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Relativity

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  • pg 1
									Cells
             From small to large
• Protons, neutrons, electrons
• Atoms
• Molecules and macromolecules (macro=big):
   –   Carbohydrates (sugars, starches)
   –   Lipids (fats, cell membranes)
   –   Proteins (amino acids)
   –   DNA / RNA (nucleic acids)
• Organelles
• Cells
• Organisms (single-celled, multi-celled)
              How big are cells?
•   If the nucleus of an atom was 1 mm in size:
•   Atom would be size of classroom (10 m)
•   If atom was 1 mm in size:
•   Cell would be size of 20 classrooms (200 m)
•   Ten thousand trillion (1016) cells in human body
Cells contain
specialized
structures
called
organelles,
like
mitochondria,
as well as the
cell wall &
nucleus
    Co-evolution of organelles
• Several organelles were originally separate
  single-celled organisms
• Got incorporated into other cells (symbiotic
  relationship)
• Examples
  – Chloroplasts with chlorophyll
  – Mitochondria for making ATP (energy packet)
Important parts of a cell:

Cell walls
Nucleus
     packed with coded genetic instructions
Organelles - carry out the business of the cell
     Mitochondria (with their own genetic material)
          finish getting carbs ready to be oxidized
     Chloroplasts
          contain chlorophyll & do the photosynthesis
     And lots more organelles
   DNA
shaped as
 a double
   helix
DNA is made of nucleic acids
Strings of coded information:

Writing with letters (packed into a book)
Morse code
Rows of switches in a computer
DNA! (packed into the nucleus)

DNA codes the instructions for building
And maintaining living things.
                    Activity
• Form groups of THREE
• Assign number to each of you (1, 2, 3)
• Copy text from the upper left corner to the lower
  left corner – NO ERASING, NO DOUBLE
  CHECKING, 20 SECONDS
• Tear off top left corner and trade sheets
• Copy text from lower left corner to lower right
  corner . . .
• After three swaps, TRANSLATE the new
  message to the sheet with your name
• TRANSLATE by writing message backwards
                  Original Messages


1)   Proteins.are.composed.of.amino.acids.linked.with.peptide.bonds
2)   DNA.provides.the.genetic.blueprint.for.building.proteins.
3)   Genetic.diversity.results.from.sexual.reproduction.and.mutations
Transmitting & carrying out instructions:
            Role of proteins
         Role of proteins:
     Carry out the instructions
• Complete genetic code (DNA) is found in
  every cell of your body
• Proteins are made inside cells based upon
  this genetic code
• Protein functions to
  – Provide structure and organization
  – Regulate chemical reactions
  – Regulate the replication of more DNA
Proteins are
  made of
amino acids
Amino acids are linked together to make proteins



                                    LOTS OF
                                    C and H
                                    ATOMS!!
Proteins have unique
       shapes
• Functions of Proteins
  – Regulate chemical
    reactions as enzymes
  – Provide Structure and
    organization within cell
Proteins
are cool!
     Proteins are made based on
            genetic code
• http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranslation.html
         Viruses versus Cells
• Viruses
  – Membrane and genetic code (no organelles)
  – Are viruses living?
• Cells without nuclei – (prokaryotes)
  – Membrane, organelles, and genetic code
• Cells with nuclei – (eukaryotes)
  – Membrane, organelles, & genetic code in
    nucleus
Viruses
Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote
Types of Cells
Cell specialization
Cell specialization

								
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