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									“Quality Evaluation of Fruit Juices with Added Glutathione”

A Research Paper Presented to

Prof. Lucita C. de Guzman FT 190 Adviser

School of Technology University of the Philippines Visayas Miag-ao, Iloilo 5023 Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for FT 190: Undergraduate Seminar

Ronald Ladrillo Amigo BS Food Technology III September 2008 i

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objective of the Research 1.2 Significance of the Research 1.3 Limitation and Scope of the Research 2.0 Review of Related Literature 2.1 Fruit Juices 2.2 Nutritional Composition of Fruit Juices 2.3 Problems Associated with Fruit Juices 2.3.1 Fermentation Spoilage 2.3.2 Food-borne Illnesses Outbreaks 2.3.3 Cloudy Sedimentation 2.3.4 Poor Flavor 2.3.5 Browning 2.4 Enzymatic Browning 2.5 Prevention of Enzymatic Browning 2.5.1 Blanching 2.5.2 Refrigeration 2.5.3 Freezing 2.5.4 Change in pH 2.5.5 Dehydration 2.5.6 Irradiation 2.5.7 High Pressure Treatment 2.5.8 Addition of Inhibitors 2.6 Glutathione 2.7 Biological and Health Significance 2.8 Biological and Health Benefits 2.9 Application to Fruit Juices

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CHAPTER 1.0. INTRODUCTION

Recently, the demand for fruit and fruit products in tropical countries is virtually increasing. Statistics show that more and more industrialized countries and developing countries are probing to fresh and processed tropical fruits (Gatchalian & de Leon, 1992). Hence, it is for this reason that the increasing agricultural productivity and rising consumer demands point to the urgency of fruit processing. Beside, being eaten fresh, fruits can be also preserved in various ways and one of them is by processing them into juices.

A fruit juice beverage, as defined by Gatchalian and de Leon (1992), is an apparent or nearly apparent unfermented liquid which is produced from the extraction of the sweet watery sap generally from the ripe fruit. It is classified as non-alcoholic beverages. According to Paul (1975), fruit juices have high acceptability in the market because of their relatively low cost and high nutritional value coupled with modern diet appeal. In the Philippines, consumption of fruit juices has increased considerably from P3 billion (at current prices) in 1993 to about P7.2 billion in 2000, a hefty increase of 137% (Monteclavo et. al., 2005).

As with every food processing operation, it is the primary object of technology to direct most research efforts toward process control and process and product optimization. According to Lazarides et. al. (1999), in addition to usual concerns of process, food processing design has to consider nutrition, sensorial characteristics, product stability, and consumer safety. The preparation of fruit juices must be able to maintain their natural flavor and aroma characteristics under ordinary storage conditions over prolonged period of time.

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For fruit juices, the common undesirable problems that fruit processing manufacturers are encountering are fermentation spoilage for canned fruit juices, food-borne illnesses outbreaks, cloudy sedimentation, poor flavor, and browning. Among these problems, browning is regarded as one of the most important problems related to color deterioration in processed fruits.

Browning of fruit juices has two forms, namely, enzymatic browning and non-enzymatic browning. Enzymic browning is a chemical process involving polyphenol oxidase or other enzymes that create melanins, resulting in a brown color. While, non-enzymatic, or oxidative, browning is a chemical process that produces a brown color in foods without the activity of enzymes (www.wikipedia.com, 2008). Between the two, enzymatic browning of fruits and processed fruits creates heavy economic losses for growers.

Several methods can be applied to avoid enzymatic browning, based on inactivating the enzyme (heat) or by removing essential components (most often oxygen) from the product. These methods include blanching, refrigeration, freezing, change in pH, dehydration, irradiation, high pressure treatment, and addition of inhibitors. Among these methods, addition of inhibitors is the recently trend. Large amount of inhibitors are applied in food processing depending on the type of product and process (FAO, 2008). Recent studies show that one of the most important inhibitors is the glutathione. Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight thiol which has a common name of GSH. As an inhibitor, GSH is categorized as reducing agents which main mode of action is the removal of oxygen. According to Naim et. al. (1997), orange juice fortification with glutathione reduced browning and inhibited ascorbic acid degradation during

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pasteurization. Moreover, glutathione also reduces off flavor generation during storage (Zheng et. al, 2006).

