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Ganjam Comprehensive Annual District Plan 2012-13 - nrcddp

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                                   Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                 Table of Contents 
     

     Executive Summary                                                                     1 

    Chapter –I (District Profile)                                                          2 

    Chapter –II (Swot Analysis)                                                            40 

    Chapter – III (District Vision)                                                        52 

    Chapter – IV (Resource Enevelope District)                                             61 

    Chapter – V (Resource Enevelope Block)                                                 65 

    Chapter – VI (Sector District Scheme)                                                  67 

    Chapter – VII (Tribal Sub Plan)                                                        97 

    Chapter – VIII (SCSP)                                                                  103 

    Chapter – IX (BRGF)                                                                    109 

    Chapter – X (Gender Sub Plan)                                                          114 

    Chapter – XI (Convergence Programme)                                                   119 

    Chapter – XII (Plan Performance)                                                       136 

    Chapter – XIII (LWE)                                                                   145 

    Chapter XIV (LWE Pockets)                                                              150 

    Suggestion & Recommendation                                                            153 

     
     




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                Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                 Abbreviations

        AAP     Annual Action Plan
        ACP     Annual Credit Plan
        AIBP    Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme
        AIC     Agriculture Information Centre
        AIDS    Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
        ANM     Auxiliary Nursing & Midwifery
        ARD     Animal Resource Development
        ARWSP   Accelerated Rural Water Supply Project
        ASHA    Accredited Social Health Activist
        ATMA    Agriculture Technology Management Agency
        AWC     Angan Wadi Centre
        AWW     Angan Wadi Workers
        AYUSH   Ayurvedic, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Sidhha & Homeopathy
        BGJY    Biju Gram Jyoti Yojna
        BKJY    Biju Kutira Jyoti Yojna
        BRGF    Backward Regions Grant Fund
        CD      Community Development
        C-DAP   Comprehensive District Agriculture Plan
        CDMO    Chief District Medical Officer
        CDP     Comprehensive District Plan
        CDPO    Child Development Project Officer
        CDVO    Chief District Veterinary Officer
        CHC     Community Health Centre
        CIG     Community Interest Group
        CSS     Centrally Sponsored Scheme
        DAPU    District Agriculture Planning Unit
        DDC     Drug Distribution Centre
        DDMA    District Disaster Management Authority
        DDP     District Domestic Product
        DFO     Divisional Forest Officer
        DISE    District Information for System on Education
        DPAP    Drought Prone Area Programme
        DPC     District Planning Committee
        DPR     District Panchayat Report
        DRCS    Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies
        DRDA    District Rural Development Agency
        DSWO    District Social Welfare Officer
        DWO     District Welfare Officer
        DWSM    District Water & Sanitation Mission
        FFDA    Fish Farmers’ Development Agency
        FTD     Fever Treatment Department


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                 Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



        GCA      Gross Cultivated Area
        GDDP     Gross District Domestic Product
        GDI      Gender Development Report
        GFTMA    Global Fund to Fight Tuberculosis, Malaria & AIDS
        GP       Gram Panchayat
        HCR      Head Count Ratio
        HDI      Human Development Index
        HIV      Human Immunodeficiency Virus
        HYV      High Yielding Variety
        IAY      Indira Awas Yojna
        ICDS     Integrated Child Development Services
        ICT      Information Communication Technology
        IDBI     Industrial Development Bank of India
        IDP      Integrated District Plan
        IMR      Infant Mortality Rate
        ISOPOM   Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize
        KGBV     Kasturaba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
        KVIC     Khadi & Village Industries Commission
        LDB      Land Development Bank
        LDM      Lead Bank Manager
        LI       Lift Irrigation
        MDA      Mass Drug Administration
        MDM      Mid-day Meal
        MI       Minor Irrigation
        MIP      Minor Irrigation Project
        MLVs     Malaria Link Volunteers
        MMR      Maternal Mortality Rate
        NABARD   National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
        NAC      Notified Area Council
        NDC      National Development Council
        NFBS     National Family Benefit Scheme
        NGO      Non-Governmental Organization
        NHM      National Horticulture Mission
        NMBS     National Maternity Benefit Scheme
        NOAP     National Old Age Pension
        NREGS    National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
        NRHM     National Rural Health Mission
        NSAP     National Social Assistance Programme
        NTFP     Non-Timber Forest Products
        OMFED    Orissa State Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation
        OREDA    Orissa Renewable Energy Development Agency
        PACS     Primary Agricultural Co-operative Society
        PHC      Public Health Centre
        PMGSY    Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana



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                Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



        PPP     Public Private Partnership
        PPTCT   Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission
        PRI     Panchayati Raj Institution
        PS      Panchayat Samiti
        R&B     Road and Buildings
        RCH     Reproductive Child and Health
        RGGVY   Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyudtikaran Yojna
        RKVY    Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna
        RMC     Regulated Market Committee
        RSM     Rural Sanitary Mart
        SCSP    Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan
        SDH     Sub-Divisional Hospital
        SDVO    Sub-Divisional Veterinary Officer
        SGSY    Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
        SHG     Self Help Group
        SOAP    State Old Age Pension
        SRI     System of Rice Intensification
        SSA     Sarva Sikshya Abhiyan
        SSI     Small Scale Industry
        SSP     State Sector Plan
        SWOT    Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat
        TFC     Twelfth Finance Commission
        TLM     Teaching Learning Materials
        TSC     Total Sanitation Campaign
        TSI     Technical Support Institution
        TSP     Tribal Sub-Plan
        UEE     Universalisation of Elementary Education
        UGPHC   Up-graded Primary Health Centre
        UIP     Universal Immunization Programme
        ULBs    Urban Local Bodies
        VCCTC   Voluntary Confidential Counselling & Testing Centre
        VSS     Vana Samarkshana Samiti
        WPR     Work Participation Ratio
        WSHG    Women Self Help Group
        ZP      Zilla Parishad




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                                Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                    SUMMARY


    Vision

    Reduce poverty, hunger and starvation through balanced, inclusive and complementary growth, reduced
    disparity across regions and groups and ensure gender
    equity.                                                    District Profile at a glance
                                                                      SN   Details                              Value
    Ganjam economy is predominantly agrarian. Around 80                1   Geographical Area [Sq.km]            8206
                                                                       2   Forest Area (Ha)                     38.38
    percentage of the population depends on agriculture and            3   Subdivisions [Nos]                   3
    allied activities. The long sea and Chilika coast line is a        4   CD Blocks [Nos]                      22
    source of rich marine products and lime shells. Ganjam is          5   Municipality/NAC [Nos]               18
                                                                       6   Gram Panchayat [Nos]                 475
    a major salt producing district in the state. It witnesses a       7   villages [Nos]                       3212
    high degree of degree of migration. The district has also          8   Population (2001 Census)             3,161,000
    seen a strong SHG movement with nearly 20000 SHG                   9   Rural Population (%)                 82.40
                                                                      10   Urban Population (%)                 17.60
    groups having nearly 2.5 lakh members                             11   ST Population (%)                    2.90
                                                                      12   SC population (%)                    18.57
    SWOT analysis                                                     13   Population Density (person/sq. km)   385
                                                                      14   Decennial Growth Rate (%) 91-01      16.88
                                                                      15   Sex Ratio                            998
    Agro-climatic conditions of Ganjam are very congenital            16   Literacy Rate (%)                    60.77
    and suitable for agriculture and horticulture. It is the          17   Female Literacy Rate (%)             46.44
    major producer of paddy in the state. The long coast line         18   Male Literacy Rate (%)               75.22
    offers great scope for fishing, salt production and eco-tourism. However, the district is frequently affected
    by natural calamities like droughts, floods and cyclones.

    Lead Sector: The lead sectors include agriculture and allied sectors, irrigation, rural development, social
    services and road infrastructure

    Sl.                  Sectors                Resource           Resource       Resource        Gap Filling: The
    No                                         Requirement         Availability     Gap           total         resource
        1    AGRICULTURE & ALLIED ACTIVITIES      6948.46            6580.77         367.69       requirement for the
        2    RURAL DEVELOPMENT                   10998.6             10998.6          0.00        district is 157425.34
        3    SPECIAL AREA PROGRAMMES             3843.00             3843.00                      lakh.The          total
        4    IRRIGATION & FLOOD CONTROL          24296.51           24023.51         273.00       resource avialble is
        5    ENERGY                                24.00              24.00           0.00        Rs155150.51 lakh.
        6    INDUSTRY AND MINERALS               3495.24             3495.24          0.00        Hence. There is a
        7    TRANSPORT                           31724.54           31714.54           10         gap of Rs. 2274.82
             SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY &                                                                lakh which can be
         8   ENVIRONMENT                          1155.24            1155.24                      filled     up     from
         9   GENERAL ECONOMIC SERVICES            2700.00            2700.00           0          NREGS,          BRGF,
        10   SOCIAL SERVICES                    72239.77926         70615.62      1624.15926      SSA, & NRHM
             Sub total                           157425.34          155150.51       2274.82
        11   NREGS/BRGF/RLTAP                        0               2274.82       -2274.82
                                                                                        Hence          more
             Grand Total                         157425.34          157425.34
                                                                                        emphasis has been
    given to Agriculture and allied sector, Irrigation and Flood control sector, Transport sector and social
    sector in the Comprehensive District Plan of Ganjam district for the year 2012-13.




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                                                            CHAPTER- I


                     G AN J AM D IS TR IC T : C OMP R E H E N S IV E D IS T R IC T P L AN
     

    Introduction

    India adopted economic planning with the launch of the First Five Year Plan in 1951. Initially,
    the Five Year Plans were mainly the centralized plans. But from the very first plan onwards,
    attempts have been made by the government to introduce some degree of decentralization into
    the planning process by strengthening local level planning. Till the end of 10th plan period,
    decentralized planning was in dormant stage and actual planning in a decentralized mode failed
    to evolve due to many reasons. But the process took momentum during 11th plan period when
    all out emphasis was placed to make the decentralized planning realistic. The evolution of
    decentralized planning passed through different phases in the country and accelerated during
    the present plan i.e. 11th plan period. The central government put utmost emphasis on
    decentralized and participatory planning process in the coming 12th Five Year Planning period
    (2012-17)

    State Initiatives in Planning

    The Government of Orissa has been instrumental in carrying out the decentralized planning in
    the state covering all the districts. With the Guidance & support of the Planning and
    Coordination Department, Government of Orissa, since 2008-09, each district has been
    preparing the district plan articulating their physical and financial requirements. The state has
    identified a panel of TSIs in the state, based on their experience and expertise, to facilitate the
    district planning process. The TSIs have been trained / oriented by the Department so that they
    can effectively facilitate the process at the district level. The TSIs have been instrumental in
    concretising the decentralized planning process in the state with the support of district
    administration and DPMUs.

    CTRAN as TSI

    CTRAN has been assigned with the responsibility to facilitate the district planning process in
    Ganjam. The assignment given by the Government is to support the district administration in
    preparing perspective plan for 12th plan period and annual plan for 2012-13.

    1.1     Methodology
    The approach to district planning process was both participatory and consultative in nature,
    which encompassed stakeholders from different sectors. The information collection and sharing
    methodology included interview, participatory consultation, scheduled based information
    collection and feedback collection. The Integrated District Planning Manual developed by
    Planning Commission, Government of India was referred for the process of data collection,
    information sharing and planning. At GP level, PRI members were considered to be the major



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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    contributors whereas district administration and line departments played an important role in the
    overall consultation process. At the block level, mixed approach was adopted taking both
    government officials and PRI members into the fold of plan preparation. Opinions of all the
    stakeholders were taken for preparing the district plan. For planning, both primary and
    secondary information were collected with reference to the guideline issued by P & C
    Department, Government of Orissa. The approach was basically consultative and participatory
    in nature whereas emphasis was laid upon both qualitative and quantitative dimensions of
    district situation. The overall processes followed are reflected below.

                Organising district level consultation meeting with all the line departments, PRI
                 members and civil society organisations.
                Organising block level and NAC level workshops with PRI members of block/NAC
                 and GP for issue prioritisation by GP and finalisation of GP plan.
                Consolidation of GP plan at block level incorporating block plans and plans of line
                 departments [information from some line departments is not available at block level].
                Consolidation of block/NAC level plans at district level.
                Incorporation of Departmental Plans to the overall district planning.
                Identification of resource gap based on the district resource envelop [mid-course
                 resource envelop]
                Preparation of District Plan report with reference to the report structure given by
                 Planning and Coordination Department, Government of Orissa.
                Placing the final financial report before DPC for approval.

    Preliminary Discussion with P&C Department:

    An exclusive meeting was organised by P&C Department with all the TSIs to orient them on the
    planning process. The discussion was basically on developing district perspective, identifying
    lead sectors, revisiting the district vision and preparing the plan accordingly. Representative
    from CTRAN also attended the meeting.

    1.2      Designing the Tools:

    Different tools were designed to review the vision document and facilitate the planning process
    in the district. The tools so developed and shared at the district level are as follows. All the
    developed tools are submitted to the DPMU, Ganjam for reference and necessary action.

          1. Baseline information tool to capture secondary information
          2. Planning Format for GP level Planning
          3. Vision revisiting and Perspective Building Framework
          4. Output and Convergence Plan Framework and
          5. Planning Tool [five year and annual]




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    The formats given by the Planning and Coordination Department, Government of Orissa are
    also customised for use in the district planning process. The GP level planning formats and gist
    of decentralised planning also provided in simply language.

    1.3    District Consultation:

    Preliminary consultation held with the Collector and District Magistrate of Ganjam, Deputy
    Director of District Planning & Monitoring Unit and other department officials on 11.08.2011 in
    the conference hall of DRDA-Chatrapur. The developed tools were shared with them and
    submitted for circulation to different departments / planning units for information.




                    District level consultation workshop at DRDA Conference Hall.


    1.4    Finalisation of Planning Team:

    For facilitating district planning, a 19 members team is finalised comprising persons having
    experience in planning and have been associated in the district planning process. The core
    team of CTRAN would be guiding the overall process and support at the time of requirement.

    1.5    Orientation of Planning Team:

    Selected members of the finalised team were oriented on the planning tools, methodology and
    process of planning. Two day’s orientation was conducted for them at Bhubaneswar level to
    acquaint them on the aforementioned aspects. It is further planning to have one day field
    orientation at the district level, once the team moves to the district.

    1.6    District Consultation Workshop:

    After detail discussion with the DPMU and the District Administration, district consultation
    workshop on planning was held on 11th August 2011. There was a detail presentation on the
    planning process, formulation of comprehensive District Plan for 2012-13, Five Year
    Perspective Plan 2012-17, Five Year BRGF Plan of Ganjam district along with discussion and
    review on the vision and perspective.


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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.7    Block/ULB Level workshop:
    As per the direction of the District Collector & guidance by Deputy Director DPMU, Ganjam the
    Block level/ ULB level workshops was held from 16-8-2011 to 30-8-2011 at every Block/ULB
    head quarters with the cooperation of Blocks/ULBs officials .
    1.8    Gram Panchayat Level Consultation:
    The researchers of CTRAN Consulting visited and interacted with GP level PRI members,
    Executive officers and other stakeholders related to plan formulation.
    1.9    Data Collection
    Planning demands the most relevant data as well as information of various directions. The
    required information has been collected from GPs, Blocks/ULBs and from the line departments
    through specific format. At the time of data collection, some valuable information like constraints
    and prospects has been collected through discussions which are reflected by the respective
    departments in the Plan document. Project proposals have been collected from GPs,
    Blocks/ULBs and from the line departments in the specified format to find out their requirements
    and resource gap in the district level.
    1.10   Plan Compilation
    The data or information gathered from different sectors and various sources have been
    compiled to have a clear idea about the development scenario of the district. Data from rural,
    urban as well as line departments have been scaled up to measure the success of various
    schemes and programmes. Specific frameworks had been designed for the collection of data,
    making it easier for the process of compilation and analysis. The data have been compiled
    sector-wise, year-wise, scheme-wise, beneficiary-wise etc. in order to draw an easy conclusion
    of the developmental process in the district.




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                    Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        Details of district Level workshop on formulation of Annual Plan 2012-13


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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        Date             Place                        Key Participants                     No. of
                                                                                        Participants
    18-11-2011      Conference Hall,   DPC Chairperson, DPC Members, Collector              90+
                        DRDA           and DM, Ganjam, PD, DRDA, DDP Ganjam,
                                       UNO Volunteers


        Block/ULB level Sensitization workshops-Consolidated Profile of the Participants

    Sl.No.         Date      Name of the Blocks         Name of the                   Venue
       1       16-08-2011                            Aska                   NAC Conference Hall
       2       18-08-2011    Purusottampur           Purusottampur          ICDS & NAC Conference
       3       19-08-2011                            Berhampur              Municipality Conference
       4       19-08-2011                            Gopalpur               NAC Conference Hall
       5       20-08-2011    Polsara                 Polsara                Block & NAC Conference
       6       22-08-2011    Patrapur                                       Block Conference Hall
       7       23-08-2011    Buguda                  Buguda                 Block & NAC Conference
       8       23-08-2011    Hinjulkat               Hinjulkat              Block & NAC Conference
       9       24-08-2011    K S Nagar               K S Nagar              Block & NAC Conference
      10       24-08-2011    Beguniapada                                    Block Conference Hall
      11       24-8-2011     Chikiti                 Chikiti                Block & NAC Conference
      12       25-08-2011    Aska                                           ICDS Conference Hall
      13       25-08-2011    Sorada                                         Block Conference Hall
      14       25-08-2011    Seragarh                                       Block Conference Hall
      15       25-08-2011    Bhanjanagar             Bhanjanagar            Block & NAC Conference
      16       25-08-2011    Rangeilunda                                    Block Conference Hall
      17       25-08-2011    Chatrapur               Ganjam                 Block & NAC Conference
      18       25-08-2011    Kukudakhandi                                   Block Conference Hall
      19       26-08-2011    Jagannath Prasad                               Block Conference Hall
      20       26-08-2011    Sanakhemundi                                   Block Conference Hall
      21       26-08-2011    Digapahandi             Digapahandi            Block & NAC Conference
      22       26-08-2011    Belaguntha              Belaguntha             Block & NAC Conference
      23       26-08-2011    Dharakote                                      Block Conference Hall
      24       27-08-2011    Ganjam                  Chatrapur              Block & NAC Conference
      25       29-08-2011    Khalikote               Khalikote              Block & NAC Conference
      26       29-08-2011                            Rambha                 NAC Conference Hall
      27       30-08-2011                            Sorada                 NAC Conference Hall


    1.11 Major issues raised at the workshops

    Various issues relating to the development of the district were raised and discussed at the
    workshops. The participants agreed that effective training and awareness activities should be
    organized at regular intervals. Numbers of issues have been raised by the PRI members
    attended in these workshops and the same were discussed. People became aware about



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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    planning, priority, vision and also how to plan in grass-root level. However, the following
    commonly agreed issues are developed through consultation.

           Peoples demand more funds on development of road and communication.
           People of the district are more conscious about sanitation and safe drinking water and
            the present fund is not sufficient to meet the local demand. So they are demanding
            additional funds to fulfill the requirement.
           Additional funds should be provided for development of irrigation sector
           Provision of adequate funds to take up over head tanks under rural as well urban piped
            water supply schemes


    DISTRICT BACKGROUND AND PROFILE

    1.12: History of Ganjam

    1.12.1: Historical Background

             Ancient Ganjam -The Ganjam area was a part of ancient Kalinga empire which was
            occupied by Ashok in 261 B.C During this period it was the main route of South and East
            for shipping. Its huge number of black elephants attracted king Ashok for invading
            Kalinga.

            Mediaeval Ganjam-The district was named after the old township and European fort of
            Ganjam situated on the northern bank of river Rushikulya, which was the headquarter of
            the district. In 1757 it was French Commander Bussy, who marched into Ganjam and
            realized areas of tribute from feudal chiefs. It was the English who ultimately defeated
            the French in the Deccan and annexed Ganjam in 1759.

            Modern Ganjam–The modern Ganjam carved out of the Vizag district of Madras
            Presidency and came into existence on 31.03.1936. The office of the Collector, Ganjam
            was established in 1794. Ganjam was a part of the then Vizag District of Madras
            Presidency till 31.03.1936. The district got separated from Madras Presidency and
            formed a part of the newly created state of Orissa with effect from 1.4.1936. The re-
            organized district comprises the whole of Ghumusor, Chatrapur and Baliguda divisions,
            part of old Berhampur taluk, part of old Ichapur taluk, part of Parlakhemundi plains and
            the whole of Parlakhemundi agency area in the old Chicacola division.

    As per recent, the 1992 reorganized plan of Ganjam by Government of Orissa, the 7 blocks of
    Parlakhemundi subdivision were separated and the new district of Gajapati came into being. As
    such Ganjam at present constitutes of 3 subdivisions, 22 blocks, 14 Tahasils and 18 urban
    areas.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.13: PHYSIORAPHY

    Ganjam district is broadly divided into two divisions, the coastal plains area in the east and hill
    and table lands in the west. The eastern ghats run along the western side of the district. The
    plains lies between the eastern ghats and the Bay of Bengal. Since the hills are close to the
    sea, the rivers flowing from hills are not very long and are subject to sudden floods. The plains
    are narrow because of the absence of big rivers. The coastal plains in the east contain more
    fertile and irrigated lands. Towards the centre and south it is hilly with beautiful well watered
    valley. The south eastern portion is fertile. The extreme north east is occupied by a portion of
    the famous Chilika lake.Spreading over an area of 8206.0 Sq.km, it is surrounded by
    Kandhamal in the North-West, Nayagarh in the North, Khurda in the North-East, Gajapati district
    in the West and Bay of Bengal in the South-East. On its Southern periphery the district borders
    the state of Andhra Pradesh. (See Map 2)

    1.13.1: LAND AND SOIL

    Broadly, physiographic features of the district can be divided into two parts namely, the coastal
    plains in the East and the hills and table land in the West. While the former is fertile and close to
    irrigation sources, the latter is rocky and lacks irrigation facilities. The plains lying between the
    Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal are narrow. Since the hills are close to the sea, the rivers
    flowing from hills are not very long and are subject to sudden flood. The rock pattern of Ganjam
    district indicates that there are brown and laterites, Gondwanas, Cuddapah, newer Dolerites
    and Archus comprising of igneous metamorphic rocks. The chief rock types are Khandalite,
    Granitoieo and Granitifrious. Generally the soil of Ganjam has three types; Sandy loam (yellow)
    2-Clay loam (alluvial) 3-Latraitie (red). (See Map 1.2)




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                              Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                     Map‐1 SOIL MAP OF GANJAM DISTRICT 




        Black Soil 

        Grey Soil 

        Skeletal Soil 

        Aeric  Soil 
        Red Lateritic Soil 




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.13.2: Land Holding Pattern

    Ganjam has total geographical area of 8206.00 sq.km., having forest area of 3149.9 sq.km and
    total cultivable area of 434000 ha. The permanent pasture and grazing land comprises 20,000
    ha. area out of the total area. The barren and un-cultivable waste land comprises 37,000 ha.
    area and total fallow land 28,000 ha.

