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Reading

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									                         Reading


      EXC 7765
Teaching & Learning II
     Spring 2004
    Standards Based Reform &
        Special Education
                 IDEA 1997
Establish goals for the performance of
 students with disabilities that are consistent
 with goals & standards for all students
Address and report on the performance of
 students with disabilities on assessments,
 graduation, drop-out rates
 Provide access for students with disabilities
 to the general education curriculum
   Research-based Best Practice
“The ultimate beneficiaries of education
  research must be children, not the
  researchers themselves. Enlightened
  educators look to education research for
  well-founded evidence to help them do a
  better job with the children they serve”
  (Slavin, 2004, p. 27).
              Differentiation
           (Tomlinson, 1995, ED38914)
• Variety of ways for students to explore curriculum
  content
• Variety of sense-making activities or processes
  through which students can come to understand
  and “own” information and ideas
• Variety of options through which students can
  demonstrate or exhibit what they have learned.

              Quality vs. quantity
              Differentiation
           (Tomlinson, 1999; Strieker, 2004)

• Readiness: Readiness for a given skill, concept,
  or way of thinking (ability). Begin where students
  are.
• Interests: Those things learners find relevant,
  fascinating, or worthy of their time. Engage
  students in instruction.
• Learning Profile: Learning style, intelligence
  preference, processing preferences, and/or how the
  learner sees himself in relation to the rest of the
  world. Students learn in different ways
   Differentiated Instruction
      (Tomlinson, 1999)

Grouping
Interest
Modalities
Rates of instruction
Level of complexity
Active exploration
         Highly         FEW             Functional or
       complex         WILL             Access Skills
                       LEARN




                  MOST WILL LEARN
PLANNING
PYRAMID             Next important
                   concepts or skills



                  ALL WILL Learn
                   Most Important
                   Concepts & Skills
 http://www.nrrf.org/synthesis_research.htm


   A Synthesis of Research on Reading
    from the National Institute of Child
                  Health
        and Human Development

by Bonita Grossen
  University of Oregon
  November , 1997
       Phonemic awareness

Children who are not phonemically aware are not able to
segment words and syllables into phonemes.
Consequently, they do not develop the ability to decode
single words accurately and fluently, an inability that is the
distinguishing characteristic of persons with reading
disabilities.
      Phonological Processing
Component Skill          Assessment
Phonological Awareness   Say cat without the /t/
                         sound
Phonological recoding in Name objects, letters,
lexical access (Rapid    colors quickly
naming)
Phonological recoding in Repeat sentences, words,
working memory           or digits accurately.
     Key principles of effective reading
    instruction identified in the research
1. Begin teaching phonemic awareness directly at an
   early age (kindergarten).
2. Teach each sound-spelling correspondence explicitly.
3. Teach frequent, highly regular sound-spelling
   relationships systematically.
4. Show children exactly how to sound out words.
5. Use connected, decodable text for children to practice
   the sound-spelling relationships they learn.
6. The use of interesting stories to develop language
   comprehension.
                  Balance, but don't mix.
http://www.cornerstoneliteracy.org/
 "To read, to write, to
     think critically, to
 reason, to analyze and
  evaluate information,
      to communicate
  effectively in a variety
 of forms, and to inquire
 systematically into any
    important matter."
    Proficient Reader Research          Miller (2002)

• Activating relevant, prior knowledge (schema) before,
  during, and after reading text (Anderson & Pearson, 1984)
• Creating visual and other sensory images from text during
  & after reading (Pressley, 1976)
• Drawing inferences from text to form conclusions, make
  critical judgments, and create unique interpretations
  (Hansen, 1981)
• Asking questions of themselves, the authors, and the texts
  they read (Raphael, 1984)
• Determining the most important ideas and themes in a text
  (Palinscar and Brown, 1984)
• Synthesizing what they read (Brown, Day, and Jones,
  1983)
Stages of Reading Development
     • Readiness
         Listening comprehension
         Phonemic awareness
     • Beginning Reading
         Phonological processing
         Automaticity
         Reading comprehension
     • Functional Reading
         Locating information
         Following directions
         Organizing ideas
     • Recreational Reading
         Choosing appropriate reading materials
    Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is viewed as the
     process of using one’s own prior
    knowledge and the writer’s cues to
   infer the author’s intended meaning
          (Johnson, 1981, p. 16).
Reading comprehension requires active
        involvement by the reader.
    Strategy Use (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997)
•   Uses schema (connections)
•   Infers
•   Asks questions
•   Determines what is important in text
•   Monitors comprehension
•   Visualizes & creates mental images while
    reading
 Rand Reading Study Report (2001)
 http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1465/index.html

