child) done
  for adult’s sexual gratification or financial benefit. This variety
  includes sexual molestation, fondling, incest and exploitation for
  prostitution or the production of pornographic materials. Indecent
• Of the four types, reports of sexual abuse are increasing most
  rapidly. Particularly in poor nations. Cambodia, Thailand (rape in
  the Congo) but also in the US for the right amount of $ you can
  buy a child for sexual purposes
• Involvement of a child in any sexual act or situation that includes
  rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual
  exploitation, or the employment, use of persuasion, inducement,
  enticement, or coercion of a child to engage in or assist in any
  sexually explicit conduct.
        Sexual Abuse continued
• Comprises 15% of all child abuse/neglect in
   –   Intrafamilial sexual abuse
   –   Acquaintance perpetrators
   –   Stranger sexual abuse
   –   On-line sexual predators
• Indicators: physical, behavioral
        How to Recognize Sexual Abuse
• Noticeable fear of a person or certain places
• Unusual or unexpected response from the child when
  asked if she was touched by someone
• Unreasonable fear of a physical exam
• Drawings that show sexual acts
• Abrupt changes in behavior, such as bedwetting or
  losing control of his bowels
• Sudden awareness of genitals and sexual acts & words
• Attempting to get other children to perform sexual acts
• Physical signs of abuse may include sexually
  transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, or any of the
• Changes in the anal or genital areas.
• Neglect – Failure to provide basic physical child
  care needs: nourishment, clothing, shelter,
  medical/dental care, education, and/or supervision
  which results in risk to child’s health and safety
  (e.g. unsanitary or unsafe living conditions)
  treatment for illness/ injury not provided, failure to
  use car seats, leaving a child home unattended,etc.
• Comprises 50% of all child abuse/neglect in U.S.
• Indicators: physical, behavioral
     How to Recognize Child Neglect

• Neglect is the failure of the caregivers to
  provide properly for a child, especially
  habitually. While generally this is noticed in a
  lack of proper nutrition, lack of medical care,
  hygiene, shelter, or clothing, neglect can take
  many forms, including a failure to meet a
  child’s emotional needs. Many professionals
  consider neglect even more of a problem than
  abuse though it receives less media attention.
  The pictures I showed of failure to thrive children
  are representative of one form of neglect.
                       Federal Legislation
•    38.1 Introduction

•    Since 1974, federal law has played a major role in the development of state law and policy on child abuse
and neglect proceedings. Most of the laws in this area affect the states because they grant or deny federal
funds depending on the state’s compliance with certain conditions.

•    38.2 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

•    Congress began to take an active role in the child welfare system with the adoption of the Child Abuse
Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (CAPTA), P.L. 93-247, 88 Stat. 4, 42 U.S.C. §§5101–5107. The Act
created the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, authorized financial assistance to public agencies and
private nonprofit agencies for demonstration programs designed to prevent, identify, and treat child abuse and
neglect, and provided for grants to states to assist the states in developing, strengthening, and carrying out child
abuse and neglect prevention and treatment programs.

•     CAPTA has been amended a number of times over the years and contains a number of requirements that
states must meet as a condition of receiving funds under the Act. States are, for example, required to provide
for the reporting of abuse or neglect, immunity for persons reporting abuse or neglect, prompt investigation of
reports, and methods for preserving confidentiality of records. The Act also requires that states establish citizen
review panels, the requirements for which are outlined in the law, and that provisions be in place requiring that
guardians ad litem, who have received training appropriate to the role, be appointed to represent children in
abuse and neglect proceedings. Fingerprinting and criminal background record checks are required for
prospective foster and adoptive parents and for other adults living in the household. 42 U.S.C. §5106a(b)(2).
     State Laws on Reporting and
Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect
• Information on state statutes that require mandatory
  reporting by child care professionals may be located at the
  Child Welfare Information Gateway website. To see how
  your State addresses this topic or many the page opens
  type State Statutes Series in the search box. In the
  Children’s Bureau Express section choose the topic you
  would like to review. For example, state laws on reporting
  and responding to child abuse and neglect. When you
  click on one of these topics it will lead you to an entire
  laundry list of reports on the topic.
   Why Do Child Care Workers Abuse
• Many of the same reasons that parents abuse
   –   Stress
   –   Lack of training/not paying attention during training
   –   Unrealistic expectations of children
   –   Personality conflicts with the child
   –   Immature adult
   –   Taking out hostility/problems
   –   Emotional problems/mental illness
   What can be done to prevent such abuse
       Background clearances
       Child Abuse training
       Provide relief for worker who says I’m stressed
       Assign two staff per group of children
       Staff have a way to handle their stress
       Stay in shape
       Get a life

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