    1.13.3 : District Overview
                                     Table 1: District Overview
    S.No Feature                                          Unit                        Value
        1 Geographical area                               Sq.Km                          8206
        2 Total Population                                Lakh                          31.61
        3 Sub-divisions                                   No                               3
        4 Blocks                                          No                              22
        5 RI Circles                                      No                              198
        6 No of Tahasils                                  No                              14
        7 Revenue villages                                No                             3229
        8 Gram Panchayats (Village Councils)              No                              475
        9 Municipal Coporation                            No                               1
       10 NAC                                             No                              17
       11 Length of road network                          Km                           3455.57
       12 Length of rail network                          Km                            85.64
       13 Rivers                                          No                               4
       14 Water bodies                                    No                             1761
       16 Irrigated agriculture                           Hectares(Lakh)                 2.83
       17 Rain fed agriculture                            Hectares(Lakh)                  381
       18 Wasteland                                       Hectares(,000 ha)               20
       19 Forests                                         Sq.Km (lakh)                   3.15
       20 Major and medium dams                           No                              11
       21 Large and medium industries                     No                               2
       22 Normal Rainfall                                 (MM)                          1295.6
       23 Density of population as per Sq                 Km                              385
    Source: District Statistical hand book 2007, www.ganjam.nic.in

    1.14: Demography

    Ganjam is also the largest populous district (3160635 as per 2001 census) of Orissa. Ganjam
    district has a population of 3160635 people, 1581986 no. of male and 1578649 no. of female.
    Out of the total population, SC constitutes of 586798 numbers and ST constitutes of 90919
    numbers.




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                         Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Table 2.1: Population composition
     S.No Age Group (Yrs)                                                              Total
      1     0 – 4 years                                                               314,793
      2     5 – 14 years                                                              771,398
      3     15 – 59 years                                                            1,795,114
      4     60 years and above                                                        279,330
    Source: Census 2001


    Table 2.2: Demographic profile of the district

                              Population                        Growth rate                Sex ratio
        U/R/
        Total                                                                              Females/
                  Persons        Male         Female         Number              %
                                                                                          1000males
        Urban        556359       286900        269459           132606       31.29                939
        Rural       2604276      1295086       1309190           323973       14.21                1011
        Total       3160635      1581986       1578649           456579       16.88                 998
        Source: Census 2001

            Table 2.3 : Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Population

                     Scheduled Castes                         Scheduled Tribes
                                                % to Total                          % to Total
    Urban/Rural         Population.                              Population
                                                Populatio                           Populatio
      / Total    Person             Femal                  Person           Femal
                           Male                     n              Male                 n
                 s                  e                      s                e
    Urban          68763 34379        34384         12.36     3608 1958        1650      0.65
                            25730                                   4388
    Rural         518036            260732          19.89    87311            43426      3.35
                                3                                       5
                            29168                                   4584
    Total         586798            295116          18.57    90919            45076      2.88
                                2                                       3
       Source: Census 2001

                                Table 3 : Demographic characteristics
    S.No                      Parameter/Indicator                    Male        Female        Average
    1    Fertility rate (Health survey 2010)                                                     2.6
    2    Mortality rate (Health survey 2010)                          56             66
    3    Life expentanct at birth (Census 2001)                       62             61
    4    Age at marriage Marriage                                     21             18
    5    Family Planning coverage (Economic survey 2002-03)                                    3.5 Lakh




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                               Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.15: Social Group Composition

    Most of the inhabitants of this district belong to Hindu religion. The following table gives the
    clear picture of the social group composition in the district.

                                     Table 4: Social Group Composition

    Sl.No  Social Group                  Male             Female            Total  (in    (%) 
                                                                            No.) 

    1      SC                            291682           295116            586798        18.57 

    2      ST                            45843            45076             90919         2.88 

    3      Hindu                                                            3132628       99.11 

    4      Muslim                                                           10910         0.35 

    5      Christian                                                        14818         0.47 

    6      Buddhist                                                         39            0.00 

    7      Sikh                                                             325           0.01 

    8      Other                                                            1915          0.06 

    9      All Social Goups              1581986          1578649           3160635        

                                 Source: District Statistical Handbook Ganjam 2007



    1.16: Public infrastructure and Services.
    Human Resource Development requires the removal of several societal, economical,
    infrastructural and other issues such as; poverty, poor economic opportunities, social
    deprivation, etc. The objective is to provide each individual the opportunity to live a long
    and healthy life participating in the development process as real agents of change.
    Provision of safe drinking water is one of the major aims that all households can avail of by
    2020. This will help in reducing water borne diseases.




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                         Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                           Table 5 : Public infrastructure and services
    S.no  Infrastructure                       Availability norm          Actual status (Km & No)
       1  Pucca road                           Each Habitation                    4024.24
       2  Bus service                          Each Habitation                      933
       3  Electricity connection               Each Habitation                      4286
       4  Piped water                          Each Habitation                       643
       5  Anganwadi centres                    Each Habitation                      2559
       6  Primary school                       Per unit population                  3311
       7  College                              Per unit population                    92
       8  PHC                                  Per unit population                     8
       9  PHC (N)                              Per unit population                    87
      10  Sub centre                           Per unit population                   460
      11  Medical college                      Per unit population                    1
      12  Allopathic Institutions              Per unit population                   118
      13  District Head Quarter Hospital       Per unit population                    1
      14  Sub-divisional Hospital (SDH)        Per unit population                    2
      15  Area Hospital                        Per unit population                    2
      16  Community Health Centre              Per unit population                   17
      17  Community Health Centre (CHC)        Per unit population                    5
      18  Community Health Centre (CHC-I)      Per unit population                    5
      19  Community Health Centre (CHC-II)     Per unit population                    7
      20  Up-graded Primary Health Centre      Per unit population                     1
          (UGPHC)
      21 Livestock Aid Centres                 Per unit population                  245
      22 Police station                        Per unit population                   28
      23 Post office                           Per unit population                  690
      24 Bank/credit agency                    Per unit population                  250
      25 Agri. marketing centre                As Per Local condition               451
      26 Major irrigation projects             As Per Local condition                 1
      27 Medium irrigation projects            As Per Local condition                10
      28 Minor irrigation projects             As Per Local condition              1015
      29 Virtutal Connectivity                 As Per Local condition               922
    Source: ganjam.nic.in



    1.17 : Sector: Nutrition (ICDS), Service: Anganwadi Centres

    There are 2559 Anganwadi centres in Ganjam district and 2265 workers are working, regarding
    toilet facility 786 toilets at the Anganwadi centres.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                Table 6 : Infrastructure and service quality: Anganwadi Centres
                       Sector: Nutrition (ICDS), Service: Anganwadi Centres
    S.No Facility                             Norm                       Actual status Gap
       1 Provision of Anganwadi Centres       Per 1500 population            2559       453
       2 Location                             Within 1 Km of village         2559
       3 Anganwadi Workers                    1 Teacher for 1 Anganwadi      2265      294
       4 Anganwadi Helpers                    1 Assitant for 1 Anganwadi     2345      214
       5 Toilet Facility                      Attached toilet                 786      1773
    Source: ganjam.nic.in




    1.18 Service : Primary and secondary schools

    Education is the harbinger of development and the teachers are the mascots of school
    education, discipline and administration. It fosters rational thinking in children, hones their skills
    and prepares them with a more sound future. It is the medium through which socio-economic
    transformation is possible.
    There are 3311 Primary schools in each habitation, 2110 toilet unit are consisting in the schools
    and 7853 staffs are available. Provision of secondary schools there are 502 consisting in
    various location and available of 4103 staffs.

               Table 7 : Infrastructure and service quality : Schools
      Service : Primary and secondary schools
    Service                  Facility                Norm                                  Actual status
       Primary School        Provision of primary    Each habitation                           3311
                             schools
                              Toilet facility             1. toilet unit consisting of 2       2110
                                                          latrines and 3 urinals,
                                                          separate toilet for girls.
                              Staff                       1 teacher per 40 students            7853
                                                          plus a clerk and assistants
        Secondary School      Provision of secondary      As per local condition                502
                              schools
                              Staff                       1 teacher per 40 students,           4103
                                                          all class room fitted with
                                                          blackboard, maps and
                                                          informative charts
    Source: ganjam.nic.in




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.19 : Health

    Health care system in Ganjam needs substantial improvement. The strength of doctors is not as
    per allocation. Besides, due to insecure and inadequate communication system, the doctors are
    unable to render services to patients and at most times it becomes impossible on their part to
    attend for follow-up actions in inaccessible and interior parts of the district.

    Hence, adequate steps are necessary to provide qualitative, preventive, promotive and curative
    health care services to all people, especially the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. Ganjam
    district has 30 CHCs and 92 PHCs. It has also one Medical college with advanced and modern
    health care facilities. There are 365 doctors working in different DHH, CHC and PHCs. There
    are 460 Sub Centrea and ANM working for providing better health and alternative care service
    in Ganjam.

             Table 8 :Infrastructure and service quality: PHC and rural hospital
                     Service: Primary Health Centres and Sub Centres
    S.No   Service             Facility                Norm               Actual             Gap
                                                                          status
         1 Sub Centre          Provision of Sub        Per 5000               460
                               Centre                  Population
                               Human resource                                 460            632
         2 Primary Health      Provision of PHC &      Per 30,000              95
           Centre              PHC(N)                  population
                                  Human resource            Availability of         82
                                                            Doctors
           3 District Head                                                           1
             Quarter Hospital
           4 Sub -divisional                                                         2
             Hospital
           5 Area Hospital                                                           2

           6 Community                                                              30
             Health Centre
           7 Up-graded                                                               1
             Primary Health
             Centre
             Source: ganjamnic.gov.in




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.20 Public infrastructure and Service quality


                 Table 9 :Public infrastructure and service quality : Other services
    S. No                  Infrastructure                Quality Norm               Actual
                                                                                    status (In
                                                                                    Km & No)
        1    Pucca road Major District road              All season usability          144.32
                          Other District road            All season usability          477.23
                          Rural road                     All season usability         2226.98
                          Gram Panchayat road            All season usability         4024.24
         2                Bus service                    Minimum once a day              933
         3                Piped water                                                    643
         4                Household Latrines (BPL)                                     125579
         5                Household Latrines (APL)                                     49838
         6                Veterinary clinic                                              245
         7                Police Station                                                 29
         8                Post Office                                                    690
         9                Bank credit agency                                             250
        10                Agri marketing centre                                          451
        11                Virtual connectivity                                           922
    Source : Executive Engineer R.W Division - II Ganjam, Berhampur & ganjamnic.gov.in


    1.21: Essential and documentary services

    There are 301581 BPL card & 292586 Ration card holders getting the services, 2338403
    persons has received the voter identity card, 411829 persons are getting EGS card. 79620
    persons has received Antodaya card & 5534 Annapurna card.


                            Table 10: Essential documentary services
    S.No    Service                            Norm                               Status ( No)
         1 BPL card                            Eligible family                          301581
         2 Ration card                         Eligible family                          292586
         3 Voter identity card                 Eligible person                         2338403
         4 EGS card                            Eligible person                          411829
         5 Antodaya card                       Eligible person                           79620
         6 Annapurna card                      Eligible person                            5534
    Source: ganjamnic.gov.in




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                         Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.22 Public Health Characteristics

                              Table 11: Public health characterstics
    S.No   Parameter/Indicator                       Total (No)      Percentage/Rate
        1 Total Pregnant women                                30237            48.74
        2 Total nursing mother                                21233            41.25
        4 Neo natal mortality                                     38            3.8
        5 Infant/Child mortality                                  93
        6 HIV/AIDS                                              1057            0.03
        7 Infant Mortality rate                                   61            6.1
        8 Maternal mortality rate                                 77            7.7
        9 Total fertility rate                                   2.6
    Source: Annual Health survey 2010.



    1.23 Socio –economic information

                             Socio -economic information
                           Table 12: Literacy and Education
    S.No Parameter/Indicator                  Male         Female   Total               %
        1 Basic literacy (Census 2011)          1,283,157   961,251 2,244,408               72
        2 Students in Primary school                                  372849
        3 Students in ME school                                       131275
        4 Students in High school                                      97478
    Source: Census 2001

    1.24 Employment and Self Employment

                           Table 13: Employment and Self Employment
    S.No    Parameter/Indicator                                                  Unit     Total
         1 Self employed in farm activities                                      No     3,90,889
         2 Small and marginal farmers                                            No     3,50,800
         3 Agricultural labours                                                  No     3,01,190
         4 Artisans                                                              No     3,11,989
         5 Houseldhold and Cottage Industries                                    No      43,262
         6 Allied and Agro activities                                            No      24,067
         7 Other workers                                                         No     5,81,397
    Source: Census 2001




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.25 Agriculture and allied farm sector activities

                       Table 14: Agriculture and allied farm sector activities
    S.No Parameter/Indicator                                               Unit              Status
      1   Total agriculture land                                            Ha              6.4 (lakh)
      2   Irrigated agriculture                                             Ha               293192
      3   Non irrigated agriculture                                         Ha               21,000
      4   Waste land/Uncultivable land                                      Ha               37,000
      6   Total livestock population (2003)                                 No
      6   Cattle                                                            No               831156
      7   Buffalo                                                           No               127858
      8   Sheep                                                             No              141731
      9   Goat                                                              No               215152
     10   Pig                                                               No                9757
     11   Poultry                                                           No              1652764
     12   Total land under grazing                                          Ha               20,000
    Source : Orissa Agricultural statistics 2007-08.


    1.26 Industry and Commerce

                                   Table 15: Industry & Commerce

    S.NO Parameter/Indicator                          Unit                        Status

    1      Total land under industries                Ha                          2464.05

    2      Total number of primary sector             No                          4221
           industries

    3      Total number of secondary industries       No                          1015

    4      Total number of tertiary sector            No                          11
           industries

                           Source: GM, DIC & Asst. Director, Textile, Berhampur




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.27 Household income and amenities

                              Table 16: Household income and amenities
    S.No      Service                                                               Unit/Nor   Status
                                                                                    m
           1 Average family income                                                  Rs           12742
           2 Household with gas connection                                          No          323504.
                                                                                                   1
         3 Habitations with electrified                                             No            4286
         4 Habitation with drinking water supply                                    No           7356
         5 Household with attached toilets (BPL)                                    No          125579
         6 Household with attached toilets (APL)                                    No           49838
    Source: www.ganjam.nic.in




    1.28 Social Security

                                        Table 17: Social Security

    S.No Parameter/Indicator                               Unit                   Total
    1       No of beneficiaries covered under NOAP         No                     25541
    2       No of beneficiaries covered under SOAP         No                     47293
    3       No of beneficiaries covered under ODP          No                     10514
    Source: Statistical handbook Ganjam 2005.


    1.29: PRODUCTIVITY

    1.29.1: Agriculture

    Agriculture is the backbone of the economy and around 80% people of Ganjam district depend
    on Agriculture and Allied Activities. Gross cropped area of Ganjam is estimated at 6.4 lakh
    ha.The total irrigated area so far surveyed is 293192 ha. for Kharif and 58730 ha. for Rabi
    crops. Therefore nearly 50% of the gross cropped area has got the possibility of getting
    irrigation facilities. As against this potential only 2.83 lakh ha. get actual irrigation facility to
    grow various crops. Therefore only 41.54% crops get irrigation facility. Different crops are sown
    under rainfed condition in nearly 58% of the cultivated areas. Except Jagannath Prasad block
    all the blocks of Ganjam have more than 35% of the cultivable land having irrigation facility
    from various sources. A variety of crops like paddy, groundnut, sugarcane, maize, oil seeds,
    millets, green gram, black gram, horse gram etc. are grown in the district.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                Agriculture

        Sl. No.                     Particulars                                  Unit (,000 ha.)
           1      Total Cultivable Area                                                               406
           2      Net Area Sown                                                                       381
           3      Current Fallow                                                                       25
           4      Other Fallow                                                                          6
           5      Barren & Uncultivable Waste Land                                                     20
           6      Land Put to Non-Agricultural Use                                                     21
           7      Cultivable Waste Land                                                                11
           8      Misc. tree & Groves                                                                  22
           9      Permanent Pasture                                                                    20
          10      Area Under Principal Crops (Kharif & Rabi)                                       664.09
          11      Forest Area                                                                         315
                               Source : Orissa Agricultural Statistics 2007-08

                                Production of Major Agricultural Crops

        Sl. No.        Particulars             Yield Kg/ha.     Production in '000 MT
           1      Rice                                     2280                                    621.02
           2      Wheat                                    1660                                      0.12
           3      Maize                                    1353                                     12.66
           4      Ragi                                      939                                     42.73
           5      Total Cereals                            2058                                    677.70
           6      Mung                                      408                                     50.61
           7      Biri                                      460                                     22.47
           8      Kulthi                                    404                                      5.63
           9      Cowpea                                    635                                      3.53
          10      Arhar                                     770                                      9.22
          11      Field pea                                 675                                      1.13
          12      Groundnut                                1539                                     36.86
          13      Sesame                                    401                                     12.13
          14      Caster                                    621                                      0.87
          15      Mustard                                   537                                      0.47
          16      Total condiments &                       1035                                      5.32
                  spices
          17      Sugarcane                                77405                                   245.37
          18      Total Vegetables                         11521                                   534.57
                               Source: Orissa Agricultural Statistics 2007-08




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                       Consumption of Fertilizer

               Particulars                           Unit (MT)                      Unit (MT) 

                                                      Odisha                         Ganjam 

    Nitrogenous                           272104                          25067 

    Phosphatic                            116766                          5195 

    Potas                                 63033                           3905 

    Total                                 451903                          34167 

    Grosaa Cropped Area (in, 000          8668.73                         664.09 
    ha.) 

    Fertiliser Consumption (KG/Ha.)       52                              51 

                               Source: Odisha Agricultural Statistics 2007‐08. 

    1.30: FOREST AND CLIMATE

    The district is rich in mountains and forests, some valuable wood like Sal, Teak, Gambhari are
    found in plenty in the forests. Forest products like Bamboo, Medicinal plants of various types,
    Jhuna, Mahul, Lakha, Sal leaves influence its economy. The total coverage of the present forest
    area is 3149.9 sq.km. in Ganjam out of which the area of reserved forests is 1485.69 sq.km.
    demarcated forest is 143.54 sq.km., un-classified forest is 0.86 sq.km. and un-demarcated
    protected forest area is 1167.36 sq.km. The district is characterized by an equitable temperature
    all through the year, particularly in the coastal regions. The average annual rain fall of the
    district is 129.60cms. The rainfall generally increases from the coast towards the interior hilly
    tracks of the district. The relative humidity is high throughout the year specifically in coastal
    areas. Winds are fairly strong particularly in coastal regions in summer and monsoon months.



    1.31: NATURAL RESOURCES

    Ganjam is very rich in natural resources like abrasives and grinding materials, limestone
    (kankar), manganese, monazite, sand and talc. Garnetiferous granitic gnashes and
    charanokites are used for manufacturing of grinding stones in the district. White clay deposits
    are also found in different areas of the district.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                   Mining

    Sl.No       Particulars                                              Units 

    1           Name of the Ore                                          Mineral Sand 

    2           No. of  Working Mines                                    1 

    3           Area Covered (in Ha.)                                    2464.05 

    4           Output (in, 000 MT)                                      243 

    5           Value of Output (Rs. In Lakh)                            1041.85 

    6           Quantity of Export  abroad (in, 000MT)                   284 

    7           NO of Workers Employed                                   954 

    Source: District Statistical Handbook Ganjam, 2007

    1.32: WATER RESOURCES

    The Bay of Bengal touches the Eastern coast of Ganjam and which extends more than 60 km, it
    provides unique opportunity for fishing port facilities at Gopalpur for trade.

    1.32.1: Rivers, Lakes and Streams

    There are a number of perennial streams and rivers flowing through this district, flourishing its
    cultivation-culture and agricultural economy. Among them, the river Rushikulya, Badanadi,
    Baghua, Dhanei, Bahuda and Ghodahad are the prominent ones that provide opportunities for
    the irrigation facility. The vast river basin of Rushikulya offers potential for exploration of ground
    water. These rivers provide opportunity for fishing which is the chief livelihood of many people in
    the district. Brakish water lagoon Chilika attracts tourists from every corner of country and from
    around the globe. The perennial streams Nirmaljhar and Taptapani contain medicinal sulphuric
    water.

    1.33: MARINE RESOURCES

    The long sea and Chilika coast line is the source of rich marine products in the district. Besides
    this the coastline serves as a rich resource for lime shells. As a consequence this district
    supplies sizable portion of total lime needs of the state. Ganjam and Humma near the mouth of
    river Bahuda and Rushikulya are rich sources of salt production, which caters not only to the
    needs of the district but also of the state. The total salt producing area of the district is about
    5500 acres, out of which 1238 acres are under co-operative societies fold and the rest are on
    private lease basis. On an average about 50000 to 60000 tons of salt are produced annually.



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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    About 2000 acres in Ganjam have been identified as suitable for salt farming in the state, but
    only 50% of the area is utilised. The rest is not being used due to various reasons including
    siltation, unfavourable topography despite this; Ganjam remains as the major salt-producing
    district in the state.