Due to the increase demand of fruit juices, researches continue to develop new formulations to improve the quality of the product. This research study focused on determination of the effect of glutathione in the quality of fruit juices. 1.1. Objective The main objective of the study was to improve the quality of fruit juice by addition of glutathione. Specifically, it aims to 1. Address the problems associated with fruit juices regarding quality 2. Know the different methods used in the prevention of these problems in the processing of fruit juices 3. Gain information about the feasibility of using glutathione as an inhibitor of enzymatic browning among fruit juices 4. Recognize the biological and health benefits and risks of glutathione 1.2. Significance of the Study The significance of the study is to address problems in fruit juices and to promote processing of fruit juices with improved quality. This would also serve as baseline information on the use of glutathione in fruit juice. 1.3. Scope and Limitations of the Study

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CHAPTER 2.0. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The rule comes after a rise in the number of foodborne illness outbreaks and consumer illnesses associated with juice products during the past several years, including a 1996 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with apple juice products and two citrus juice outbreaks attributed to Salmonella spp. in 1999 and 2000. The apple juice outbreak sickened 70 people in the western United States and Canada, including a child who died from hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by the infection. The Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak in 2000 was caused by unpasteurized orange juice and resulted in 88 illnesses in six western states. The Salmonella Muenchen outbreak in 1999 was caused by unpasteurized orange juice and resulted in 423 illness in 20 states and 3 Canadian provinces and contributed to one death. Foodborne infections are especially dangerous for young children, older adults and those with weakened immune systems. FDA estimates that there are between 16,000 to 48,000 cases of juice-related illnesses each year. It is estimated that the action taken due to the rule will prevent at least 6,000 illnesses per year.

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Reference:

Enzymatic Browning. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from USA: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Web site: http://www.fao.org/AG/ags/agsi/ENZYMEFINAL/Enzymatic%20Browning.htm FDA PUBLISHES FINAL RULE TO INCREASE SAFETY OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE JUICES. Retrieved September 19, 2008, from HHS News Web site: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2001/NEW00749.html Gatchalian, M. M. & de Leon, S. Y. (1992). Fruit and Fruit Products. In Gatchalian, M. M. & de Leon, S. Y. (Ed.). Introduction to Food Technology (pp. ). Manila, Philippines: Merriam & Webster, Inc. Gatchalian, M. M. & de Leon, S. Y. (1992). Introduction to Food Technology. Manila, Philippines: Merriam & Webster, Inc. Lazarides, H. N., Matuska, M. & Lenart, A. (1999). Processing Foods. New York: CRC Press. Montecalvo, A. T., Olivas, K. S. & Vivo, L. P. (2005). Drink all you can: A Glimpse of the Imported Fruit Juice Market. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Web site: http://images.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://bp0.blogger.com/_8d5iqCgVwxk/SETW EPLaf9I/AAAAAAAAAHU/7z5z21YIh7g/s400/fruitjuice.jpg&imgrefurl=http://greathealthyfood.blogspot.com/2008/06/drink-fruit-juice-eatingfruit-orfruit.html&h=335&w=335&sz=30&hl=en&start=22&um=1&usg=__YLRKvInDGFDIJEM DvodQPALuHcg=&tbnid=mFVnMjtBVCaRAM:&tbnh=119&tbnw=119&prev=/images%3 Fq%3Dfruit%2Bjuices%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa% 3DN Paul, J. K. (1975). Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing. New Jersey, USA: Noyes Data Corporation.
Follow these color codes: Author(s) Volume Date Pages Title of Book Place of Publication Title of Article Publisher Title of Periodical Other Information

Journal Article: where the page numbering continues from issue to issue Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics Teacher, 28, 316-318.

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Journal or Magazine Article: that start each issue with page one (for magazine articles, include the month and day - see below) Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star trek: The next generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65. Magazine or Journal Article from a Database (for journal articles, do not include the month - see above) Mershon, D. H. (1998, November/December). Star trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86(6), 585. Retrieved July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database. Newspaper Article Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star trek. Los Angeles Times, p. A3. Book Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Book Article or Chapter James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier. ERIC Document Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star trek: The next generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932) Website Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/ 503r.html

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