Reading comprehension capacity builds on
 successful initial reading instruction




            Text          Activity



                     Reader
How Good Readers Process Text
                 (Irwin, 1991)

• Microprocesses – individual sentence level
• Integrative processes – use of context
• Elaborative processes – interaction with
  past
• Macroprocesses – reading strategies for
  main ideas
• Metacognitive processes – self-monitoring
  strategies
   Building Connections (Herrell, 2000)
• Listening to proficient reader (teacher/parent)
• Proficient reader stops to check understanding
  of new or key vocabulary words
• Role play or act out new vocabulary words
• Picture or realia to represent new vocabulary
  word
• Repetition – reread/continue role play
• Students use vocabulary in context – oral and
  then written
• Repetition of student use in context.
             Crafting sessions
•   Quality children’s literature
•   Teacher model
•   Student participation
•   Active engagement
•   Monitor
•   Review
  Vocabulary Journals

New words     How I used my word

 Flung       I told my mom, “I flung my
             towel over the towel rack.”


  Intently   I asked my dad, “What are
             you looking at so intently?”
             (He was impressed.)
      Vocabulary Instruction
• Essential vocabulary
  – Survival
  – Literacy
• Reading vocabulary
  – Comprehension
  – Semantic map
• Content vocabulary
  – Comprehension
  – Relationships
    Levels of Word Knowledge
                 (Snyder, 2003)


• Unknown No idea at all what word means
• Acquainted Must deliberately think about
  word in order to recall its meaning
• Established Recognizes word and gives
  meaning to it easily
• In-depth Word is thoroughly understood in
  all or most contexts; uses word flexibly; can
  associate it with range of experiences
    Processing unknown words
• Unknown word:        eleemosynary
• Write the word
• Context sentence: The philanthropist made
  an eleemosynary gesture.
• Synonym: gratutious
• Definition : Of or relating to alms or the
  giving of alms; contributed as an act of
  charity
          Learning New Words
                  (Snyder, 2003)

•   Label known concept
•   Receptive – expressive oral vocabulary
•   Oral – reading vocabulary
•   Clarification & enrichment – known words
•   New meanings for known words
•   Multiple meanings for known words
•   Receptive – expressive written vocabulary
•   New words & new concepts
                          Balance

                   Genres           •   Listening
                                    •   Speaking
Learning to read                    •   Reading
Reading to learn                    •   Writing

                   Surface skills
                   Deep structure
http://www.standards.dfee.gov.uk/literacy/


               Closure      Review


           Differentiated
              practice        Explicit
              activity      Instruction
      Dimensions of Learning
              (Marzano, 1992)

1. Positive attitudes and perceptions about
   learning
2. Thinking involved in acquiring and
   integrating knowledge
3. Thinking involved in extending and
   refining knowledge
4. Using knowledge meaningfully
5. Productive habits of mind
     Vocabulary Enrichment &
      Dimensions of Learning
              (Marzano, 1992)
1. Positive attitudes and perceptions about
   learning
2. Thinking involved in acquiring and
   integrating knowledge
3. Thinking involved in extending and
   refining knowledge
4. Using knowledge meaningfully
5. Productive habits of mind
  Dimension 1: Positive attitudes
  and perceptions about learning
• Task value                           March Madness
   – Student interest
   – Product choice
• Wait time Stahl, 1994 (ED 370885)   < 1.5 > 3 seconds
   – Processing time
   – Active engagement
• Guidance
   – Cues & prompts                   Crossword, “sounds
   – Feedback                           like, synonym
 Vocabulary Instruction & Reading
  Comprehension (Smith, 1197, ED412506)
Vocabulary instruction should be included
  across all areas of curriculum
Direct involvement of students in
  constructing meaning is more effective
  that memorization techniques
Study of relationships is important in content
  area reading
Beginning with current student framework
  facilitates learning
Dimension 2: Acquiring and
  integrating knowledge
      DeclarativeKnowledge

             KWL
        Representations
            Patterns
       Graphic Organizers
       Memory Strategies
Vocabulary Frames are a flashcard method for learning new vocabulary. Do not use
Vocabulary Frames for every vocabulary word encountered. Words that introduce new
concepts are best used with Vocabulary Frames.