    1.34: MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD

    Most of its people depend on agriculture as their means of livelihood. About 50% people survive
    on daily wages. Domestic animal resource, marine products and forest products help to add
    additional income for the people of Ganjam. Only about 30% people are service holders in
    Government as well as Non-Government/private sectors. Most of the working population is
    working in the private sector outside the district.

    1.35: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

    Social life is the indicator of economic status of a community. Though the district has rich socio-
    cultural background, the economic status of the community is not sound. Poverty stands as a
    barrier in the path of progress. Alcoholic practices of people, which also gets transmitted to
    other people ruins the social life of the district.

    The district’s cultural heritage is dominated and influenced by Telugu people. Its cultural
    heritage is obviously glamorous. They do not prohibit traditional practices and have not
    abandoned many of their traditional cultural practices. They are less aware of harmful sexual
    behaviors due to illiteracy and ignorance. As a result HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent in the district.

    1.36: LANGUAGE

    Language is the mirror of socio-cultural profile means of communication and symbol of
    progress. Language is a great vehicle not only in exchange of thought but also in cementing
    close bonds of friendship and affinity that is essential for social mobilization. Oriya is the mother
    tongue of the people of Ganjam. However, some people in this district speak Telugu and
    Schedule tribe population speaks Tribal language.

    1.37: OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN

    Agriculture is the primary occupation of inhabitants of this district. However due to inadequate
    irrigation and less fertile land, output of agro products falls short of expectation in this district.
    Barring a few, the labour class is also engaged in other occupations such as factory work,
    construction, collection of forest materials, grazing of cattle’s etc. Most of the working population
    is migrating to outside the state in search of employments and income. Ganjam witnesses a
    high degree of migration in the state. Very few people are engaged in business or in
    employment. Only a few are engaged in petty trades.

    1.37.1: Occupational Distribution

    This district has a large workforce of 927739 persons. The occupational pattern of the work
    force with percentage to total workers is as under:


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                               Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        1.38: TRIBAL COMMUNITIES
        The physiography of Ganjam gives a prefect platform for the tribals in sustaining their ethno-
        cultural identity in the district. Forest area covers an area of 315000 ha. out of which 92228.98
        ha. consists of reserved forest. The tribal community comprises 2.88% of the total population in
        Ganjam. The district has been the homeland of various tribal communities with their sub-tribes.
        The Kondhs and its subsection constitute the major percentage of tribal population in the
        district and the Souras stand second. There are also other tribal communities who are,
        however, negligible in number but definitely contribute to the exotic intermingling culture of the
        district.




        1.39: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

        Taking into perspective the three basic components that Human Development Index (HDI) takes
        into account viz., Health, Education, Infrastructure and basic services. A comparative analysis
        between Ganjam and Orissa is presented in the following table.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                        Human Development Indicators in Orissa and Ganjam

                    Indicators                        Orissa            Ganjam       Rank of Ganjam
    Health Index                                          0.468            0.404                         21
    Income Index                                          0.545            0.532                         13
    Overall Literacy Rate Index                           0.636            0.629                         17
    CGER (6-14 Years) Index                               0.896            0.894                         15
    Education Index                                       0.723            0.718                         17
    Human Development Index                               0.579            0.551                         20
    Equally Distributed Health Index                      0.471            0.378                         21
    Equally Distributed Education Index                   0.713            0.704                         17
    Equally Distributed Income Index                      0.455            0.473                         12
    Gender Development Index                              0.546            0.518                         15
    Reproductive Health Index                             0.549            0.526                         20
                            Source: Human Development Report 2004 pp. 194-202

    Overall position of Ganjam District, as far as human development indicators are concerned
    depicts a moderate picture and in certain indicators better than the state. For instance ‘Equally
    Distributed Income Index (EDI) Ganjam figures 0.473, whereas state figure is 0.455. Similarly
    Equally Distributed Education Index: EDEI is nearer to Orissa state figure. State figure is 0.713
    whereas the district figure of Ganjam is 0.714. Income index of the district is 0.532, whereas the
    state figure is 0.545. This is little lower than the state figure. In case of CGER (6-14 years) index
    the district figure is (0.894) is close proximate to the state figure (0.896). From the above table it
    is observed that the development indicators of the district exhibits closer to state indicators.

                                         Development Indicators

        Development Indicators              Ganjam             Orissa              Data Source
    Sex Ratio                           998                972            Census, 2001
    Percentage of BPL families          55                 47             Panchayatiraj Deptt.
    Literacy Rate (%)                   60.77              63.08          Census, 2001
    Female Literacy Rate (%)            46.44              50.51          Census, 2001
    Total Fertility Rate (TFR)          2.6                2.48           RCH-2
    Death Rate (per 1000)               7.1                9.3            RCH-2
    Pupil Teacher Ratio (Primary        48                 39             OPEPA, CTS 2007
    level)


    Ganjam district is in better position in case of sex ratio and pupil teacher ratio (at primary level)
    while comparing to the State.

    1.40: MKCG Medical College
    The MKCG Medical College, Berhampur was started at first as an extension wing of SCB
    Medical College, Cuttack in the year 1961 with an annual intake of 40 students. Subsequently in


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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    the year 1962 this college started functioning at Berhampur in some of the Revenue Buildings
    near the present city hospital which have been taken over for the purpose. Thereafter, for some
    time the college was functioning in the Ex.R.D.C. building and later shifted to the present
    building in the year 1968. The medical college providing teaching and training programme to the
    medical students and experts. The MBBS degree of the college under Berhampur University
    has been recognised by the Medical Council of India in the year 1969. The college also imparts
    training in some of the para-medical courses, viz: Laboratory Technician Training, Ophthalmic
    Assistant Training and Radiographic Training.

                                       Health & Medical facilities

        Sl. No.                          Particulars                                (In No.)
           1      Post Mortem Centre(PMC)                                                         6
           2      First Referral Units (FRU)                                                      8
           3      Blood Bank                                                                      3
           4      ILR Point                                                                      72
           5      Voluntary Confidential Counseling & Testing                                     2
                  Centre(VCCTC)
           6      Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission centre                                1
           7      Integrated Counseling & Testing Centre (ICTC)                                    4
           8      STD CLINICS (RTI-STI)                                                            1
           9      P M Center                                                                       4
          10      Drug Distribution Centre (DDC)                                                2704
          11      Fever Treatment Deport (FTD)                                                   379
          12      Malaria Link Volunteers (MLVs)                                                  52
          13      No of Anganwadi Centers                                                       2559
          14      Angan Wadi Workers (AWW) involved                                             2265
          15      Sub Centers                                                                    460
          16      X-Ray Unit                                                                      10
          17      Ambulance                                                                       33
          18      Private Doctor                                                                  81
          19      Nursing Homes                                                                   22
          20      SHGs involved in Health programme                                            15531
          21      NGOs (Health Sector)                                                            21
          22      Orphanages                                                                       8
          23      Special Schools                                                                  6
          24      Old age Home                                                                     2
          25      Government Homeopathy Medical College                                            1
          26      Ayurvedic Medical college, Ankushpur                                             1
          27      Homoeopathic Institutions                                                       37
          28      Ayurvedic Institution                                                           48
          29      Family Counseling Centre                                                         1
          30      Working Women hostel                                                             1
          31      Observation Home (Boys)                                                          1


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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        32     Observation Home (Girls)                                                           1
        33     Short stay Home (women)                                                            1
        34     ASHA Appointed                                                                  2725
        35     AYUSH Doctors                                                                     20
        36     Homoeopathic Doctors                                                              11
        37     Ayurvedic Doctors                                                                  8
        38     Maternity Aid Centre                                                               2
        39     Leprosy Eradication Units                                                          6
        40     Urban Leprosy Centre                                                               1
                                     Source: www.ganjam.nic.in

    1..41: Education

    The literacy rate of the district as per the 2001 census is 62.94%. Further the female literacy
    rate is even lower at 47.7%. These are aimed to increase up to 90% and 80% respectively.

    There are 3311 government primary schools, 1235 government upper primary schools and 502
    government high schools in Ganjam. Besides, there are only 3 Upper Primary aided Schools in
    the district. The total number of colleges in Ganjam is 79 (both aided and non-aided); out of this
    only five are government colleges.7853 teachers are working in Primary schools and 2207
    teachers are working in Upper Primary Schools against the sanctioned post of Shikshya
    Sahayak and other regular posts. 4103 teachers are working in government high schools.

                                                Literacy

    Urban/ Rural/           No. of Literates                 Rate of literacy in percentage
       Total        Persons      Male        Female   Persons          Male            Female
       Urban         391352      223138       168214     79.66              88.24           70.56
       Rural        1240370      782447       457923     56.54              72.19           41.25
       Total        1631722    1005585        626137     60.77              75.22           46.44
                                         Source: Census 2001

    1.42: Infrastructures and Basic Services Amenities
    Human Resource Development requires the removal of several societal, economical,
    infrastructural and other issues such as; poverty, poor economic opportunities, social
    deprivation, etc. The objective is to provide each individual the opportunity to live a long
    and healthy life participating in the development process as real agents of change.
    Provision of safe drinking water is one of the major aims that all households can avail of by
    2020. This will help in reducing water borne diseases.

    1.42.1: Road and Transportation

    This district has good network of roads extending over 3455.57 km. As detailed below:




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                                 Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                       Road & Transport (Communication)

     

        Sl. No.             Particulars                      No. of Road                 Length (In km.)
          1       National Highway                                            2                      200.63
          2       State Highway                                              11                      550.15
          3       Major District Highway                                      8                      144.32
          4       Other District Road                                        59                      477.23
          5       Rural Roads                                               436                     2226.98
          6       Gram Panchayat Road                                     2636                      4024.24
          7       Panchayat Samiti Road                                     471                     1104.66
          8       Forest road                                                29                            219
          9       Railway Route Length                                         -                           86
          10      Port (Minor)                                                1
                         Source : Executive Engineer R.W. Division-II Ganjam, Berhampur



    1.43: Railways

    The total coverage of railway line in the district is 85.64 km. (Howrah-Madras line) starting from
    Khalikote in the North to Sorla Road in the South. Berhampur is the main railway station of the
    district.

    1.44: Port

    Gopalpur is the only minor and seasonal port of the district. It has been decided to convert it to a
    major and all season port (in view of 2 major steel plants coming in this area). At present this
    port is utilized for import of fertilizer, food grains, minerals and export of Indian Rare Earths
    products.

    1.45: Electricity

    Electricity is one of the prime inputs for both the economic development and well being of the
    people. Increase in power generation has cascading effects on all sectors leading to increased
    growth particularly in industry, agriculture and other ancillary trade and business activities.


     




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                               Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                Electricity (2007)

        Sl. No.                       Particulars                                  Unit (In No.)
           1      Towns Electrified                                                                   18
           2      Total Villages                                                                    3215
           3      Total Inhabited Villages                                                          2812
           4      Villages Electrified                                                              2510
           5      % of (inhabited) villages electrified                                               89
           6      Total (inhabited) villages not Electrified                                         302
           7      Total Habitations                                                                 4286
           8      Total Habitations electrified                                                     2541
           9      Total Hamlets                                                                     1125
          10      Total No. of Hamlets Electrified                                                   209
          11      % of hamlets electrified                                                         18.58
                                          Source: GRIDCO, Bhubaneswar

    1.46: Irrigation Facilities

    Agriculture undoubtedly, is the dominant factor for the growth of district economy, but, ‘Irrigation’
    holds the key for raising agricultural productivity and production. Inadequacy of irrigational
    infrastructure in the district has inhabited the agriculture sector. Hence much importance has
    been attached to the irrigation sector (both flow and lift) in present plan strategy. Irrigation is
    most essential input for agricultural production and productivity. Double and triple cropping in
    the district is feeble due to lack of adequate irrigation facilities.

                                               Irrigation (2007-08)

                         Sources                                      Potential (In ‘000 ha.)

                                                               Kharif                      Rabi
    Major and Medium Irrigation                                         130.08                     13.68
    Minor (Flow) Irrigation                                             103.93                      6.80
    Minor Lift                                                           25.09                     14.71
    Other sources                                                        35.26                     35.26
                           Total                                        294.36                     70.45
                                        Source: DDA, Agriculture. Berhampur

    1.47: Fisheries Resources

    Ganjam is potentially rich in inland and Brackish Water Fisheries. It has coastline of 60 km. with
    26 fishing villages and 14 fish landing centers. There are about 20000 fishermen population
    dependent on inland, Brackish Water and marine fisheries. The available inland water resources




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    are 27686 ha. out of which 8321.33 ha. are ponds and 19364.91 ha. are reservoirs. The area
    developed till 31st March 1994 was 5005.42 ha. (pond) and 1910 ha (reservoirs).

    The brackish water fisheries development agency had surveyed the area suitable for brackish
    water prawn culture in the 5 coastal blocks viz. Chatrapur, Ganjam, Khalikote, Rangeilunda and
    Chikiti and found that 2845.26 ha. are available for development; of this 2394.35 ha. belongs to
    government and 450.90 ha. belongs to private owners. The area developed till 31st March 1994
    under brackish water fisheries was 1284.28 ha.

                                              Fishery (2006-07)

        Sl. No.                       Particulars                                     Units (in MT)
                                            Production of Fish
          1       Fresh water                                                             21789.92
          2       Brackish water                                                           1756.34
          3       Total                                                                   23546.26
          4       Marine water                                                            10100.60
                        Grand Total                                                       33646.86
                                         Source: www.ganjam.nic.in

    1.48: Animal Husbandry

    A robust growth of Animal Resources with adequate food and fodder will perpetuate the income
    of the farmers. The Government has peaked white revolution with establishment of OMFED
    outlets. The present scenario of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary sector of Ganjam is briefly
    reflected below:

                                         Animal Husbandry (2008)

        Sl. No.                       Particulars                             Units (In No.)
           1      Veterinary Hospital                                                               1
           2      Veterinary Dispensaries                                                          38
           3      Livestock Aid Centers                                                           245
           4      Livestock Inspectors                                                            240
           5      Artificial Insemination Centre                                                  244
           6      V.A.S                                                                            39
           7      Additional V.A.S & Junior Veterinary Officer                                     22
           8      SDVO                                                                              3
           9      Total animals treated                                                        322009
          10      No. of castration done                                                        13974
          11      In fertility camp organized                                                      77
          12      Health camp organized                                                            30



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                         Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        13    Heat induction camp organized                                           134
        14    D-Worming of animals                                                  19957
        15    Vaccination                                                         (In No.)
        16    H.F.V                                                               339650
        17    B.Q.V                                                               272900
        18    A.R.V                                                                   218
        19    FMD                                                                 101270
        20    PPR                                                                 160900
        21    RDV                                                                   46600
        22    Others                                                                35280
              Total                                                               956818
       23     Artificial insemination made                                          42914
       24     Private Mega Layer Farm                                                  22
       25     Private Broiler Farm                                                    158
       26     Private dairy Farm                                                      608
       27     Live Stock Population Census (2003)                                 (In No.)
       28     Cattle                                                              831156
       29     Buffalo                                                             127858
       30     Sheep                                                               141731
       31     Goat                                                                215152
       32     Pig                                                                    9757
       33     Poultry                                                            1652764
       34     Breedable Cattle Population Census 2003                             (In No.)
       35     Indigenous                                                          255710
       36     Cross Breed                                                            9525
       37     Total                                                               265235
       38     Buffalo(Desi)                                                         39517
       39     Buffalo (Improved)                                                     3296
       40     Total                                                                 42813
       41     Grand Total                                                         380048
       42     Total Progeny Born                                                  (In No.)
       43     Male                                                                   8458
       44     Female                                                                 7165
              Total                                                                 15623
    Source: www.ganjam.nic.in
       45                              Production (For the Year 2007-08)
       A      Milk (in 000 MT)                                                    101.65
       B      Egg (No. in Millions)                                               352.42
       C      Meat (in 000 MT)                                                       5.3
                                       Source: CDVO, Ganjam



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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    1.49: Postal Services

    As per the available statistics total no. of Post Offices in Ganjam district are 690.

                                      Post Offices in Ganjam (2007)

        Sl. No.                        Facility                             Units (In No.)
           1        Sub-Post Offices                                                           114
           2        Branch Post Offices                                                        572
           3        Total Post Offices                                                         690
                           Source: District Statistical Handbook Ganjam 2007

    1.50: Public Distribution System (PDS)

    Basic minimum commodities are being supplied in a subsidized rate to consumer, this system
    called as PDS, the price of commodities are difference in open market price there is a scope of
    diversion of subsidized PDS commodities. To maintain transparency and accountability
    Government has been providing support to CSO, CBO, PRI members and women SHG to
    operate PDS dealership in their local areas. The Government of Orissa is now implementing
    new programmes along with other commodities. PDS rice is being supplied @Rs.2.00 kg to all
    the BPL families. Ganjam has 301581 BPL households. 35 kg. rice per family per month is
    being provided for AAY families @Rs.2/- per kg. from August, 2008. 79620 are Antodaya
    cardholders and 5534 are Annapurna cardholders in the district.

    1.51: Housing and Sanitation

    Housing is one of the three most essential and basic needs, the other two being food and
    clothing. As an outcome of unequal development and distribution of income, assets and
    resources, there is mushrooming of slums in and around all major towns urban areas in
    Ganjam. In rural areas, people residing in Kutcha sheds live adjacent to cattle sheds. People
    live in small houses with poor sanitation in Ganjam. As per 1991 Census there were a total of
    5983250 households and the number of residential houses was 5300570. This shows a
    shortage of 682680 (11.41%) residential houses. In respect of rural Orissa the shortage was
    estimated to be 633200 i.e. 12.25%. Since independence, out of 3160635 of the total
    population, 175417 households have sanitary latrines which are not adequate to meet the
    sanitary needs. School and other community latrines are not in use. Most of the households use
    the open field as their common latrine.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                             Sanitation (2008)

        1      Household Latrines (BPL)                                                        125579
        2      Household Latrines (APL)                                                         49838
        3      Latrine for Schools                                                               2110
        4      Common Sanitary Complex                                                              1
        5      Latrines for Anganwadi etc.                                                        786
        6      RSM/RSPC                                                                            93
                                        Source: www.ganjam.nic.in

    1.52: Industry and Employment

    The district has three medium scale industrial units namely, M/S Jayashree Chemicals (P) Ltd.,
    M/S Aska Cooperative Sugar Industries and M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd. Jayashree Chemicals
    located in Ganjam produces caustic soda, hydrochloric acid and chlorine with an investment of
    Rs.28.37 crore and has 580 employees. The Sugar Mill in Aska produces sugar, rectified spirit
    and Carbon dioxide and employs 2526 people with an investment of Rs.17.78 crore. Indian
    Rare Earths produces Illuminite, Silliminite, Zircon, Rutil and Garnet. It is located in Matikhal and
    employs 1398 people with an investment of Rs.220.15 crore. Aska Spinning Mill, which was
    earlier under public sector, has been privatized and runs as a private unit.


                                            Industry (2006-07)

                             Particulars                                      Units (In No.)
    A. LARGE & MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY
    No. of Units Established                                                                       5
    Total Capital Investment (Rs. in Lakh)                                                     28216
    Employment Generated                                                                        5802
    B. SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY
    No. of SSI Units Established                                                                7776
    Total Capital Investment (Rs. in Lakh)                                                     17553
    Employment Generated                                                                       36006
    C. COTTAGE INDUSTRY
    No. of Cottage Industry Set up                                                             4221
    Total Capital Investment (Rs. in Lakh)                                                      783
    Employment Generated                                                                       7312
    D. HANDLOOM INDUSTRY
    No. of Handloom Weaver Co-Operative Society                                                  37
    No. of Members                                                                             4865
    No. of Looms                                                                               3019
    No. of Working Looms                                                                       1190



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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Employment Generated                                                                       2380
    Total Production (as on Feb 2008) (in Lakh meter)                                         16.59
    Value of total Production (Rs. in Lakh)                                                  472.36
    Monthly Production (in Lakh meter)                                                         1.20
    Value of Monthly Production (Rs. in Lakh)                                                 37.00
                            Source: GM, DIC & Asst. Director, Textile, Berhampur

    1.53: Human Resource of the District

    At the outset, development aspect of human resource is one of the need based resources for
    the integrated development of the district. Ganjam is one of the highly populous districts of the
    state. It contributes towards a major part of human resources in both skilled and unskilled
    categories. Human resources of the district, mostly assisted by women, contribute in different
    eco-developmental activities like, farming, business, domestic-animal rearing, fishery,
    horticulture, handicrafts, cottage industry etc.

    1.54: District Income

    The district per capita income with population base year as 2001 and total Gross District
    Domestic Product (GDDP) year as 2004-05 was Rs.15,434 per month. The district has shown
    an average growth rate of 5.88% during the same period. It has also achieved a higher than 4%
    annual growths (4.45%) in Agriculture and Animal Husbandry sector much ahead of Orissa.
    Mining and quarrying had achieved above 20% growth rate while forestry is growing under 1%
    per annum.

    1.55: Tourism

    It is one of the important sectors of district and state economy. It has great potential to stimulate
    economy growth and generate substantial employment. Ganjam has high potential in tourism
    spots in comparison to other districts. It is rich in temples, monuments and heritages. The
    district has more than twenty tourism spots with encircling green hills, streams and wide sea
    beach at Gopalapur. Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon Chilika at Rambha, beautiful
    surroundings of Taratarini hill and river Rushikulya, Budhakhola and Biranchi Narayan Wooden
    Temples at Buguda are also present. Dense forest cover Sinhasini at Polasar, Eco-tourism
    forest at Bhettnoi and Babanpur with Black Buck, magnificient flowing streams at Nirmalajhar
    with old temple, gateway goddess Narayani at khalikote, Ghodahada dam, Sapneswar temple,
    Parsuram Kunda at Tumba hill range, Panchama, Sidhhavaiarbi at Rangeilunad are some of the
    key tourism features. It can contribute more towards the district and state income if properly
    developed as tourism spots of significance at the state and the national level. With proper
    perspective tourism sector can give a boost both to employment and income generation in rural
    and urban areas.




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                    Tourist Spots & Distance from District Headquarter (in km.)

        Sl. No.          Name of the Tourist Spot             Distance from District Headquarter
                                                                           (in km.)
           1       Arjipally                                                    8
           2       Athagarh Patna                                              55
           3       Berhampur                                                   22
           4       Buguda                                                      85
           5       Chilika Lake (Rambha)                                       26
           6       Girisola                                                    40
           7       Gopalpur Sea Beach                                          33
           8       Huma Kantiaguda                                             20
           9       Jaugada                                                     31
          10       Kulada (Byaghra Devi)                                       110
          11       Mahuri Kalua                                                36
          12       Mantridi (Bhairabi)                                         36
          13       Narayani                                                    48
          14       Nirmaljhar                                                  37
          15       Patisonapur                                                 52
          16       Potaguda                                                    12
          17       Taratarini                                                      33
                                        Source: www.ganjam.nic.in

    1.56: Handicrafts of Ganjam

    The stone sculptures at Mathura village of Ganjam district are of high artistic and aesthetic
    value. The sculptors have immense talent which has been handed to them through generations.
    Plastic sculptures in masks or different shapes, prepared at Huma made out of trivial items like
    waste paper, tamarind seeds, cow dung, etc. helps them make a living.
    Bellaguntha is globally famous for its artisan expertise on preparation of flexible fish with brass
    metal. The metal forms of the plastic sculptures are seen in Buguda and Belaguntha. Mathura
    and Belaguntha showcase brass and bell-metal sculptures. Their artistic range covers daily-use
    items, temple items, snake moulds and utensils.
    Berhampur is known as the silk city because of its “pata” sarees. These sarees are famous at
    national and global level.

    1.57: Annual Growth Rate

    Comparative growth rate of various sectors in Orissa and Ganjam is provided in table below




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                          Sector-wise Growth Rate (1999-2000 and 2004-05)

                               Sectors                                  Orissa          Ganjam
    Agriculture & A.H.                                                       2.58             4.45
    Forestry                                                                 0.87             0.87
    Fishery                                                                    3.4            4.49
    Mining & Quarrying                                                      14.16            24.81
    Manufacturing Regd.                                                     13.22            13.83
    Manufacturing Un-Regd.                                                   2.96             1.96
    Electricity, Gas & Water supply                                          8.76             9.77
    Construction                                                             1.13             2.43
    Trade, Hotel & Restaurant                                               10.22             8.67
    Railway                                                                  6.09             3.46
    Transport by Other means                                                15.24            14.29
    Storage                                                                  13.2            22.17
    Communication                                                           12.33            12.04
    Banking & Insurance                                                      8.99             8.86
    Real Estate, Business & Legal services                                   4.72             8.01
    Public Administration                                                    2.48             1.73
    Other Services                                                           3.98             3.53
    Total GDP                                                                6.28             5.88
                        Source: DJRC Estimates on the basis of the data from DES.

    1.58: Weather, Climate and Disaster Vulnerability of the District

    Ganjam district lies between 19º to 20º 17' N latitude and longitude lies between 84º 9' to 85º
    11' E. Thus it reflects an agro-based climatic condition of the district throughout the year and
    during all seasons. May is the hottest month, the average temperature being 32.8º Celsius and
    December is the coldest month with an average temperature of 16.2º Celsius. The normal
    annual precipitation in Ganjam is 1189.22 mm. The South-West monsoon brings nearly 66%
    of the total precipitation in the district. Maximum precipitation occurs in the months of June,
    July, August and September.

    In context of disaster, Ganjam is a disaster prone district of Orissa. The cyclone of 1999 and the
    flood in 1982 were among the major disasters of the district. Flood, drought, cyclone, tidal wave
    and other epidemics occur frequently in the district. From 100 years of statistics it is found that
    in every alternative year this district faces a natural calamity. In 1999, cyclone affected all the
    blocks in the district. Since then Ganjam has experienced flood for 4 years and drought for 4
    years.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                  Crop Loss due to Drought/Flood in Terms of No. of Villages Affected

        Year               crop loss 50 to 74%                            crop loss >75%
        2001                        5                                               0
        2002                      1784                                            527
        2003                       172                                              35
        2004                       548                                            295
        2005                       457                                            311
        2006                      2786
                             Source: District Disaster Management Authority, 2008

    1.59: Drinking Water

    The people, very often, do consume polluted water and suffer from various diseases. It is
    because of the non-availability and inaccessibility to the safe water sources, especially in the
    villages and remote and inaccessible pockets. Hence, supply of piped waters and digging of
    sanitary wells are necessary to make the availability of safe and clean drinking water.
    Awareness should sprawl among the vulnerable groups to understand the benefits of
    consuming the clean waters.

                          Water Supply Covered Under DWSM & RWSS (2008)

                        DWSM      RWSS      RWSS DWS           RWSS      RWS        TW/ SW/ Habitatio
                                  BAM.      Bhanj M            BAM.      S          Pipe W. n
                                            .                            Bhanj
    Tube Well              633      7172      3305       633     2610     3015           11110   6258
    Sanitary Well           70       403       151        70      147      238             624    455
    Piped water            217       142       158       217      157      269             517    643
    supply
    Tube well in           427                                                0           427         0
    Schools
    Sanitary well            41                                               0            41         0
    in Schools
          Total           1388      7717      3614       920     2914     3522           12719   7356
                                           Source: www.ganjam.nic.in

    1.60: Banking Services

    Ganjam District is having many nationalized and private banks spread over 22 blocks and 18
    Urban Local Bodies to cater to the needs of the people of the District. There are 250 no. of
    Banks and 451 no. of co-operatives operating in the District. There are 145 no. of Scheduled



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                                  Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Commercial Banks. The following tables give an idea about the present position of the banking
    & co-operative facilities of the district.

                                                        Banks

        Sl. No.         Particulars      Co-operative         LDBs           RRBs          CBs           Total
                                            Banks
          1           No. of Banks            3                  1             1            26             31
          2           No. of Branches
          (i)             Rural                9                 -             51          71            135
         (ii)           Semi Urban            17                 3             10          28             58
         (iii)            Urban                6                 1              8          46             61
                          Total               32                 4             69          145           250
                     Source: Annual Credit Plan, Andhra Bank (Lead Bank of Ganjam District), 2009-10

                                                    Co-operatives

          Sl. No.                                Particulars                               Unit (In No.)
             1              Primary Agricultural Co-Operative Societies                                     451
             2              Co-operative Urban Banks                                                          4
             3              House Building Co-op Societies                                                    4
             4              House Building Co-op Societies (Employees’                                      146
                            Cooperative Society, Labour Contract Co-op
                            Societies & Co-operative Stores etc.)

                 5          Wholesale Co-operative Stores                                                        4
                 6          Co-operative Sugar Industry                                                          1
                 7          Co-operative Cold Storage                                                            1
               8            Utkal Ayurvedic Co-op Pharmacy                                                     1
               9            ARCS Circle (Berhampur, Chatrapur & Aska)                                          3
              10            Co-operative Mini Bank opened by AC’s                                             22
              10            RCMS (Regional Co-operative Marketing Societies)                                   4
              11            Members enrolled in co-operative societies                                 2.54 lakh
                     Source: Annual Credit Plan, Andhra Bank (Lead Bank of Ganjam District), 2009-10

    1.61: Social Justice, Law and Order of Ganjam

    After creation of the modern Ganjam to an existence on 31.03.1936, a separate Police District
    was created. There are 29 Police Stations and 20 Out Posts in the district. Protection and
    preservation of Human Rights is of utmost importance at all times.


     




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                               Law & Order (Police Administration)

         1         Sub-divisional Police Offices                                                  2
         2         Police Circles                                                                 5
         3         Police stations                                                               29
         4         Out Posts                                                                     20
         5         Town Out posts                                                                 9
         6         Beat Houses                                                                    8
         7         Mahila Police stations                                                         1
                            Source: District Statistical Handbook Ganjam 2007

    1.62: Judicial System of Ganjam

    Apart from One Chief Judicial Magistrate (CJM), there are 7 session judges in Ganjam District.
    There are 5 sub judges and 3 Sub Divisional Judicial Magistrates and 17 no. of Munsifs and
    Magistrates are in position in the District. A total number of 2531 no. of Advocates are in
    profession in the District.

                               Law & Order (Judicial administration)

         1         District sessions and additional district Judges                             7
         2         Chief and additional Chief Judicial Magistrates                              1
         3         Sub-Judges                                                                   5
         4         Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrates                                          3
         5         Munsif and Magistrates                                                      17
         6         Advocates                                                                 2531
                            Source: District Statistical Handbook Ganjam 2007

    The fact sheet of GPs, Blocks and ULBs is presented in Annexure-G of this report for
    ready reference.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                                                           CHAPTER- II




             SWOT ANAL YS IS OF T HE DIST RICT AND IND IV ID U AL SECT ORS

    Ganjam District is richly endowed with immense (i) natural resources like river/stream water,
    forests and some mineral resources, (ii) human resources with social mobilization of women
    SHGs & NGOs and (iii) physical resources such as MIPs/LIPs, watershed micro projects,
    WHS/DWs etc. State of progress, opportunities for development and identification of critical
    gaps can be measured and understood through an in-depth SWOT analysis of the district and
    its sectors.

                                      SWOT Analysis of the District


    STRENGTHS

           Agro-climatic conditions of Ganjam are very congenial and suitable for agriculture and
            horticulture crops like paddy, mango, cashew, banana, spices, cotton, til, kandul, maize,
            screw pine etc.
           The soil type is skeletal, red, yellow and alluvial and is potentially fertile for cultivation
           Ganjam is the largest producer of paddy in the state
           Annual average rainfall of the district is 1296 mm. suitable in stabilizing the production
            and productivity of the district
           Irrigation potential of the district is higher than many other districts of the state
           Potential for handicraft works like straw, stone-carving, wood and brass metal
           Fishery related activities are well developed in district, marine-fishing and fishing from
            Chilika lagoon. Individual & group fishing activities from village common tank is another
            fishing potential in the district
           The district has many tourism spots like temples, historical monuments, and natural
            beauty spots
           Ganjam is rich in natural resources with large forest coverage and rivers such as
            Rushikulya, Badanadi, Ghodahada and Baghua. Besides the district has large number of
            reservoirs, ponds, tanks and dug wells. Ghodahada and Baghua Dam reservoir are
            major water harvesting structures in the district
           Chilika Lake offers great scope for fishing, salt production and eco-tourism
           The district has 255710 breedable indigenous cattle and 9,525 crossbred cattle. Goat
            keeping, sheep rearing, and also poultry comprise of major domestic animal potential in
            the district
           There are plenty of mineral deposits like Bauxite, Graphite, Quartz, Manganese, Granite,
            red Oxide etc. available
           Minor Forest produces viz, tamarind, hill brooms, fibers, oilseeds, kendu leaves,
            medicinal plants, fruits, roots, gums, tuber, flowers and jhunas etc. in addition to timbers,
            sal and firewood are available in plenty




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




           Ganjam has rich cultural heritage like different folk dances, (Prince Group of Ganjam
            was awarded in Delhi recently). The inhabitants found in this district are very hard
            working and progressive in nature
           Development of ‘Social Capital’ in the form of SHGs (by NGOs and government
            agencies) provides conducive atmosphere for rapid economic development. Increased
            credit absorption both in non-farm and farm sectors is a healthy sign
           There are a number of perennial streams in the backward hilly areas of the district,
            which would be harnessed through construction of check-dams, hedgerows, WHS and
            Micro-watershed projects which have been proposed to create increased irrigation
            Ayacut, prevent drought situations, soil erosion and re-charge underground water level


    WEAKNESSES

           Inadequate basic amenities at the urban areas/growth centers
           Inadequate irrigation facilities in undulating and interior terrain of the district
           Inadequate technical skills in manpower results in underutilized extension facilities in
            agriculture & allied sector
           High prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STD in certain pockets


    OPPORTUNITIES

           Integration of agriculture and horticulture can be taken up in a big way
           Scope for Agro, food processing and mineral based industrial units
           Marine based industrial units can be set up
           The Chilika Lake can be better managed to exploit its full potential
           Irrigation facilities are much better developed in comparison to other districts.
            Opportunities exist in efficiently utilizing the full potential or irrigation infrastructures
           Opportunity for export and import of agricultural products through rail and road
            infrastructure that is relatively better developed than in many parts of the state
           Major Industries: good scope for ancillary and downstream small-scale units
           Excellent scope for developing and marketing the products of the tribal artisans and
            marine products
           Excellent scope for promoting Eco-tourism
           Availability of good natural, human and forest resources
           Progressive and hard-working farming communities
           Perennial nallas in backward areas for WHS/hedgerows and check-dams
           The district has 244 artificial insemination centres which can help in increasing the
            crossbred population of cattle, which in turn would increase production and productivity
            of derived products. Similarly there are 517 breedable indigenous buffaloes and 3296
            crossbreed buffaloes that would add to the increase in yield rate of milk and milk
            derivatives like Ghee, butter, cheese etc.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    THREATS

           Inadequate market facilities for agricultural, horticultural, marine and forest products
            including NTFPs and handicrafts
           Frequent natural calamities like drought, flood, cyclone etc. affecting the economic
            backbone of the people in the district
           With inter-state migration of labourers from the district to Gujarat and Mumbai the
            menace of HIV ‘+’/AIDS has risen to alarming proportions

                               SWOT Analysis of the Individual Sectors

           In order to have better accessibility, rural connectivity and market connectivity to the
            growth centers, connectivity projects have been identified and incorporated in the
            Integrated District Plan
           Major focus on ‘Integrated district plan’ has been attached mainly to the health,
            education and common infrastructure development sectors, which are found to be the
            keys for the integrated development of the district by the year 2020
           Besides irrigation, food and agriculture creation and formation of markets for trade and
            development, have also been given priority

                                         Sectoral SWOT Analysis

                                              2.1 Agriculture
    Strength                                         Weakness

           Fertile agricultural land with skeletal,        Undulated topography
            red and yellow, and alluvial soil               Erratic rainfall
           Irrigation potential is higher than             Fragmented land holding pattern
            many districts of Orissa                        Majority of farmers are marginal and
           Surplus agricultural labour                      small land holders and are below poverty
           Presence       of      research    and           line.
            development institution like Pulses             High weed and pest infestation
            Research Center, RITE, Krushi                   Rainfed agriculture
            Vigyan Kendra                                   Low productivity in non-irrigated areas
                                                            Poor marketing strategy of agriculture
                                                             produces
                                                            Inadequate market and storage facility
                     Opportunity                                            Threat

           Good prospect for crop diversification          Ganjam district is prone to cyclones,
           Immense scope for increase in                    floods and droughts due to climatic
            irrigation potential                             change
           Intensive and commercial farming                No comprehensive crop insurance to
           Farm mechanization and use of HYV                cover all crops
           A strong credit structure for financial
            assistance to marginal and small
            farmers
           Establishment of village level mandis


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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                             2.1 Agriculture
           Potential to upgrade knowledge and
            skills of farmers
           Scope for export of the agro-products


                                            2.2 Horticulture

                      Strength                                       Weakness
           National Horticulture Mission is          Poor infrastructure facility
            availing Quality Planting                 Scattered plantation of fruit bearing trees
            Materials                                 Inadequate knowledge on off and on season
           Good climate and saline soil is            vegetable cultivation
            much favourable for coconut               High value vegetable crops not grown
            plantation.                                according to market demand
           High potential for betel leaves           Lack of proper conservation and storage
            cultivation                                facility.
           cashew production
           Eastern Ghat upland suitable for
            horticultural development
           Potential areas for vegetable
            cultivation
           Potential for screw pin
            scent/Kewada cultivation and
            essence extraction
                   Opportunity                                          Threat
           Good Market demand for                    Poor storage and marketing
            coconut and tender coconut                Individual farmer do not have adequate land
           Good prospect for floriculture             for plantation
            with marigold, jasmine, rose,             Pest infestation
            gladioli and assured marketing            Exploitation of local trader
           Promotion of mushroom
            cultivation
           Contract farming for horticulture
           Growing market demand for
            vegetable, flowers both within
            and outside the state
           Good scope for export and value
            addition




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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                        2.3 Animal Husbandry
                     Strength                                            Weakness
           Positive growth rate in                       Inadequate Livestock Aid Centre
            productivity of milk, meat and                Genetic up-gradation of livestock for better
            egg                                            productivity is limited to dairy sector only
           Potential for goat, sheep, cattle,            Outreach of the functionary of the Animal
            pig poultry rearing                            Husbandry department is restricted due to
           Vast pasture land and forest for               non availability of mobility, inadequate
            grazing                                        allowance and extension material. The
           Interest of farmers for animal                 service is not properly reachable in remote
            husbandry                                      areas
                   Opportunity                                             Threat
           Increased demand for meat, egg                Inadequate animal insurance facility
            milk, and milk products                       Non-availability of improved milch breed in
           Establishment of farms through                 sufficient numbers
            private participation                         Communicable diseases of livestock may
           Forward and backward linkage                   affect the livestock keepers
            support to farmers with financial             Ban order of the Forest Department to
            assistance                                     graze in the forest area
           Replacement of indigenous
            cattle population with crossbred
           Promotion of dairy “White
            Revolution” in corporate with
            OMFED.

                                                 2.4 Fishery
                      Strength                                           Weakness
           60 km of coast line touches the                Inadequate awareness regarding
            eastern frontier of Ganjam                      aquaculture in interior areas
           Chilika Lake                                   Water bodies are used for domestic
           Large number of reservoirs,                     purposes
            rivers, ponds                                  Inadequate storage and fish processing
           Institutional support                           facility
                    Opportunity                                            Threat
           Good market demand                           Embankment in Chilika Lake
           Navigation support for fishing by            Encroachment of the water bodies
            ISRO                                         Inappropriate use of pesticide and fertilizer
           Increasing fish seeds, fingerlings            diminishing the quality of water for
           New water bodies constructed                  aquaculture.
            by government line department                Lack of insurance policy
           Renovation of water bodies                   Erratic rainfall
           Better infrastructure for                    Involvement of large scale industrial house



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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




             aquaculture                                 in aquaculture

    Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.3059.24 lakh is need for Agriculture and allied sector.


                                        2.5 Rural Development

                       Strength                                        Weakness
            Multiple benefits from flagship             Poor infrastructure in hinter pockets
             programmes                                  High gender literacy gap
            Power devolution and bottom up              High labour migration among the
             planning process                             productive age group
            Community participation in                  Inadequate supervision, monitoring and
             development programme.                       evaluation
            Employment generation scheme                Sustainable assets can not be created
             and provision of 60:40 share for             without increasing the share in material
             manual work and material cost in             cost in various infrastructure development
             NREGS.                                       projects
            Creation of sustainable
             development for landless,
             marginal and small farmers
            Support from CSOs.
                      Opportunity                                        Threat
            Creation of employment                      Some village conflict during
             opportunity for all                          implementation of the schemes
            Industrialization                           Forest fringe area
            Improvement in communication                Lack of supply and transportation of
             facility                                     quality material for construction of IAY to
            Plantation program to be taken               hilly area
             up
            Timely completion of rural
             development programme
            Connectivity of GP to all revenue
             villages
            Natural resource mapping

    Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.26905.91 lakh is need for Rural Development sector.




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                              Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                2.6 Irrigation

                              Strength                                      Weakness
                   Supplementary irrigation through            Many Minor Irrigation Projects (MIP)
                    canal                                        are in a defunct situation (currently
                   Use of various water bodies for              being revived)
                    irrigation                                  Many lift irrigation points remain
                   Facility for lift irrigation                 defunct
                                                                Poor maintenance of water
                                                                 distributaries and drainage system
                                                                Electricity scarcity for lift irrigation
                                                                 (LI)
                         Opportunity                                           Threat
              Diversification of water for                     Excessive use of ground water leads
                 irrigation                                      to decrease in water table in certain
              Construction and renovation of                    pockets
                 the LI Points and MIPs
              Private participation in
                 maintenance of LI points
              Ground water utilization
        Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.12269.11 lakh is need for Irrigation & Flood Control.

                                                    2.7 Energy

                             Strength                                         Weakness
                  Strategic natural resource for                   Low voltage in rural area
                   energy generation                                Inadequate electricity supply to
                  High performance transformer                      hilly region
                  Customer care                                    Lack of awareness among people
                                                                     about effective use of electricity
                                                                     and power saving
                                                                    Poor service delivery system
                           Opportunity                                          Threat
                  Tidal energy                                     Erratic climate and natural
                  Wind-mill energy                                  calamity
                  solar energy                                     Theft of electricity
                  bio-diesel plantation                            Transmission loss
                  biogas
                  Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.8690 lakh is need for Energy sector.




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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                          2.8 Industry and Mining

                          Strength                                        Weakness
                Salt production                               Lack of proper R&R Policy
                Fish production                               Lack of R&D programme
                Sugarcane production                          Labour force is unskilled
                Availability of raw material such             No financial assistance to farmer for
                 as rare earth material and                     screw pin flower
                 infrastructure
                Gopalpur sea port
                Low labour cost
                Production of Kewda flower,
                 lemon grass, fruits etc.
                        Opportunity                                          Threat
                Scope for food processing                     Heavy tax burden discourage further
                 industries                                     investment
                Scope for fishing and fish                    Farmers do not get good return from
                 processing and packaging                       sugarcane, screw pin flower, hence
                 industries                                     reluctant to cultivate tease crop
                Scope for processing of rare
                 earth materials
                Value addition to agro-forest
                 produces

                                         2.9 Textile and Handloom

                         Strength                                           Weakness
               Availability of large variety of              Non-availability of working capital
                cotton and silk fiber                         Traditional technology causes low
               Availability of skilled man power              productivity
               Growing economy and domestic                  Low level of income among weaver
                and international demand for                   community
                handloom products                             Lack of continuous quality improvement
                                                               program
                       Opportunity                                            Threat
               Demand of the handloom would                  Competition with power loom and
                be more in case of introduction                international market
                of the product in school uniform              Fluctuation in international and domestic
               Explore demand and designed                    market
                based products
               Value addition on handloom
                product




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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                              2.10 Handicraft
                      Strength                                             Weakness
           Rich and diversified culture                    Inadequate institutional support for
            producing wide array of                          handicrafts
            handicrafts                                     Price fluctuation in brass metal
           Famous for bell metal, brass                    Replacement of handicrafts with synthetic
            metal work                                       material in home décor
           Abundance of cane and skills for                Unstructured and individualized production
            cane-craft                                       system
           High potential for empowerment of               Insufficient market information on export,
            women and youth                                  opportunity and prices
           Improved economic condition of
            the people due to implementation
            of development programmes
                    Opportunity                                              Threat
             Increasing inflow of tourists                 Competition from fake handicrafts products
              provide market for the products               Changing attitude toward handicraft
             High employment potential                      products
             Tapping unexploited handicrafts               Introduction of plastic and synthetic material
              markets                                        in place of handicrafts


    Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.106.82 lakh is need for Industry and Mineral sector.