                                                      Isolate any prefixes
Top Right Corner: Write the word’s
                                                      Isolate the root
definition top
                                                      Note the meaning of the
Left Corner: Write the word’s
                                                      root
opposite and cross it out
                                                      Isolate any suffixes
Lower Left Corner: Write a silly
                                                      Label the part of speech
sentence that uses the definition of
                                                      in parenthesis
the word
Lower Right Corner: Draw a graphic
to help you visualize the concept       http://litsite.alaska.edu/uaa/workbooks/readi
In the Center: Write the word                           ngvocabulary.html
           WRITING YOUR OWN DEFINITION
               DEFINITION WORD CHART
http://www.tandl.leon.k12.fl.us/lang/Elementary/Anchorvoc.html

     Word

     Things I know
     about the word
     General category
     this word might
     belong in
     Examples of other
     related words
     My definition
Dimension 2: Acquiring and
  integrating knowledge
    Procedural Knowledge

         Algorithms
         Strategies
        General rules
         Analogies
        Think Aloud
        Flow Charts
        Latin & Greek Roots
• http://www.quia.com/jg/275995.html
• http://english.glendale.cc.ca.us/quizr.html
• http://hyper.vcsun.org/HyperNews/nherr/get
  /SED646/S99.1/104.html?nogifs
• http://www.resourceroom.net/Comprehensi
  on/index.asp
     Dimension 3: Extending and
          refining knowledge
•   Comparing
•   Classifying
•   Inducing
•   Deducing
•   Analyzing errors
•   Constructing support
•   Abstracting
•   Analyzing perspective
 Dimension 4: Using knowledge
         meaningfully
• Application-oriented tasks
• Long-term tasks
• Student-directed tasks
 Dimension 5: Productive habits
           of mind
• Self-regulated thinking and learning
• Critical thinking and learning
• Creative thinking and learning
     Integrating & Weaving
  Vocabulary Instruction Across
         the Curriculum

• Graphic organizers
• Compare/contrast
• Preview strategies
Facilitating retention, understanding &
        independent application
              Elaboration Techniques
• Teach new vocabulary in context (meaningful
  subject-matter lesson)
• Select vocabulary that is:
   – Key to understanding
   – Repeated
• Facilitate student discussion to promote use of
  new term
• Build on previous knowledge
• Use examples/non-examples
• Use multiple formats
               Clarifying Table (Titanic)
Term Elitism
Core Idea being especially proud of belonging to a small
  group who thinks its superior
 Use it to describe   Clarifiers                    Knowledge connections


 Example of:          “Superior to others” belief   Snobby acting movie stars


                      “more valuable” belief


                      Snobby acting


                      Aristocracy, super-rich,
                      celebrities
     Integrating & Weaving
  Vocabulary Instruction Across
         the Curriculum

• Graphic organizers
• Compare/contrast
• Preview strategies
Facilitating retention, understanding &
        independent application
              Elaboration Techniques
• Teach new vocabulary in context (meaningful
  subject-matter lesson)
• Select vocabulary that is:
   – Key to understanding
   – Repeated
• Facilitate student discussion to promote use of
  new term
• Build on previous knowledge
• Use examples/non-examples
• Use multiple formats
               Clarifying Table (Titanic)
Term Elitism
Core Idea being especially proud of belonging to a small
  group who thinks its superior
 Use it to describe   Clarifiers                    Knowledge connections


 Example of:          “Superior to others” belief   Snobby acting movie stars


                      “more valuable” belief


                      Snobby acting


                      Aristocracy, super-rich,
                      celebrities
  Stages of spelling development
• Readiness         20xot7

• Prephonetic       TR

• Phonetic          tejr

• Transitional      teechir

• Correct           teacher
Communication Disorders
• Language - cognitive function
• Form:
     • Phonology           (sounds)
     • Morphology          (parts)
     • Syntax              (grammar)
• Content
  – Semantics              (vocabulary)
• Use
  – Pragmatics             (function)
           Language Disorders
• Pragmatics
  –   Function or use of language
  –   What to say
  –   Who to say it to
  –   When to say it
  –   How to say it
  –   Under what circumstances
Expansion of Expressive
     Vocabulary
     •   Opportunity
     •   Model
     •   Expansion
     •   Establish
     •   Transfer
     •   Maintain
     •   Correction
http://toread.com/
http://www.brainconnection.com
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/timely/briiss.htm
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/timely/brires.htmhttp://www.ericfa
   cility.net/ericdigests/ed435986.html
http://www.indiana.edu/~eric_rec/ieo/digests/d144.html
http://www.indiana.edu/~eric_rec/ieo/bibs/balanced.html
http://www.dfes.gov.uk/index.htm

								
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