                                           2.11 Road and Buildings
                        Strength                                     Weakness
             Wide spread road network                 Poor road infrastructure in certain interior
             Facility for water transportation          pockets
             Connected by Railway                     Poor maintenance of road and building
             Well connected through PMGSY

                     Opportunity                                             Threat
             Creation of employment                         Heavy traffic on national highway leads to
              opportunity                                     accidents
             Connectivity of GP with all
              habitations
             All weather road connectivity




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                2.12 Forest

                     Strength                                         Weakness
           Large area cover with bamboo                Poor maintenance of new plantation
            forestry                                    Frequent forest fire
           Potential for exploitation and              No legal right is given to user community
            value addition of NTFP                       over NTFP
           Community involvement if forest             Poor forest protection
            management
                   Opportunity                                           Threat
           Bamboo craft                                Protection of forest from the mafias
           Eco-tourism                                 Negative attitude toward forest reserve
           Wildlife sanctuary                          Maoist activity in forest fringe areas
           Vast area for fruit bearing
            plantation
           Promotion of eco-tourism

                                               2.13 Education
                    Strength                                          Weakness

           Launching of Sarva Sikshya                  Poor literacy rate among rural women
            Abhiyan                                     Gender gap in literacy rate is high
           Inclusive Policy for Child with             Female and male teacher ratio is low in rural
            Special Needs (CWSN)                         areas
           Literacy mission                            Lack of bilingual teacher (Oriya and Telugu,
           Effective child tracking system              Tribal and Oriya)
            through OPEPA
                   Opportunity                                          Threat

           Creation of awareness for girl              Shortage of teachers
            child education                             Non availability of bilingual teacher in SSS
           Provision for girls hostel                   teacher cadets
           Residential facility for teacher            Poor connectivity to school from certain
            and staffs                                   habitations
           Women friendly approach of the
            literacy mission


                                                2.14 Health

                     Strength                                           Weakness
           Launching of National Rural Health               Acute shortage of doctors, nurse and
            Mission                                           paramedical staff.
           Involvement of CSOs in health                    Inadequate monitoring and evaluation


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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




            service                                         staffs at block and district level
           Regular health camp                            No proper cold chain supply unit to
           MKCG Medical College Hospital for               remote part of the district for storage of
            specialized health care services                life saving drugs
           Implimention of Janani Suraksha                Excessive dependency on quack and
            Yojana                                          traditional healers in tribal areas
           Inclusion under Global Funds for
            AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM)
                    Opportunity                                          Threat
           Strengthening Sub-Centre by                    Early motherhood
            providing labour room                          Absenteeism of the medical and
           Regular capacity building                       paramedical staff
            programme for paramedical staffs               Risk taking tendency and ignorance of
           Basic training to traditional healer            quack
            and quack                                      Under reporting of vital statistics
           Residential facility for medical and           Prevalence of HIV/AIDS
            paramedical staffs
           Provision of Social audit in case of
            maternal death and infant death
           Strengthening IEC unit in each
            block
           Supply of proper equipments to
            Sub-centers
           Mapping of the health service
            provision in each GP

    Basing on the above SWOT analysis Rs.44618.26 lakh is need for Social Service sector.

                              2.15 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation

                     Strength                                       Weakness
           Convergence programs                       Poor sanitation facility in rural areas
            implemented                                Inadequate management of exiting water
           Basic awareness program on                  resources
            RWSS                                       Poor maintenance and cleanliness of
           Involvement of Women Self Help              latrines
            Group
           Women participation in Total
            Sanitation Campaign
           Involvement of the civil society
            organizations in Water Supply
            and Sanitation Mission



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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                   Opportunity                                         Threat
           Safe solid waste disposal                  No space left for toilets during
           Integrated water and sanitation             construction of house
            management                                 People are not aware about the negative
           Attitudinal change among people             effect of open defecation on the road side
            for sanitation and personal                Poor disposal of waste water
            hygiene                                    Attached home with cattle shed
           Active participation of women
            and PRI member in Sanitation
            Mission
           Provision of Community Toilets
            with water supply and
            maintenance
           School Sanitation and hygiene
            education

                                         2.16 SC/ST Welfare

                     Strength                                        Weakness
           Improved socio-economic status             Low literacy rate among SC/ST community
            of SC/STs                                  Inadequate awareness of some
           Scholarship to SC/ST students               communities on various schemes/
           Schools and hostels facility for            provision for SC/ ST development
            SC/STs                                     Lack of bilingual teacher (tribal language-
           Tumba Tribal Development                    Odia)
            Agency                                     Non-involvement of the village level
           Legal provision to safeguard                institutions
            from atrocity
           Land rights
           Forest rights
           Involvement of CSOs in SC/ST
            development
                   Opportunity                                         Threat
           Protection and development of              Unemployment and poverty leads to social
            primitive tribal group                      disorder
           Timely implementation of the               Increasing dependency on government
            ST/SC schemes                              Heavy liquor addiction leads to health and
           Extension of Forest Right Act               livelihood problems
           Procurement centre for NTFP




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                                                          CHAPTER-III


        DIST RICT VISIO N: 2020 CORRESPOND ING T O ANNU AL PL AN 2012-13



    People living with dignity and reasonable comfort with high level of literacy, knowledge and
    skills, good health and gender equity is the Vision 2020 for Ganjam. Accelerated and inclusive
    growth with high rate of employment, income and nutrition will be the key to reach various goals
    envisioned. Capacity building, adopting improved technology across sectors, improving
    management and coordination, increasing investment and its efficiency in key sectors, ensuring
    high level of participation in a decentralized set-up, and improving processing and marketing
    and public governance with social audit are the strategic interventions to reach various
    development goals. Vision 2020 of Ganjam is summarized below:

        1. Reduce poverty line up to 12% of total population and promote a zone free from hunger
           and starvation
        2. Reduce poverty to 12% of total population and ensure freedom from hunger and
           malnutrition
        3. Balanced, inclusive and complementary growth of rural and urban areas
        4. Improve Human Development Index to 0.75 and well-being
        5. Reduce disparity across regions (Blocks and Panchayats) and socio-economic groups
           and ensure gender equity and sustainability

    Poverty reduction entails convergence of all sectors in both urban and rural areas. This requires
    concerted efforts with inbuilt application and flexibility to spread poverty mitigating strategies in
    all sectors. Thus if potential for growth in a particular sector is saturated, then resources can be
    diverted to generate growth and employment in other sectors where such investments would be
    better utilized. Inclusive Growth which emphasizes rural non-agricultural activities (mineral and
    agro-processing, hotels and tourism, and miscellaneous services), accelerated agricultural
    growth, increased labour productivity (attitude, knowledge and technology-based), transparency
    in public distribution system and welfare activities would create a conducive environment for
    poverty reduction.

    3.1: Agriculture

    Accelerated agricultural growth and labour productivity would contribute considerably in
    reducing poverty. The major thrust areas for the development of the sector by 2020 include:

           Improve performance of traditional agriculture through technology intervention
           Use advanced technology including bio-technology in potential areas
           Identify high potential areas for multi crops and new crops to be introduced
           Improve and strengthen agro-products marketing



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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




            Introduce IT in market and weather information dissemination
            Modification of prices of agricultural produce
            Agricultural research and development policy
            Implement water resource use plan
            Agro-processing for high value addition

                     Productivity of Different Crops and Expected for 2012-13
                                                                       (Productivity in Kg/ha)
        Name of the Major Crops             At present                     2012-13

    Paddy                                          3383                              4500
    Maize                                          1425                              2500
    Ragi                                            970                              1200
    Pulses                                          532                              1200
    Oilseeds                                       1287                              1300
    Condiments & Spices                            1459                              1600
    Sugarcane                                      78500                             95000


               Indicators                       At Present                   By the End of 2013
    Fertilizer Consumption                      51 (Kg/ha.)                      105 (Kg/ha.)
    Cropping Intensity                             184%                              210%

    3.2: Horticulture

    Horticultural crops like fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants have high market value and
    provide higher returns to farm investment as compared to agricultural produce. Growth in
    horticulture at 10% per annum is feasible considering the resources of the district. The major
    thrust areas in this activity are as follows

            Training and orientation of farmers, women SHGs for horticulture
            Ensuring supply of quality planting materials
            Strengthening information and extension service
            Emphasis on plantation of medicinal and aromatic plant
            Emphasis on floriculture
            Capacity building on post-harvest management of the horticulture produces
            Infrastructure development in PPP mode on packaging, processing and marketing

             Indicators                          At present                     By end of 2013
    Vegetables (Average Yield)                  10200 Kg/ ha                     13500 kg/ha
    Fruits (Area)                                 23160 ha                         29000 ha
    Flower (Area)                                  25.5 ha                          40 ha



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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.3: Fishery

    Developing fisheries is an alternative means to generate employment and to reduce the
    pressure on agriculture. Ganjam has the potential for increasing fish production especially due
    to the presence of Chilika Lake and large number of fresh water bodies as well as Bay of
    Bengal.

    The major thrust for this growth would come from marine and inland fishing that are listed
    below:

           Conservation of Chilika Lake
           Technological up gradation for marine fishermen
           Skill up-gradation of fish farmers
           Promoting loan facilities and credit linkages through banks, Co-operatives and
            increasing involvement of SHGs in economic improvement and income generation
            through fisheries activities.
           Infrastructure development in the form of establishment of fish-seed hatcheries, cold-
            storages and ice-plants
           Promotion of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) for fish processing, packaging and
            transportation

                Indicators                    At present 2006-07                 By end of 2013
    Fish production (in M.T.)                       33646.86                         40000.00 MT
    Per capita consumption of fish              10.64Kgs/annum                  12.65Kgs/annum

    3.4: Animal Husbandry and Poultry

    Animal resource is a supplement to the living standard of many households including small and
    marginal farmers. The major thrust areas in this sector are as follows

          Up-gradation of the livestock
          Skill up-gradation of Animal-Rearing farmers
          Promoting loans and credit linkage through banks and increase involvement of SHGs
          Infrastructure development for health services for the animals.
          Processing and cold-storage facilities
          Promotion of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) on processing, packaging and
           transportation infrastructures/facilities
                     Indicators                      At present 2006-07       By end of 2013
    Milk Production (in ‘000 MT)                                    101.65                140.00
    Meat Production (in ‘000 MT)                                       5.3                   6.8
    Egg Production (Figures in million nos.)                        352.42                450.00




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.5: Forestry

    Forests comprise 39% of the total geographical area of the district consisting of Reserve
    Forests and Demarcated Protected Forests. These forests are rich in NTFP. Many people in the
    forest fringe areas depend on the NTFP collection. This is one of the major sources of livelihood
    in this region. The major thrust areas in forestry are to:

           Strengthen Vana Surakshya Samiti (VSS) for better forest management/conservation
           Plantation programs of medicinal and aromatic plants
           Value addition to NTFP and marketing facilities
           ANR, SMC, silviculture, Block plantation, coastal plantation etc.

    3.6: Employment Generation

    The present status of employment generation of the district shows large scale employment in
    farm sector i.e. agriculture on a seasonal basis. During the lean period it needs to reduce
    unemployment and generate self employment. NREGS is a ray of hope in this situation. Over
    the years, attempts will be made to improve the quality of employment, productivity of workers
    and their income. Besides this, Self-employment programmes would be implemented in the
    district.

    3.7: Industry

    Ganjam has vast potential for agro based as well as mineral industry. There is scope and
    opportunity for small and cottage industries that is dependent on bamboo, wood and stone craft.
    There is also a good opportunity for Kewda processing, Ayurvedic drugs manufacturing, fish-
    feed production, fodder processing and dry fish processing units in Ganjam. Better financial
    support for cottage and small-scale industries would create better employment opportunities
    and check out-migration to a great extent. Support required for for all small, micro, cottage and
    handloom industries are as follows:

           Better financial support
           Marketing facilities
           Setting up of training centers in the district on all types of artwork and handicrafts
           Promotion of products through organization of fairs and exhibitions
           Organizing skill up-gradation workshop
           Entrepreneurship Development Programme
           Convergence with other Central Government organizations such as the Khadi and
            Village Industries Commission (KVIC) for training and financial support

                    Indicators                        At present               By the end of 2013
    No. of SSI Units                                     7776                          9981
    No. of Employment Generation                        36006                          50000




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                               Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.8: Energy

                    Indicators                          At present               By the end of 2013
    No. of village electrified                             2511                        All villages
    % of village electrified                               89%                           100%

    89% of the villages of the district have been electrified. By the end of 2013 all the villages will be
    electrified.

    3.9: Rural Development

                    Indicators                          At present               By the end of 2013
    Poverty Ratio                                            40                            25
    No. of IAY Beneficiaries                               6896                           9865
    Total work days (in lakh) under                        26.51                          120
    MGNREGS

    3.10: Irrigation and Flood Control

                    Indicators                          At present               By the end of 2013
    Irrigation facility (in ha.)                        247900 ha                      300000 ha


    At present irrigation facility is available in 247900 ha. land and by the end of 2013 it has been
    estimated that irrigated area will be 300000 ha.

    3.11: Rural Drinking Water and Sanitation

                    Indicators                          At present               By the end of 2013
    Tube Well                                        1 per 137 people              1 per 100 people
    Piped Water Supply                                      517                           600

    3.12: Social Services

                    Indicators                          At present               By the end of 2013
    Infant Mortality Rate                                    77                            37
    Maternal Mortality Rate                                 358                           120
    Total Fertility Rate                                    2.6                            2.0




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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.12.1: Women Development

                Indicators                         At present                  By the end of 2013
    Sex Ratio                                          998                             1010
    Literacy rate (female)                            47.70                             80
    Women SHG                                         19897                           25000

    3.12.2: SC/ST Welfare

                Indicators                         At present                  By the end of 2013
    Literacy Rate SC                                  44.56                             65
    Literacy Rate ST                                  35.54                             55

    The present literacy rate of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe are 44.56% & 35.54%
    respectively.

    3.13: Balanced, inclusive and complementary growth of rural and urban areas:

    Rural-Urban Link up

           Growth of infrastructure like road, school, hospital etc. is the pre-condition to have rural-
            urban link up. Along with these infrastructures, reliable and uninterrupted electric power
            supply is a must to achieve this goal. Only 685 villages are left to be electrified. 100%
            electrification has to be achieved
           Steps should be taken to use solar power as alternative source of energy at affordable
            cost. All weather roads should be created in all villages by 2020. Every village should
            have a knowledge center with computer and internet facility. Unemployed youth
            including women can be appointed in these centers. They will act in liaison with the local
            political representatives to take steps on various development issues of the village
           Urban development with gender sensitiveness
           Likewise, infrastructure facility should be created in the slums of the urban areas.
            Education and health care facilities in the slums can be developed with PPP mode
           The economic empowerment of women in urban areas especially in the slum dwellers is
            necessary. Involvement of women in the various unorganized sectors will provide
            alternative sources of income
           Reduction of Impact of disaster
           Technological interventions such as vulnerability information mapping system should be
            in place to reduce the impact of disasters




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.14: Human Development and Wellbeing

    Taking into perspective the three basic components that Human Development Index (HDI) takes
    into account viz., Education, Health and Livelihood, Vision 2020 entails the increase of the
    Human Development Index from 0.551 to 0.750.

    3.15: Education

    The literacy rate of the district as per the 2001 census is 62.94%. The Female literacy rate is
    even lower at 47.7%. These are aimed at increasing up to 90% and 80% respectively.
        One of the primary strategies is to ensure that all children below the age of 14 get quality
            education. The Mid-day meal programme should aim for 100% coverage of potential
            beneficiaries. This can be achieved if the quantity, quality and regularity of the meals are
            ensured. The aim should be to deliver the meals in such a manner that children find it
            appealing to receive meals in schools. Once regularity in attendance is achieved the
            quality of the teaching can be upgraded. To ensure quality education, the teachers
            should be least involved in other programmes of the government like census work, voter
            list preparation etc.
        The rate of dropouts should be reduced in the primary, secondary and higher secondary
            education. In tribal pockets, Oriya tribal bi-language books and teaching aids can
            provide a motivation to reduce dropout rate. The families should inculcate the value of
            learning in the minds of their children. Besides, the teacher-student ratio should be
            increased
        There should be one vocational education institution for each block in the district. The
            vocational training centre should aim at making the youth self reliant by imparting
            training on employment generation activities
        Awareness generation among mothers in the family on the importance of primary
            education especially in context to the girl child

    3.16: Women Participation

           Better participation in decision making process at all level
           The female literacy level of the district is 47.70%. Once the education level and earning
            of the women folk is developed, they can better participate in the decision making not
            only in their households but in the society at large. Total literacy along with some
            financial support can go a long way in this regard
           Effective functioning of Women SHGs and income generation. To make SHGs more
            efficient, the members of the WSHGs should be given trainings. The capacity building of
            the SHGs can be achieved by exposure visit to other successful SHGs of the state as
            well as national NGOs




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.17: Health

    3.17.1: Reduce MMR and IMR
            Strategies to reduce maternal mortality and infant mortality include

        1   Motivating pregnant women for institutional delivery
        2   Provision of health kits to the pregnant women
        3   Free of cost institutional deliveries and follow-up consultations by the doctors
        4   Free of cost immunization for the new born (though very nominal charge is being taken)
        5   Immunization should reach to remote areas
        6   Nutritional food support during pregnancy and lactation
        7   Prohibition of early marriage/teen marriage
        8   Increase in awareness of women to take special care to maintain balanced diet during
            pregnancy to avoid low birth weight babies
    To reduce maternal mortality, malnutrition especially during the period of pregnancy has to be
    curbed. Besides promotion of healthy eating habits malnutrition has to be reduced. This would
    take place with

           Poverty alleviation so that more income is available for avoiding malnutrition not only of
            women but also for all
           Removing biases against women so that they receive their fair share of the food in the
            household diet

    3.17.2: Panchavyadhi Chikischa

    There should be 50% lowering of the five common communicable diseases i.e. malaria, leprosy,
    diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and scabies by 2015 and subsequent reduction thereafter.
    Provisions for mobile hospital service to remote areas of the district should be made.

    3.17.3: Combating HIV/AIDS

    Ganjam district is having high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the state. HIV/AIDS has reached
    endemic proportions in Ganjam primarily due to the migrant population of the district. Ganjam
    had more than thousand cases of HIV/AIDS. The plan should envision no new cases of the
    disease after 2020. This needs:

           Awareness programme to educate people about the modes of transmission of the
            disease and its fatal nature
           Sensitizing vulnerable communities especially migrants about safe sex behavior and
            practice.




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                                                 Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    3.18: Reduce disparity across regions (Blocks and Panchayats) and Socio-Economic
    Groups

    There is disparity in the sectoral growth across the blocks in the district. There are a number of
    factors that leads to imbalance growth across the district such as industrial set up, availability of
    raw materials, method of production in agriculture, fertilizer consumption, stock of animal
    resources, infrastructures like roads, bridges, electricity, schools, colleges, hospitals etc. The
    reasons for the backwardness of the blocks should be found out and region specific strategies
    should be adopted accordingly (Vide the table below).

                        Table 3. 1 Monitorable Indicators on General and Human Development

        Sl. No.                  Monitorable Indicators                              Current Level       Perspective Plan
           1           Growth Rate                                                           4.87                       10
          2            Per Capita DDP/Income                                                12742                    20000
          3            Work Participation Ratio (WPR)                                 (Y 2004/05)
                                                                                             41.62                        50
          4            Human Development Index (HDI)                                         0.551                   0.750
          5            Employment for at least 200 days including                                                     80%
          6            Poverty Ratio (HCR)                                                       40                       12
          7            IMR                                                                       77                       37
          8            MMR                                                                     358                     120
          9            Total Fertility Rate                                                     2.6                     2.0
          10           Children Malnutrition (0-3years)                                        54.4                       27
          11           Sex Ratio                                                               998                    1010
          12           Literacy Rate Total                                                   62.94                        90
          13           Literacy Rate Female                                                  47.70                        80
          14           Gender Gap in Literacy                                                                             10




                                                               
                                            
    
         BY: 1999/00, CY: 2004/05 at Constant Price Yr. 1999/00 



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                                                                                         CHAPTER- IV


              RESOURCE E NVELOPE FOR DIST RICT FOR T HE ANNU AL PL AN: 2012-13


    Introduction

    The district plan is the primary requirement of decentralized planning. Funds available from
    various sources at the district level for carrying out developmental programmes. These
    resources need to be articulated in a coordinated and convergent manner to have better
    outcomes. There are few instances of convergence of human, financial and institutional
    resources. Therefore, the need for integrated local area plans based on specific endowments
    and needs of each area is stressed from the beginning of planned development. Attempt is
    made from the Panchayat and ULB level requirement to that of district level to make the Annual
    Plan 2012-13 for the district. The objective of district planning is to design an integrated and
    participatory action plan for the development of local area in general with respect to all sectors.

    4.1: Sector wise Resource Availability for the Plan Year 2012-13

    Total outlay for 2012-13 is estimated at Rs.155150.51 lakh. Inter-sectoral allocation is presented
    in table 4.1.Taking into consideration of the importance, the following allocations have been
    proposed: (Vide the table below)

               Table 4. 1 ANNUAL PLAN: 2012-13 PROPOSED OUTLAYS OF GANJAM DISTRICT

                                                                                            (Rs. in lakh)
    Sl.          Name of the Sector      Eleventh      Annual            Annual Plan            Annual
    No.                                    Plan         Plan               2011-12               Plan
                                        (20012-17)    2010-11                                   2012-13
                                         Projected     Actual       Agreed      Anticipated    Proposed
                                        Outlay (at    Expendit      Outlay      Expenditur      Outlay
                                         20011-12       ure                          e
                                          prices)
         0               1                   2            3            4             5             6
         I.     AGRICULTURE &            36751.75      3507.92      5598.95       4451.80       6580.77
                ALLIED ACTIVITIES
        II.     RURAL                    55139.08      8911.49     11361.38       3402.56       10998.60
                DEVELOPMENT
        III.    SPECIAL AREA             19215.00      244.51       3449.09       1090.02       3843.00
                PROGRAMMES
        IV.     IRRIGATION & FLOOD      117547.99      7897.33     23919.13      22231.89       24023.51
                CONTROL
        V.      ENERGY                    120.00       7607.26       28.00         28.00         24.00
        VI.     INDUSTRY AND             19449.96      3283.15      3276.15       3276.15       3495.24
                MINERALS



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                         Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    VII.      TRANSPORT            149044.51     18957.05     24382.08      24064.14    31714.54
    VIII.     SCIENCE,              5823.94       982.44      1010.20       1017.27     1155.24
              TECHNOLOGY &
              ENVIRONMENT
        IX.   GENERAL ECONOMIC      13500.00      729.76       1793.00       1793.00     2700.00
              SERVICES
        X.    SOCIAL SERVICES      315125.33     41682.04     94342.55       88581.56    70615.62
                 GRAND TOTAL       731717.56     93802.93    169160.53      149936.38   155150.51


    The proposed outlay for annual plan 2012-13 is Rs. 155150.51 lakh . Out of total outlay 29%
    provided to the Agriculture, Rural Development, Special Area Programme, Irrigation and Flood
    Control. From the total plan outlay 20% provided to the Energy and Transport Sector. Social
    sector has the importance in the plan 46% provided from total the plan. (See the chart 4.1)

                           Chart 4. 1 Sector wise Resource Availability




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        Table 4. 2 Resource Envelope under District Plan: 2012-13 of Ganjam District (Rs. in
                                              lakh)

    Sl No      Component wise fund flow                         Annual Plan:2012-13
                                                     SP/SS           CS/CP             Total
             (i) Flagship Programmes                 State           central           Total

        1    RKVY                                             0           1425.37        1425.37
        2    NREGS                                      1086.58           9779.22        10865.8
        3    BRGF                                             0              3818           3818
        4    SGSY                                             0                 0              0
        5    IAY                                              0            3293.3         3293.3
        6    SSA                                        5493.65           11759.4       17253.06
        7    NRHM                                        632.41           3583.64        4216.05
        8    TSC                                        1342.34           4792.51        6134.85
             (i)Total of Flagship Programmes            8554.98           38451.5       47006.43
             (ii) State Share of CSP +State             69692.6                    0     69692.6
             Plan(excluding Flagship prog.)
             (iii) CP+CS of CSP(excluding                      0          38451.5        38451.5
             Flagship prog.)
             Total Resources Available     for          78247.6             76903       155150.5
             the District


    Basing on the local requirement, majority of the allotment is made towards sectors like Social
    Services, Rural Development, Transport and Irrigation & Flood Control which have been given
    high priority for the district. The requirement based on the proposals received from different
    levels which can be met from different flagship programmes. The total gap of resources for the
    year 2012-13 can be adjusted and narrowed down from programmes like BRGF, NREGS,,
    PMGSY and other Flagship programmes. With the availability of additional resources the gap
    pipeline would be converged.

                                  Table 4.2.1 Gap filling componets

                                     Gap Filling Components
    Sl.     Name of the Sectors    Resource       Resource              Resourc   Gap filling
    No                             Requirement    Availability          e Gap     Compoments/M
                                                                                  echanism
        1 Agriculture & Allied             6948.46           6580.77       367.69 RKVY,NREGS
          Activities
        2 Rural Development                10998.6           10998.6         0.00
        3 Special Area                     3843.00           3843.00



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                          Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




         4 Irrigation & Flood            24296.51          24023.51       273.00 NREGS
         5 Energy                           24.00             24.00         0.00
         6 Industry & Minerals            3495.24           3495.24         0.00
         7 Transport                     31724.54          31714.54           10 NREGS/BRGF
         8 Science, Technology &          1155.24           1155.24
           Environment
         9 General Economic              2700.00           2700.00            0
        10 Social Services           72239.77926          70615.62     1624.159
           Total                       157425.34         155150.51      2274.82
           NREGS/BRGF                          0           2274.82     -2274.82
                 Grand Total         157425.34         157425.34          0



    Gap Filling: The total resource requirement for the district is Rs.157425.34 lakh.The total
    resource avialble is Rs155150.5 lakh. Hence, there is a gap of Rs.2274.82 lakh which can be
    filled up from NREGS, BRGF, SSA, & NRHM

    Hence more emphasis has been given to Agriculture and allied sector, Irrigation and Flood
    control sector, Transport sector and social sector in the Comprehensive District Plan of Ganjam
    district for the year 2012-13.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                                                       CHAPTER- V


    RESOURCE E NVELOPE FOR BLOCK S /ULB S FOR T HE ANNU AL PL AN 2012-13


    Ganjam has 475 Gram Panchayats, 22 CD Blocks, 17 NACs and one municipality. The block
    wise outlay is based on requirement as well as realistic assessment of the availability of
    resources, distributed over different blocks in the district. Total proposed outlay for the rural
    areas is estimated for the Annual Plan 2011-12 (Block wise proposed outlay is presented in
    Table 5.1). However, details of resource flow of each Block/ULB from all sources are given in
    Annexure.

    5.1: Rural Resource Envelope


          Table 5. 1 Block-wise Projected Allocation of Outlays under District Plan:2011-12 of
                                           Ganjam District.

           Block Wise Projected Allocation of Outlays under District Plan 2012-13 of Ganjam District
                                                                                        (Rs .in Lakh)
                                                                                                  Mo
        Sl.no         Blocks       RKVY      NREGS       IAY       TSC       SSA      NRHM       Kudia
            1 Aska                  75.58     576.19   174.64    325.32     914.89    223.57     61.83
            2 Belaguntha            56.31     429.25   130.10    242.35     681.57    166.55     46.06
            3 Bhanjanagar           66.89     509.92   154.55    287.90     809.66    197.85     54.72
            4 Buguda                58.31     444.53   134.73    250.98     705.84    172.48     47.70
            5 Chatrapur             68.65     523.35   158.62    295.49     831.00    203.07     56.16
            6 Chikiti               51.32     391.20   118.57    220.87     621.16    151.79     41.98
            7 Dharakote             55.46     422.82   128.15    238.72     671.36    164.06     45.37
            8 Digapahandi           74.63     568.92   172.43    321.21     903.35    220.75     61.05
            9 Ganjam                45.18     344.40   104.38    194.45     546.85    133.63     36.96
           10 Hinjililcut           58.48     445.80   135.12    251.70     707.86    172.98     47.84
           11 Jagannath Prasad      64.40     490.95   148.80    277.19     779.55    190.49     52.68
           12 Kabisurayanagar       55.96     426.62   129.30    240.87     677.41    165.53     45.78
           13 Khalikote             74.93     571.23   173.13    322.52     907.02    221.64     61.30
           14 Beguniapada           61.71     470.44   142.59    265.61     746.99    182.54     50.48
           15 Kukudakhandi          68.06     518.87   157.26    292.95     823.87    201.33     55.68
           16 Patrapur              64.52     491.87   149.08    277.71     781.01    190.85     52.78
           17 Polasara              64.07     488.40   148.03    275.75     775.49    189.50     52.41
           18 Purusottampur         70.74     539.29   163.45    304.49     856.31    209.25     57.87
           19 Rangeilunda           76.27     581.45   176.23    328.29     923.25    225.61     62.40



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        20 Sanakhemundi             80.73   615.44  186.53  347.48   977.21   238.80  66.04
        21 Seragada                 64.26   489.83  148.46   276.56  777.77   190.06  52.56
        22 Sorada                   68.87   525.02  159.13   296.43  833.64   203.71  56.34
           Total                   1425.37 10865.80 3293.30 6134.85 17253.06 4216.04 1166.00
                                Source: Data received from respective Blocks

    5.2: Urban Resource Envelope

    The resources available with the urban local bodies (from state outlay, central outlay and own
    fund) is comparatively less than that of the resources available for the respective Blocks. The
    total proposed outlay from various sources is estimated to Rs.8089.15 lakh for the Plan Year
    2010-11. The proposed outlay for carrying out different developmental activities in the
    respective ULBs has been furnished below:

                       Table 5. 2 ULB-wise Resource Flow for the Year 2012-13

    Sl.no        Name of the ULBs                                  Proposed Outlays
             1   Berhampur Municipality                                      4478.21
             2   Chikiti                                                       279.5
             3   Polasara                                                     196.13
             4   Digapahandi                                                   58.16
             5   Purusottampur                                                 377.5
             6   Ganjam                                                         1.26
             7   Kabisuryanagar                                               268.15
             8   Hinjilicut                                                     544
             9   Belaguntha                                                     310
            10   Gopalpur                                                      75.71
            11   Chatrapur                                                      2.95
            12   Bhanjanagar                                                  202.44
            13   Buguda                                                        158.8
            14   Aska                                                         909.76
            15   Rambha                                                        114.7
            16   Khalikote                                                    111.88
                               Total                                         8089.15
                                 Source: Data received from respective ULBs



     

     

     

     


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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




     

                                                                                        CHAPTER- VI


                            SECT ORAL D IST RICT PL ANS/SC HE MES


    Introduction

    Ganjam is the most populous district of Orissa having 22 Blocks and 3 Sub-Divisions. The
    districts has always had very high growth potential, however it still remains undeveloped in
    many areas in comparison to other districts. Although the district has abundance of high quality
    human and non-human resources, the various sectors have not been able to interlink, thus
    leaving many regions of the district poorly developed. We base our exercise on the premise that
    the annual plan for 2012-13 will achieve set targets and also converge with the objectives of the
    annual plan.

    Comprehensive District Plan needs co-operation and co-ordination among all the sectors and
    the Plan has been prepared based upon the growth of Eleventhh Five Year Plan. To reduce
    poverty to 12% of the total population of the district and for achieving inclusive growth at around
    6.5% during the Plan Period, there are some particular sectors or departments which need
    convergence for better development of the schemes and for better planning. Sectors like
    Agriculture and Allied Activities, Irrigation and Flood Control and Rural Development etc. can be
    synchronized for achieving the goals of 12th Plan and the target of 2012-13. These departments
    need to plan according to the requirement of the beneficiary as well as the funds availability. For
    all the sectors Rs. 155150.51 Lakh is proposed for the year 2012-13, which is derived from GN
    Statement A. The abstract is provided in table 6.1.

    Table 6. 1 DRAFT ANNUAL PLAN: 2011-12 PROPOSED OUTLAYS OF GANJAM DISTRICT

                                                                                          (Rs. in lakh)
    Sl.         Name of the Sector     Eleventh      Annual             Annual Plan             Annual
    No.                                   Plan        Plan                2011-12                 Plan
                                        (20012-     2010-11                                     2012-13
                                          17)        Actual        Agreed       Anticipated    Proposed
                                       Projected    Expendit       Outlay       Expenditure      Outlay
                                       Outlay (at     ure
                                       20011-12
                                        prices)
         0              1                  2            3             4                5           6
         I.    AGRICULTURE &           36751.75      3507.92       5598.95          4451.80     6580.77
               ALLIED ACTIVITIES
        II.    RURAL                   55139.08      8911.49      11361.38          3402.56     10998.60
               DEVELOPMENT
        III.   SPECIAL AREA            19215.00      244.51        3449.09          1090.02     3843.00
               PROGRAMMES


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                                  Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




        IV.       IRRIGATION & FLOOD        117547.99      7897.33      23919.13          22231.89     24023.51
                  CONTROL
        V.        ENERGY                      120.00       7607.26        28.00             28.00       24.00
        VI.       INDUSTRY AND               19449.96      3283.15       3276.15           3276.15     3495.24
                  MINERALS
    VII.          TRANSPORT                 149044.51     18957.05      24382.08          24064.14     31714.54
    VIII.         SCIENCE,                   5823.94       982.44       1010.20           1017.27      1155.24
                  TECHNOLOGY &
                  ENVIRONMENT
        IX.       GENERAL ECONOMIC           13500.00      729.76        1793.00           1793.00     2700.00
                  SERVICES
        X.        SOCIAL SERVICES           315125.33     41682.04      94342.55           88581.56    70615.62
                      GRAND TOTAL           731717.56     93802.93     169160.53          149936.38   155150.51

    SECTOR-I: AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

    6.1: Agriculture

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the district economy providing livelihood support to a large section
    of the population. The growth of this sector generally determines the pace of development in the
    district. If agriculture sector can suitably be managed to grow at a rate of 4% per annum, it
    would contribute substantially to reduce poverty in the district in general and the marginalized in
    particular. Barring some minor variation, agriculture and animal husbandry sector in the district
    has grown at a rate of 4.45% during 1999-00 to 2004-05, much higher than all of Orissa for the
    same period (2.28%). This is indicative of the fact that 4% growth rate of agriculture is feasible.

    There are four major constraints to agriculture development in the district. They can be broadly
    categorized as:

                 Institutional Capacity
                 Physical constraints
                 Technological constraints and
                 Financial constraints. With proper capacity building and organizational arrangements
                  physical and technological constraints could be minimized to achieve vision goals.




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    The Projected outlay for the Agriculture and allied sector of 12th.five year plan is Rs.
    36751.75 Lakh and proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 6580.77 Lakh.

          Table 6. 2 Projected and proposed Outlays for Agriculture and allied Activities

    Agriculture and Allied Activities          2012-17        2010-11      2011-12      2012-13

    Crop Husbandry :                          26237.48       3049.11       4020.10      4297.27

    Horticulture                              3085.38        314.69        678.51       510.92

    Soil & Water Conservation                 1934.89        36.75         199.72       255.81

    Animal Husbandry                          565.15         32.14         106.06       291.13

    Fisheries                                 4928.86        75.23         594.57       1225.63

    TOTAL                                     36751.75       3507.92       5598.95      6580.77


    Development of Agriculture and allied Sector:

    Needs Assessment and priority setting are essential to the successful planning and
    achievement of targets in all sectors. This will have an immense impact on Allied sectors in the
    coming years. Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Watershed Development would play a
    vital role in the economy of Ganjam. The Allied sectors must be taken into account while
    planning as they would result in the improvement of backward areas, efficient utilization of
    natural, financial and human resources, poverty reduction, hunger free society and increase in
    generation of income and employment. These sectors would be instrumental in the overall
    empowerment of farmers and rural and urban entrepreneurs and lead to holistic development of
    the district.

    Several steps would be undertaken for development in this sector. Opening up of new seed
    sales centers and timely supply of fertilizers and pesticides will facilitate higher productivity.
    Ganjam already has one of the highest cropping intensities in the state (184%). Currently the
    Net irrigated area is about 62% of the Net area sown.

    Due to increase in pressure on land it is imperative to increase land productivity through the use
    of modernized methods and double cropping. In order to maintain employment levels or
    increase them, there would be use of labour intensive techniques incorporating tools. However,
    as the percentage of people engaged in agriculture is high in comparison to its contribution to
    the DDP, a substantial number of dependants on agriculture need to be absorbed in other
    sectors particularly allied activities through employment generation.




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                       Graph 6. 1 Outlays for Agriculture and Allied Sectors




    Crop Diversification: (Integrated Farming):

    Farmers in Ganjam are mainly small and marginal farmers. This poses a need for employment
    from other allied sources apart from agriculture to meet livelihood needs. Lack of irrigation
    facilities makes Agricultural growth severely dependent on rainfall. Multicropping and Crop
    diversification is a must for development in agriculture.

    The blocks in the district can be categorized into upland, midlands and lowlands. Irrigation
    facilities vary from Block to Block. Rocky uplands are used for horticulture crops like Jatropha,
    Maize and other crops that require less water. In Blocks such as Hinjilicut, Kukudakhandi,
    Ganjam, and Aska where irrigation facilities are better farmers need to be motivated to cultivate
    cash crops.

    Various project proposals have been undertaken under agriculture and allied sectors. Steps will
    be taken for efficient utilization of the resources received under this sector. The major thrust
    areas for the development of the sector by 2020 includes the following:

        1. Training to farmers on seed production technology
        2. Research through central and state agencies on trial and evaluation of new varieties of
           rice, pulses and oilseeds
        3. Preparation of data base for rain fed area development
        4. Empowerment of women through participation in natural resource management
        5. Strengthening of ATMA to improve delivery mechanism
        6. Use of Information and Technology through Kisan Call Centers




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    There is an imperative need for:

        7. Better management of soil, water & other natural resources, fast improvement in
            application of inputs & crop management through transfer of technology coupled with
            better risk management
        8. Commercialization of agriculture with emphasis on creation of additional irrigation
            facilities
        9. Crop diversification into cash crops & horticultural crops
        10. Application of modern technologies, farm mechanization & promotion of private
            enterprises in agriculture

    Interventions for the annual year 2012-13 will target at:
        1. Huge public & private investment in Agriculture & Allied sectors
        2. Development of Farm and Non-farm sectors through adequate credit support
        3. Market led production system
        4. Efficient public Distribution & Strengthening of procurement through MSP of various
           Agriculture commodities
        5. Management of natural and market risk for farmers
        6. Intensive watershed approach through Rain Water harvesting checking surface runoff
           and increasing infiltration of run-off-water
        7. Micro-enterprise Development in Agriculture and Allied Sectors
        8. Development of Micro-Irrigation System
        9. Precision Farming and Development of Bio-Technology
        10. Group Farming and Contact Farming
        11. Adoption of Farming System Approach (FSA) in an Integrated Manner
        12. Organization of vocational Education and Training in Agriculture and allied sectors
           especially skilled training Programmes
        13. Implementation of income oriented enterprises in production, processing and value
           addition in agriculture and allied sectors
        14. Aggressive marketing strategies for farm crops
        15. Commercial cultivation of Floriculture and mushrooms
        16. Integrated Farming
        17. Development of Irrigation
        18. Establishment of TMC (Terminal Market Complex)/Mandi (good market for sale of
           agricultural crops in remunerative prices
        19. Establishment of Godown and other storage facilities at GP & Block level
        20. To intensify “Save Grain Campaign” to check loss of grains due to various reasons

    Considering existing achievements, the priorities of the sector in the district are increase in
    productivity of both rain fed and irrigated crops, development of rain fed agriculture,
    diversification to more remunerative crops, dissemination of technology to the farmers through
    extension services, considerable improvement in marketing and development of allied sectors.




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Objectives and Strategies for the Plan Year 2012-13


    Increasing Crop Productivity:

    Productivity of different crops will be increased with adoption of following strategies.

           Selection of high yielding variety according to land situation
           Duration of variety will be emphasized to accommodate more crops
           Increase in the consumption of fertilizer from 48 kg. per ha. to 100 kg. per ha.
           Increase in irrigation potential to 70% of GCA in every block during kharif season and
            40% during Rabi season
           Increase in cultivation of low duty crops during post Kharif seasons
           Increase in cropping intensity from the current level of 184% to 200%
           Shift in cropping pattern from paddy to non-paddy such as pulses, oilseeds, maize,
            sugarcane, cotton and vegetables through ISOPOM schemes

    Steps will be taken for improvement in the following areas:

           Increase in efficiency of irrigation
           Balanced fertilization and use of Bio-fertilizers
           Farm Mechanization
           IT Integration in Agriculture
           Set-up of Agri-clinics in each block
           Terminal Market Complex (TMC) Marketing: One Terminal Market Complex (TMC) will
            be set up in Berhampur town which would act on a hub and spoke format. This will give
            boost to agriculture marketing of the district

    Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)

    The National Agriculture Development Programme i.e. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) is
    introduced in XI Plan to accelerate the growth rate of agriculture and its allied sectors. RKVY
    aims at achieving 4% annual growth in agriculture during the XI Plan. This would be done by
    ensuring a holistic development of Agriculture and allied sectors. The RKVY is a State Plan
    Scheme. Since this scheme is applicable to the entire State Plan for Agriculture and allied
    sectors, it needs convergence with schemes like NREGS, SGSY and BRGF. The resource
    outlay for this sector is Rs 1425.37 lakh for the year 2012-13. The major objectives of the
    scheme are:

           To incentivize the states so as to increase public investment in Agriculture and allied
            sectors
           To provide flexibility and autonomy to states in the process of planning and executing
            Agriculture and allied sector schemes


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                               Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




              To ensure the preparation of agriculture plans for the districts and the States based on
               agro-climatic conditions, availability of technology and natural resources
              To ensure that the local needs/crops/priorities are better reflected in the agricultural
               plans of the States
              To achieve the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops, through focused
               interventions
              To maximize returns to the farmers in Agriculture and allied sectors
              To bring about quantifiable changes in the production and productivity of various
               components of Agriculture and allied sectors by addressing them in a holistic manner
        The important components of RKVY are as follows:

           Integrated development of major food crops
           Agriculture mechanization
           Activities related to enhancement of soil health
           Development of rain fed farming systems in and outside watershed areas
           Integrated development of watershed areas, wastelands, river valleys
           Support to State seed farms
           Integrated Pest Management schemes
           Encouraging non-farm activities
           Strengthening of market infrastructure and marketing development
           Strengthening of Infrastructure to promote Extension Services
           Activities relating to enhancement of horticultural production and popularization of micro
              irrigation systems
           Animal husbandry and fisheries development activities
           Special schemes for beneficiaries of land reforms
           Undertaking concept to completion projects
           Grant support to the state government institutions that promote
              (i)     agriculture/horticulture
              (ii)    Exposure visit programme for farmers
              (iii)   Organic and bio-fertilizers
              (iv)    Innovative schemes




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                             Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                               DRAFT ANNUAL PLAN-2012-13
                 RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA (RKVY)-OUTLAYS ( Rs.in lakh.)
                                                                                            Outlay
                                                                  Outlay proposed for
                                                                                           proposed
                                                                        2012-13
    Sl.No.                   Sector/Scheme                                                   out of
                                                                   under State Plan
                                                                                           RKVY for
                                                                     ( Excl.RKVY)
                                                                                           gap filling
        1                             2                                     3                  4
        1     Crop Husbandry                                             1088.09
        2     Horticulture                                                57.08
        3     Soil Conservation                                            7.20
        4     Command Area Development Agency(CADA)                       273.00
                                Total                                    1425.37



    6.1.1: HORTICULTURE
    Agro-climatic condition of Ganjam is very favorable for cultivation of a large variety of
    horticultural crops. Horticulture is being recognized as an important area for diversification in
    today’s Agri-business systems. It generates employment; to unemployed youths, rural laborers
    through value addition by effective pre and post harvest management of the crop in a planned
    way. Further horticulture crops are not only responsible for nutritional also security but are key
    players in increasing export trade; fetching much needed foreign exchange.

    Strategy
        Basing on the Agro climatic and soil condition different Horticulture crops would be taken
             up for different areas
            Fruit plants will be planted both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions
            Horticulture Nurseries in private sector would be encouraged including strengthening of
             government nurseries and farms
            Protected cultivation like green house, shade net and mulching would be initiated and
             encouraged
            Dissemination of latest technology through demonstration, training, workshops and
             exhibitions at Block and Sub-divisional level
            Emphasis will be given on integrated pest management and Organic farming
            For post harvest management, preservation activities of fruits and vegetables will be
             taken care of
            Promotion of private entrepreneurs for sale of Horticultural inputs, garden tools and
             implements
            Use of Vermicompost and bio-fertilizers with aim for organic farming will be encouraged


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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Floricultural Crops such as Marigold, Rose, Tuberose and Jasmine have good potential for
    growth in Ganjam which is already the largest producer of Marigold and the third largest
    producer of Tuberose in the state. There is also potential for the production and demand of
    roses in the district, particularly in Berhampur city. However, on a national level most of the
    demand is met from the state of Andhra Pradesh.

    Horticulture Schemes

    National Horticulture Mission (NHM): The National Horticulture Mission is in operation in the
    state since 2005-06 with the objective of increasing production of suitable fruits in the state. This
    enhances the status of farmers, promotion of export oriented agro based industries through
    provision of subsidy on supply of quality planting materials. This is a centrally sponsored
    Scheme with an Annual Plan Outlay for Ganjam of Rs. 510.92 lakh including RKVY plan of
    Rs,57.08 lakh for annual plan 2012-13, with a funding pattern of 85:15 between Centre and
    State.

    6.1.2: FISHERIES

    Ganjam has huge potential in inland and Brackish Water Fisheries. It has a coastline of 60
    kilometers with 26 fishing villages and 14 fish landing centers. There are about 20,000
    fishermen dependent on inland, brackish water and marine fisheries. The available inland water
    resources are 27686 ha. out of which 8321.33 ha. are ponds and 19364.91 ha. are reservoirs.
    The area developed till date is 6992 ha. (pond) and 4416 ha.(reservoirs). The brackish water
    fisheries development agency had surveyed the area suitable for brackish water prawn culture
    in the 5 coastal blocks viz. Chatrapur, Ganjam, Khalikote, Rangeilunda and Chikiti. It has been
    found that 2845.26 ha. is available for development of fisheries; out of this 2394.35 ha. belongs
    to government and 450.90 ha. belongs to private owners.

    The present level of production in reservoirs is about 40 kg/ha. On proper management the
    production may go up to 200 kg/ha. By the end of 2010-11 we envisage an increase to 60
    kg/ha.

    The following support is anticipated for development of

           Provision of captive fish seed nursery near reservoir/MIP to raise fingerlings
           Provision of rearing tank at block level for raising fingerlings
           Establishment of hatchery units and fry packing yard to produce fish seed

    Objectives and strategies of the sector in the district:
        To promote the sustainable development of Fresh water Pisciculture as well as, Brackish
           water and Marine fisheries
        To enhance the contribution of the Fishery Sector for food and livelihood security of the
           district




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




           To promote public private partnership (PPP) in developing and managing the unutilized
            fishery resources for the benefit of the people
           To create human resource base for fisheries development and managing through
            capacity building
           Optimal exploitation of capture fisheries resources through PFCS/SHG with proper
            conservation and management practices
           To provide livelihood support to the fisher folk
           Insurance coverage of all the fishermen involved in marine & inland sector
           Coverage of 100% crop insurance/craft & gear insurance
           Development of infrastructure facilities like fish feed plants, fish meal plants, cold
            storages, ice plants, fish Godowns, fishing jetties, fishing harbors, roads, electricity,
            health, sanitation, drinking water, education, transportation, and establishment of
            hygienic fish market
           Ensure supply of requisites and inputs through one stop aqua shop/organization of
            Fishermen Associations at block level to solve their problems
           To establish fish seed production units for 100% supply of quality seed both in
            government and private sector

    Promotion of Public Private Partnership in developing, managing, conserving and
    sharing the Fishery resources for the benefit of the district:

     SHGs will be leased GP tanks to undertake integrated pisciculture and bank linkages will be
      developed through FFDA.
     Private entrepreneurs will be subsidized to construct cold storage, fry packing yard, ice
      plant, processing and marketing yard
     NGOs will be encouraged to undertake training programmes for fish farmers

    Development of human resources through their capacity building:

     Fish farmers will be trained through the department/ATMA/UNDP/FISHCOFED etc.
     Stipendiary ten days training to fish farmers on modern aquaculture practices will be
      organized in each block per year
     Exposure visits will be arranged for farmers and officials through Fish Farmer Development
      Agency (FFDA)

    Fishery Schemes

    Development of Fresh Water Aquaculture under FFDA: The funds under this scheme will be
    utilized through FFDA for excavation and renovation of pisciculture tanks.

    Development of Water Logged Areas through FFDA: There is a vast potential for
    development of underwater logged areas in the district. This is an awareness programme and
    training will be imparted to farmers and entrepreneurs to bring Wetland resources into the fold of




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                            Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    scientific culture. Annual Plan outlay of Rs. 1225.63 lakh is proposed for Fishery sector for the
    year 2012-13.

    6.1.3: ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    Livestock sector is highly livelihood intensive. Livestock are inseparable from the lives of weaker
    sections. This sector is an instrument of poverty alleviation. Livestock serves as employment
    exchange providing its users daily bread, transport, energy etc. Income from livestock holding is
    more equitably distributed.

    Existing indicators of animal husbandry sector in the district:

    Considering a total bovine population of 972966 in the district, both Animal Husbandry and Agro
    processing have huge potential to supplement income of farmers. The ultimate objective would
    be to make Animal Husbandry so organized a sector in the district that it will become the
    primary source of income for those without land. Further, there are 132 milk societies
    functioning under the aegis of Great Ganjam Gajpati Milk Union. There are 245 Livestock Aid
    Centers (LACs) giving services throughout the district. Over 188 LACs are having Artificial
    Insemination facility. Six milk routes are operating in Ganjam. There are two chilling plants at
    Berhampur and Aska and seven bulk-cooling units are spread throughout Ganjam. Hatcheries
    and feed plants are also being established. Such resources provide a good impetus for the
    expansion of animal husbandry activities.

    Goat and sheep rearing augment household incomes in tribal and remote areas. Under SGSY,
    animal husbandry is being identified as a core activity. Identifying new milk routes in the remote,
    involving SHG groups and tribals will provide a thrust for future interventions. Critical
    infrastructural and institutional gaps will be addressed in the Annual Plan and BRGF in the
    coming years.

    Objectives and strategies for perspective plan period

    The major objectives of the sector in the district are

           Up-gradation of stock and increase per capita availability of milk, egg and meat
           Capacity building of stakeholders
           Involvement of private sector for processing of products and effective delivery of
            veterinary services

    Following strategies will be adopted to fulfill these objectives:

           Ecological and environmental sustainability of the livestock sector growth will be the
            main focus. Modernization will be ensured with constant monitoring of environmental
            effects on growth process. Policies and programmes will be designed for effective
            mitigation of their adverse effects




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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




           To capacitate marginalized sectors especially the women, SCs and STs with
            supplementary inputs and services to avail equal opportunities offered by the
            government
           To achieve better value addition for productions of the sector, linkage will be created
            with the hotels and restaurants of the locality
           Monitoring of animal diseases; control, containment and eradication and breeding
            services will be done regularly by respective authorities

    Annual Plan outlay of Rs. 291.13 lakh is proposed for the year 2012-13.

    6.1.4: SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

    Unscientific farming, ignorance and biotic pressure are some of the major reasons for the
    erosion of valuable soils. This has led to the land becoming unproductive and sterile. To
    overcome these lapses, holistic approach on soil and water conservation is highly essential
    especially to ensure sustainable production in Agriculture and Other related activities.

    The district has 11000 ha. of cultivable waste land, 5000 ha. of current fallow and 8000 ha. of
    other fallow land. The watershed development program under NWDPRA was implemented in 14
    micro watershed areas covering treatable area of 8.072 ha. So far, 406 Water Harvesting
    structures/hedgerows have been constructed; out of which 252 are functioning and 154 are
    defunct. The department has also undertaken shelterbelt plantation along the sea beach of Bay
    of Bengal over 18.5 km. starting from Golabandh to Rameyapatana within the range of 1 km.
    width from the tide formation zone. The aim of the plantation is to stabilize the coastal sand
    dunes by reducing drifting of sand grains and minimizing the destructive effects of cyclones.

    It is proposed to construct W.H.S, farm ponds, percolation tanks and improvement of W.H.S,
    hedgerows and Cross bunds in the non-irrigated rain-fed patches under the annual plan. This
    will result in solving the following problems:

         Provide life saving irrigation to the nearby crop field
         Check the soil erosive velocity of water and erosion of soil
         Recharge the ground water and thus improve the ground water level
         Generate employment opportunity
    These projects would be implemented in identified Watershed Areas. The user groups would be
    formed and their involvement in operation of the schemes would be ensured so that the projects
    after completion would be handed over to them for future maintenance.

    The National Watershed Development Project for Rain fed Areas (NWDPRA) is a centrally
    sponsored scheme under Macro Management of Agriculture at 90:10 ratio between the
    Government of India and the State. The scheme aims at sustainable natural resource
    management, enhancement of agriculture productivity and increased production of bio-mass
    and restoration of ecological balance in rain-fed areas on Watershed approach. The Scheme for
    River Valley Project (RVP) is being implemented in the catchments of inter-state-River Valley


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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




    Projects to prevent soil erosion from the catchments and to reduce siltation of multipurpose
    reservoirs under Macro-Management of Work Plan.

    Annual Plan outlay of Rs. 255.81 lakh is proposed for the year 2012-13.

    SECTOR II: Rural Development
    Rural population constitutes nearly 82.40% of total population in Ganjam. Rural sector suffers
    from multiple disadvantages like high incidence of poverty, poor access to health care facilities,
    disguised unemployment in primary sector etc. Despite several efforts, these parameters
    continue to remain at high level causing distress in growth. During the 12th Five Year Plan, it has
    been planned to adopt various strategies to create more gainful employment, improve economic
    condition, and better standard of living. This will result in improving social and economic
    infrastructure to the rural people and providing universal access to basic minimum facilities.
    Development Vision: Proper implementation of various schemes will generate huge
    employment opportunities for various categories of workers in rural and urban areas. In addition,
    direct employment opportunities will be provided under NREGA. At least 200 days of additional
    employment will be ensured to rural people by 2020. NREGA activities will be converged with
    other sectors like soil conservation, horticulture and fishery. Apart from NREGA, SGSY will be
    implemented efficiently. Over the years, attempts will be made to improve the quality and
    quantity of employment, productivity of workers and their income.

    Objectives:
        Ensure employment for about 2 lakh households during the 12th Plan period
        Provide employment to all job aspirants under NREG by utilizing 90% NREGA fund
        Ensure to provide 200 days of additional employment to rural people
        Reduce poverty by 15%

    Strategy:
        Rural Infrastructure development
        Supply of drinking water and total sanitation
        Providing sustainable source of livelihood

    Outlay: To achieve these objectives through the above strategy a sum of Rs. 10998.60 lakh
    has been proposed under various rural development related plans and schemes for the Annual
    Plan 2012-13.

    6.2: Rural Employment

    6.2.1: Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY):

    This scheme covers all aspects of self employment such as organization of BPL families into
    SHGs, skill up-gradation, training and development of infrastructure along with market link-up.
    The objective is to enable every targeted family to cross poverty line within 2 years (2010-11 &


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    2011-12) by providing income generating assets through bank credit and government subsidy.
    With the funding pattern of 75:25 ratio between Center and State.

    6.2.2: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS):
    The objective is to provide livelihood security to rural households by providing at least 100 days
    of wage employment (unskilled manual work). The details are presented below:
        1. To strengthen food security and to improve nutritional status of unemployed and
           underemployed households by providing 100 days of employment to each BPL family
           willing to work
        2. To optimize resources available under all the development programmes operational at
           the Panchayat level and to provide best possible and meaningful option for
           convergence/dovetailing of all such programmes
        3. To derive maximum benefit in favour of the rural poor specially with regard to generation
           of employment opportunities both in terms of wage and self employment, through
           creation of need based optimum infrastructure at the Panchayat level in the short term
           and develop self sustaining robust Panchayat economy in the long run
        4. To create necessary infrastructure in the following categories
              i. Water conservation and drought proofing including afforestation
              ii. Land development
              iii. Flood control and protection measures (including drainage in water logged areas)
              iv. Rural connectivity

    Achievement: Under MGNREGS about one lakh forty one thousand households have been
    provided employment till 29th May 2010 and 79 lakh man-days of works have been created. So
    far 13739 no. of total works undertaken, out of these 4244 works have been completed and
    remaining 9495 works are in progress.


                              Table 6. 3 MGNREGS Statistics of Ganjam

    Employment provided to households (in lakh)                                             1.41721
    Total work days (in lakh)                                                                     79
    Average man-days to each household                                                            56
    Scheduled Castes (in lakh)                                                        19.91 [25.2%]
    Scheduled Tribes (in lakh)                                                          4.77 [6.04%]
    Women (in lakh)                                                                  38.97 [49.33%]
    Others (in lakh)                                                                 54.32 [68.77%]
    Total works (In Nos.)                                                                      13739
    Works completed (In Nos.)                                                                   4244
    Works in progress (In Nos.)                                                                 9495
    Upto: 29-05-2010
    Source: http://www.nrega.nic.in/netnrega/home.aspx




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    For the annual action plan outlay under NREGS of the district the total estimated cost is for the
    year 2012-13 Rs. 10865.80 lakh.

    Constraints: During sensitization programmes for the PRI members and discussion with them
    at Block levels and Gram Panchayats, PRI members raised the questions concerning the
    creation of permanent assets. According to them assets created under NREGS may not be
    lasting for a long period, as the ratio of labour component and materials is 80:20; hence the
    objective of assets creation through NREGS is in question and may not achieved. There has
    been a suggestion for increasing the share of the material component (the ratio would be 60:40)
    so that they can have durable assets in their vicinity under the MGNREGS.

    6.2.3: Integrated Wasteland Development Project (IWDP):

    The scheme is being implemented with a sharing pattern. The Central Share is released by
    Government of India, Ministry of Rural Development directly to DRDA’s. The Government in
    Agriculture Department releases the matching State Share to the DRDAs directly. DRDAs
    release the funds to the PIA and Watershed Committees.

    Objectives: The project aims at generating rural employment and people’s participation in the
    wastelands development programmes at all stages. The major activities included in this project
    are:
         Soil and moisture conservation measures like terracing, bunding, trenching, vegetative
           barriers etc.
         Planting and sowing of multi-purpose trees, shrubs, grasses, legumes and pasture land
           development.
         Encouraging natural regeneration
         Promotion of agro-forestry and horticulture
         Wood substitution and fuel-wood conservation measures
         Measures needed to disseminate technology
         Training, extension and creation of greater degree of awareness among the participants
         Encouraging people’s participation

    SECTOR III: SPECIAL AREA PROGRAMMES

    Removal of regional disparities has been emphasized during various plan periods. In fact, intra-
    district disparity has become pronounced due to several factors such as differences in
    endowment of natural resources, creation of infrastructure, occurrence of natural calamities etc.
    To address these issues special area development programmes have been framed. In Ganjam
    district, funds received under BRGF, Tumba Development Agency and the Article 275(1) of the
    constitution are being utilized to remove intra district disparities. The Annual Plan Outlay for the
    district under this sector is Rs. 3843.00 lakh.




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                                 Table 6. 4 Special area Programme

      SPECIAL AREA PROGRAMMES                  2012-17        2010-11       2011-12     2012-13
    BRGF                                        19090.00       227.62       3428.00       3818.00
    Special Central Assistance to TSP           75.00          11.46         13.19          15.00
    Grants under proviso to Article 275(1)      50.00           5.43          7.90          10.00
    TOTAL                                      19215.00        244.51       3449.09       3843.00


                          Graph 6. 2 Growth of Special Area Programmes




    6.3: Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF)
    The Backward Regions Grant Fund is designed to redress regional imbalances in development.
    The fund will provide financial resources for supplementing and converging existing
    developmental inflows into 250 identified districts, so as to:

        1. Bridge critical gaps in local infrastructure and other development requirements that are
           not being adequately met through existing inflows
        2. Strengthen Panchayat and Municipality level governance with more appropriate capacity
           building
        3. Facilitate participatory planning, decision making, implementation and monitoring, to
           reflect local felt needs
        4. Provide professional support to local bodies for planning, implementation and monitoring
           of their plans
        5. Improve the performance and delivery of critical functions assigned to Panchayats
        6. Counter any possible deficiency and equity losses on account of inadequate local
           capacity



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    The Annual Plan Outlay for the district under BRGF is Rs.38.18 Crores.

    Grants under Article 275(I) of the Constitution: These grants under the Ministry of Tribal
    Affairs, Government of India, provide grants-in-aid as SCA to the State under 1st provision of
    Article 275 (I) of the Constitution for creation of infrastructure in TSP areas and for setting up of
    Model Schools.

    The Annual Plan Outlay for the district under above programme is Rs.10.00 lakh.

    Special Central Assistance for TSP Areas: This programme receives Special Central
    Assistance (SCA) from the Ministry of Tribal Affairs for implementation of program under Tumba
    Development Agency, etc. for the development of Scheduled Tribes. The Annual Plan Outlay for
    the district under above programme is Rs. 15.00 lakh.

    SECTOR IV: IRRIGATION & FLOOD CONTROL

    Development of irrigation has been accorded prime importance during the 12th Plan. However,
    recently, the approach towards irrigation has undergone a sea-change not only in the district but
    in the state as well. Emphasis is being given on sustainable water resource management
    through watershed development approach and water users’ association. This participatory
    approach will be taken to develop the sector in best possible manner. During this annual plan
    period, multiple approaches will be undertaken to increase both potential creation and utilization
    of irrigation areas.

    Ganjam district has a total cultivable area of 434000 ha. out of which irrigation facility has been
    provided to 247900 ha. This amounts to irrigated facility at above 57% (57.12%) of the total
    cultivable area. On priority basis medium/minor irrigation projects and lift irrigation points will be
    constructed in the district to increase the percentage of irrigation. Irrigation facility is aimed to be
    increased to 75% of cultivable area. This increase of about 18% will be achieved in 12 years @
    of 1.5% per annum by Major/Medium/Minor Irrigation Projects, Lift Irrigation Points, Dug wells
    and through renovation of tanks. The cultivators will be motivated to make crop diversification
    and to make optimum utilization of Irrigation water to increase their income.

    The proposed 12th five year plan for the irrigation & flood control is Rs. 117547.99 lakh
    and proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 24023.51 lakh.

                               Table 6. 5 Irrigation & Flood Control Funds

            IRRIGATION & FLOOD             2012-17           2010-11             2011-12           2012-13
        1.Minor Irrigation :
        2.Lift Irrigation
        TOTAL                            117547.99           7897.33             23919.13           24023.51




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    6.4: Minor Irrigation

    Minor irrigation covers irrigation projects having ayacut area of 40 to 2000 ha. This Scheme has
    importance due to its characteristics such as low gestation, less investment and quick benefit.
    The minor irrigation projects would contribute substantially in a few blocks of Ganjam such as
    Jagannath Prasad where there are no avenues for Major and Medium projects. The lift irrigation
    part of Minor irrigation was set-up to execute LI projects to create additional irrigation potential
    and handing over the same to the Pani Panchayats for operation and maintenance.

    6.4.1: Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)

    This scheme was launched by the centre to provide loan assistance to State Governments to
    enhance the pace of irrigation development in the country. The Primary objectives of AIBP
    include acceleration of implementation of ongoing projects and realization of bulk benefits from
    irrigation projects. The projects which have been launched in Ganjam have been treated under
    relaxed norms.

    SECTOR V: ENERGY

    Among the prime inputs energy has always been a major thrust area as far as infrastructure is
    concerned. This is crucial for the economic development as well as overall well-being of the
    people. Increase in power generation has cascading effects on all sectors leading to increased
    growth in agriculture, industry et al. Generation and supply of energy at affordable prices has
    always remained a great challenge. Both conventional energy and non-conventional sources of
    energy have been of considerable importance to fulfill the growing demands in the district.
    Domestic as well as commercial consumption of energy has increased over the years. Several
    successive plans and schemes have been implemented since last few years.


    The proposed 12th five year plan for the Energy sector is Rs. 120.00 lakh and proposed
    annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 24.00 lakh.

                   Table 6. 6 Projected and Proosed Outlays for Eneergy Sector

                  ENERGY                      2012-17       2010-11         2011-12          2012-13
    Power
    National Biogas & Manure                   120.00        20.16           28.00                24.00




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    SECTOR VI: INDUSTRIES AND MINERALS

    The District Industries Centre of Ganjam has come into existence in 1978. Prior to that, there
    were only two medium and large-scale industries and 620 SSI units. After establishment of DIC,
    support and services in various forms are being provided to prospective entrepreneurs for
    establishment of small scale/village and cottage industries. Further, the industrial policy
    resolutions such as of 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1996 declared by the state government have
    provided various incentives to SSI for their sustained growth. 36227 persons have been
    employed through 8580 number of SSI units in Ganjam. The district has three industrial estates
    located at Berhampur, Bhanjnagar and Chatrapur. Developed plots and sheds along with other
    infrastructural facilities like road, drainage, water supply and electricity are being provided by
    IDCO in these areas.

    The proposed 12th five year plan for the industry and minerals is Rs. 19449.96 lakh and
    proposed annual plan for the year 2011-12 is Rs. 3495.24 lakh.

                                   Table 6. 7 Industry and Minerals

        INDUSTRY AND MINERALS                 2007-12           2009-10        2010-11      2011-12
    Village & Small Enterprises
    (a) Small Scale Industries                19119.96          3232.09        3232.51       3429.24
    (b) Textile & Handloom                     330.00            51.06          43.64          66.00
    TOTAL                                     19449.96          3283.15        3276.15       3495.24




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                             Graph 6. 3 Small scale and Textile Industries




    6.6: Promotion of Handloom Industries:

    The objective of the scheme is to popularize handloom consumers by organizing exhibitions,
    festivals, workshops, exposure visits, technology demonstration, fairs, seminars and other such
    activities within and outside the district and state. Annual Plan Outlay for the district is Rs.66.00
    lakh.

    6.6.1: Promotion of Handicraft, cottage and other Industries:

    The objective of the scheme is to impart training in handicrafts as well as carpet weaving in
    different training centers by providing stipend to the trainees, wages to Master Craftsmen, raw
    materials and house rent of the training centers. Annual Plan Outlay 2012-13 for the district is
    Rs. 3429.24lakh.

    SECTOR VII: TRANSPORT

    Good infrastructure gives an area, zone or district an upper edge for attracting investment and
    mobilization of funds into the district. With the onset of liberalization an efficient transport
    infrastructure has become a necessity to enable the district to be a major player in the domestic
    and international markets through the transfer of goods produced specifically in the district to
    centers where they can be directed towards prospective national and international markets.
    The proposed 12th five year plan for the Transport sector is Rs. 149044.50 lakh and
    proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 31714.54 lakh.
                                     Table 6. 8 Transport Sector
              TRANSPORT                   2012-17         2010-11         2011-12          2012-13
    Road and Buildingses                 89427.95         9616.24        11023.20         14289.00
    Road and Works                       36858.25         8165.79        12240.79         13694.67
    R and B Plan scheme/works            22758.31         1175.02         1118.09          3730.87
                   Total                 149044.5        18957.05        24382.08         31714.54


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                                      Graph 6.5 Transport Sector




    6.7: Roads

    Road transportation is a critical infrastructure for growth. It is equally important to reach remote
    areas where access by railways is not always possible. While Railways can create “Jump off”
    point for and to the urban centers, roads whether rural or urban in the district complete the final
    lap to the actual destination points such as villages and other smaller urban hubs. Ganjam in
    particular, plays an important role by linking eleven railways stations and important ports such
    as Gopalpur. Currently Ganjam has 927 km. of important National Highways, State Highways
    and Major District Roads. The composition in terms of percentage of the above three types of
    roads to their total is 23%, 67% and 10% respectively.

    6.7.1: Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
    Continuous efforts have been carried out by the State and Central Government for rural road
    connectivity over the past years. However, only about 60% of the habitations have some road
    connectivity. The construction of these roads is not of high quality; hence they cannot be
    categorized as all-weather roads. Keeping this in view the Government launched the Pradhan
    Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) on 25th December, 2000 to provide all-weather road
    connectivity to unconnected habitations. It is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Fifty
    percent of the Cess on High Speed Diesel (HSD) is earmarked for this Programme. The primary
    objective of the PMGSY is to provide connectivity, by way of all-weather roads (with necessary
    culverts and cross-drainage structures, which is operable throughout the year); to all eligible
    unconnected habitations in rural areas with a population of thousand persons and five hundred
    persons and above in the Tribal (Scheduled V) areas.




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    SECTOR VIII: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

    6.8: Forestry, Environment and Ecology.

    The forest area of Ganjam district is 28% of the total Geographical Area. Ganjam has three
    Forest Divisions, out of which Berhampur Forest Division is an important one. The geographical
    area of this division is 3397.49 sq km with a forest area of 696.08 sq.km. It comprises of four
    terminal Ranges. The forest area is distributed primarily in Soroda, Kodala, Khalikote, Tamana,
    Karchutti, Buguda, Tarasingi, Gallery (Bhanjanagar), Dholapita and Durga Prasad blocks and
    regions. The major forest products are Timber, Bamboo, Tamarind, Mahua, Sal, Resin, Kendu-
    leaves, Siali leaves and Karanja Seeds. The Minor Forest Products in the district are nuts and
    berries of different types, barks of different trees and edible roots. Scope exists for the
    processing of raw forest produce that would add value to the finished products. The
    establishment of relevant industrial units and linkage between collection and processing will
    increase employment opportunities. Public-Private partnership with welfare motive is highly
    desirable and forms an integral part of the plan.

    The forest department under its conservation role protects Olive Ridley Sea Turtle in Rushikulya
    Beda, Crocodile in Ghodahada Reservoir and Black Bucks in Khalikote among others. The
    Olive-friendly Sea-turtles reach Rushikulya river, every year for mass nesting. These turtles lay
    eggs on the sea-beach, North of River Rusikulya from Village Purunabandha up to village
    Kantigada covering an area of five kms. Potential exists to increase tourist attraction to watch
    the egg laying spectacle. In the Ghodahada Reservoir 32 Crocodiles have been counted as per
    a survey conducted by DFO, Berhampur. Black bucks are seen publicly in herds in and around
    ten villages of Aska and Buguda Block areas of the district. A total of 528 black bucks have
    been observed in these ten-villages under Khalikote Forest Range. These can add tourism
    opportunities.

    The proposed 12th five year plan for the SCIENCE,TECNHOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT is Rs.
    5823.94 lakh and proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 1155.24 lakh.

                          Table 6. 9 Science Technology and Environment

    SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT                  2012-17    2010-11      2011-12   2012-13
                  Total fund                           5823.94      982.44     1010.20     1155.24




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                                   Graph 6. 4 Forestry and Wildlife




    SECTOR IX: GENERAL ECONOMIC SERVICES

    6.9: Census, Surveys and Statistics

    Agriculture censuses, M.I. census, economic census is required for the district. The census
    aims at collection and compilation of data on operational holdings in various sizes and classes
    in three phases.

    6.9.1: Survey and Statistics

    The Directorate of Economics and Statistics is mandated to cater to data needs of various
    government organizations and academic institutions. It is currently engaged in conducting
    various studies and surveys including state income estimation, capital formation, employment,
    annual survey of industries among others.

    The proposed 12th five year plan for the GENERAL ECONOMICS SERVICES is Rs.
    13500.00 lakh and proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 2700.00 Lakh.

                              Table 6. 10 General Economic Services

        GENERAL ECONOMIC SERVICES              2012-17          2010-11           2011-12   2012-13

    MPLAD                                       7000.00          102.96           493.00    1400.00
    MLALAD                                      6500.00          626.80           1300.00   1300.00
    TOTAL                                      13500.00          729.76           1793.00   2700.00




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    SECTOR X: SOCIAL SERVICES

    The objective of education is to empower people with skills, knowledge and positive attitude in
    order to have respectable sources of livelihood. It aims at reducing illiteracy rate and providing
    sound qualifications that can be put to use in practical field. Skill up-gradation and knowledge
    enhancement is possible through liberal and technical education. Elementary education has
    been the centre of focus since independence. The goal of universalization of elementary
    education has not so far been realized due to the inability to successfully handle local problems
    and identification of the issues and solutions in context to the situation of the district. To address
    various issues on quality education, multi-grade and multi-situation activities need to be
    incorporated in the plan to deal with problems.

    The proposed 12th five year plan for the social services is Rs.                 315125.33 lakh and
    proposed annual plan for the year 2012-13 is Rs. 70615.62 lakh.

                                       Table 6. 11 Social Services

           SOCIAL SERVICES                    2012-17          2010-11         2011-12        2012-13
    General Education                      103554.00         11375.39       18130.60        20042.35
    Art and Culture                        93.00                                            27.00
    Medical & Public Health                25315.14          3038.88        3513.37         4376.04
    Water Supply & Sanitation              23451.08          3416.73        5699.98         6134.85
    Housing                                27201.74          5722.30        4053.91         4459.30
    Development of SCs, STs & OBCs         6000.87           933.29         1012.72         1199.43
    Social Security & Social Welfare       84662.37          13403.64       47210.79        24077.63
    Empowerment of Women                   10521.04          375.33         492.06          2209.87
    Urban Development                      34326.08          3416.48        14229.11        8089.15
    Total                                  315125.33         41682.04       94342.55        70615.62


                                   Graph 6. 5 Growth of Social Sector




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    6.10: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is one of flagship programmes of Government of India. Its main
    objective is for the achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time
    bound manner. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the
    entire country. The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not
    have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of
    additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement
    grants. Besides this, schools with inadequate teacher strength are being provided with
    additional teachers; while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive
    training, grants for developing Teaching-Learning Materials (TLM) and strengthening of the
    academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level. SSA seeks to provide quality
    elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl's education and
    children with special needs. Recently SSA also included the objective to provide computer
    education to bridge the digital divide.

    National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL): The NPEGEL
    as an additional component for education of girls especially from the disadvantaged groups.
    This forms a separate and distinct gender component plan of SSA. The scheme is to be
    applicable in blocks where the level of rural female literacy is less than the national average and
    the gender gap is above the national average. The Annual Plan Outlay for the district under this
    scheme is Rs.253.85 lakh.

    Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV): The percentage of dropout and out of reach
    children are more among the SC, ST, OBC and minorities girl children. An attempt has been
    made to bring them into mainstream education through Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
    (KGBV). Under this SC/ST girl students are imparted education in the Residential schools. This
    would be applicable only in the educationally backward blocks. Annual Plan Outlay for the
    district under KGBV is Rs.556.44 lakh with funding pattern 65:35 ratio between Central and
    State Share.

    Secondary and Higher Education: Secondary Education serves as a bridge between primary
    and higher education, and aims at preparing young persons between the age group of 14-18 to
    face the world as adults and enter further higher education. There are 101944 students in
    Secondary schools in the District with 57% boys and 43% girls studying in 505 secondary
    schools. To accommodate children in schools at secondary level, the district needs more
    secondary level schools at GP level to cater out of reach children. There are 83 colleges in the
    district including 12 colleges for women having 34827 students and 1738 lecturers/readers.

    Health Services
    Health for all cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. Concerted and integrated efforts of
    different sectors like ICDS, PRI, rural water supply and sanitation are equally essential for this
    purpose. Thus there is need for convergence of activities of other sectors with Health. The key


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    to successful implementation of NRHM lies in inter-sectoral convergence. There are 444 Sub-
    Centers in the district to provide health care services to people at village level through the health
    workers; out of which 272 Sub-centers have their own buildings and the rest are functioning in
    rented buildings. For the sub-centers which are being managed in rented buildings, there should
    be provisions of rent. Out of buildings available, around 75% of Sub-centre Building need repair.
    There are 475 Gram Panchayats. The number of Sub-Centers should be equal to G.P. So there
    is a need for new construction of 31 sub-Centers. There are 87 single doctor institutions that
    need repair and renovation. For monitoring and facilitating various health activities are also
    required.

    The other requirements to improve the health situation are:

           Construction of 203 sub-Centers in a phased manner over a period of five years
           Repair and renovation of 220 Sub-Centers phase wise giving priority to sub-Centers in
            dilapidated condition
           Repair and renovation of 87 single doctor institutions
           Repair and renovation of District Training Unit (DTU)
           Provision for permanent Water Supply to 272 Sub-Centers
           Repair and maintenance of available 9 vehicles
           Hiring of vehicle for the 20 blocks

    6.10.1: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

    NRHM was launched in June 2005 with an aim to provide effective health care to rural people,
    especially among the disadvantaged groups including women and children. Its objectives would
    be achieved by improving access, enabling community ownership and demand for services,
    strengthening public health system for effective service delivery, enhancing equity and
    accountability and promoting decentralization et al.
    The Mission aims to reduce IMR and MMR, provide access to Public Health Services, promote
    Women Health, Child Health, Sanitation and Hygiene, Immunization and Nutrition, prevention
    and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases. To provide integrated and
    comprehensive primary health care, population stabilization, gender and demographic balance
    and promotion of health lifestyle are some other critical areas of NRHM.

    The Annual Plan Outlay for the district under NRHM is Rs. 4216.04 lakh with 85:15 funding ratio
    between Central and State Government.

    6.10.2: HIV/AIDS

    AIDS has emerged as the most devastating Public Health Problem in the district of Ganjam.
    48% of HIV +ve people of Orissa live in Ganjam. Many socio-economic factors contribute to the
    high incidence of HIV. One of the major factors includes the migrants and labourers working in
    towns and cities both inside and outside the district. Extramarital relationship, multiple sex
    partners with STD, HIV/AIDS, no awareness on safe sex practices etc. are have been the main



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    causes of the menace. It is observed that the Blocks where number of migrants are higher,
    there are more HIV +Ve cases. Risky Sexual Behaviors are commonly seen in migrants. About
    85% of migrants at Surat are from Ganjam. NH 5 and NH 217 pass through the district for about
    120 kilometers. that make it more vulnerable to AIDS (as large numbers of truckers pass
    through the NH daily). Truckers and Dhabas indulge in risky and unsafe sexual practices.

    Various surveys among the migrants have shown that the awareness on HIV/AIDS is very poor.
    They live in very unhygienic conditions and usually live without their family. They practice
    unsafe sex and get infected with HIV. Back at home they infect their wives who are silent
    victims. In turn the new born babies are infected with HIV/AIDS. This continues to become a
    vicious cycle. Socio-cultural factors do not allow the women to freely discuss about sex and use
    of condoms even with their husbands. In the recent years many Awareness Programmes have
    been taken up in the district for prevention and control of AIDS. ARUNA, NEC, CARE, GPSS,
    Implementation of T.I. programs in Hinjilicut, Aska, Chikiti, Dengapadar and Bhanjanagar are
    also being carried out. However the performance of T.I. Programmes has not met expectation.
    UNDP has started some initiatives in the field of HIV/AIDS by establishing ICT-Kiosks with the
    help of NGOs in 19 sites including Railway Hospital, Berhampur. Under NRHM, steps need to
    be taken for effective measures for protection and control of AIDS.

    The following objectives and strategies are aimed to reverse the epidemic in the District of
    Ganjam over the next five years; by integration of prevention and treatment programmes:

              Prevention of new infection in the High Risk Groups and Vulnerable population
              Increasing the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS to receive care and
               treatment
              Strengthening infrastructure, systems and human resources in prevention and
               treatment programme
              IEC for general population and adolescents
              Comprehensive and Inter-sectoral approach through ZSS
              BCC in High Risks groups and vulnerable population
              Provision of Treatment Facility for RTI/STI at Block level institutions AH/ SDH and
               City Hospital
              Promotion of Use of Condom
              IPC through Health Workers, AWWs, ASHA
              School AIDs and College AIDS programme
              Selection and training of peer educators




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    Water Supply and Sanitation

    6.10.7: Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP)

    This is a centrally Sponsored Plan Programme with a funding pattern of 50:50 ratio between
    State and Centre. Although the matching share of the State Government is exactly meant for
    ARWSP, the central Government releases fund equivalent to the amount spent by the State
    Government. The main objective of ARWSP is to provide potable drinking water by installing
    tube wells, sanitary wells and piped water supply projects in rural areas. The components of the
    programme include Installation of spot sources, rural piped water supply, survey and
    investigation and sustainability, machinery and equipment, regular establishment, building
    programme, MIS and computerization, monitoring and investigation unit, operation and
    maintenance among others. The total outlay under National Rural Drinking Water Programme
    for this sector is Rs 3242.76 lakh.

    6.10.8: Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)
     

    The main objectives of the TSC are as under:  

        1   Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas

        2   Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas

        3   Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health
            education

        4   Cover schools/Anganwadi Centers in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote
            hygiene education and sanitary habits among students

        5   Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation

        6   Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources
            and food

        7   Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice,
            wherever existing in rural areas

    The Annual Plan Outlay for the district under TSC is Rs.2472.72 lakh with 75:25 funding ratio
    between Central and State government.




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    Rural Housing

    6.10.9: Indira Awas Yojana

    Under Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) assistance is being provided to BPL rural households including
    SC/ST and the freed bonded laborers for construction of dwelling houses. Under this scheme
    the beneficiaries are selected through Gram Sabha /Palli Sabha. The houses are constructed by
    the beneficiaries themselves. Annual Plan Outlay for the district is Rs.2993.91 lakh with 75:25
    funding ratio between Centre and the State.
    Urban Development

    With rapid growth of the economy urban centers in the district particularly Berhampur
    Municipality is facing constraints in regards to housing, traffic control and encroachments. Since
    rural to urban migration will continue at a faster rate, saturation will set in the Agriculture sector.
    Hence the development of urban bodies has to be taken up with a lot of foresight. Under
    Housing and Urban development Annual Plan outlays of Rs.2600.25 lakh have been made for
    the district.

    Social Security and Social Welfare

    The annual outlay for this sector for the year 2011-12 is Rs.5894.50 lakh.

    6.10.10: National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

    The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) which came into effect from 15th August,
    1995 represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Article 41
    and 42 of the Constitution. It has introduced a National Policy for Social Assistance benefit to
    poor households in case of old age, death of primary bread-winner and maternity. The
    Programme has the following components, namely:-

    6.10.11: National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS):

    Under this Scheme, Central Assistance is available as per the following criteria:
        Age of the applicant (male or female) is 65 years or more
        The applicant is a 'destitute' in the sense of having little or no regular means of
         subsistence from his/her own sources of income or through financial support from family
         members or other sources

    6.10.12: Madhu Babu Pension Yojana (MBPY):

    Under this scheme pension of Rs.200.00 will be provided to destitute persons both male and
    female.




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    6.10.13: Development of SCs and STs

    People belonging to SC, ST and OBC categories are at the lowest rung of the social hierarchy
    in Orissa. Even though the Indian constitution has given directives for safeguarding the welfare
    of these groups the situation of these vulnerable groups remains grim in comparison to higher
    caste groups. The current Plan would envisage the addressing of issues of relevance to these
    groups. Ganjam has a Scheduled caste population of 586798 and a scheduled tribe population
    of 90919. These groups account for 18.57% and 2.88% of the total population respectively. The
    broad objectives of the plan are to improve the condition of the above underprivileged groups.
    This would focus on improving the socio-economic condition and reducing poverty, bringing
    these communities into the mainstream of the social setup, development of critical
    infrastructure, communication, education, health, housing, provision of basic minimum services,
    protecting them from social discrimination and protecting their livelihood rights over forests and
    lands.

    The Schemes Operating under State Plan for Scheduled Tribes include:

           Pre-Matric Scholarship to Scheduled Tribe Students-With a view to promote primary and
            secondary education among the tribal children and increasing enrolment, special
            hostels for Tribal children have been established. Along with this Pre-Matric scholarship
            are paid to boys and girls pursuing their studies from class I to X in schools/hostels for
            10 months in a year. Annual Outlay for Pre-Matric Scholarship is Rs.173.07 lakh.
           The Government has also taken initiatives through schemes such as Supply of
            Nationalized Text Books to SCs and STs with an Annual outlay for the district being 0.18
            lakh.
           The other initiatives include Writing Materials for ST students, Construction, Renovation
            and Reconstruction of Educational Institutions and Special Adivasi Hostels, Pre-
            examination Training of Scheduled Tribe Candidates for Recruitment into Armed Forces
            and CPMF and Rehabilitation and Legal Aid to ST Victims of Atrocities
           The Annual Plan Outlay for the district for SC & ST and OBC development is Rs.3425.05
            lakh.




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                                                                                       CHAPTER-VII


                                     T RIB AL S UB-PL AN (T SP)
    Basically the Schedule Tribes area is characterized by rich endowment of hilly forest and natural
    resources, which are mostly inaccessible and isolated. Majority of their food and livelihood
    security is dependent upon shifting cultivation, wage earning and collection of minor forest
    produce. Tribal population of the district is mostly affected by the process of rapid urbanization
    and forest denudation as a result they are deprived of their natural endowment and sustainable
    source of livelihood. They are generally in a state of social, educational and economic
    backwardness.

    Tribal Sub-Plan focuses on comprehensive and holistic views of tribal problems to bring down
    the gap of socio-economic development between tribal and non-tribals. This is oriented towards
    household income generating schemes in the field of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry,
    fishery, goat keeping, poultry etc. Elimination of exploitation, development of human resources
    through education, health and training programme are the main focus of the plan.

    7.1: Demographic Profile

    In Ganjam, Scheduled Tribes comprises 2.88% of the total population of the district. Out of the
    total Schedule Tribe population of the district, 87311(96.03%) resides in rural areas and only a
    small fraction of 3608 (3.97%) reside in urban areas (table 7.1).

                              Table 7.1 No. of ST Population across Blocks

                                                                                       % of ST
    Sl.                                                                   Sex
                  Block              Person         Male      Female                Population to
    No.                                                                   Ratio
                                                                                   Total Population
         1   Aska                           932        455         477     1048                  0.70
         2   Beguniapada                   2793       1392        1401     1006                  2.47
         3   Belaguntha                     678        329         349     1061                  0.66
         4   Bhanjanagar                   7805       3968        3837      967                  6.37
         5   Buguda                        1983       1016         967      952                  1.86
         6   Chhatrapur                     518        263         255      970                  0.41
         7   Chikiti                       2596       1288        1308     1016                  2.76
         8   Dharakote                     6682       3310        3372     1019                  6.58
         9   Digapahandi                   8793       4446        4347      978                  6.44
        10   Ganjam                         507        306         201      657                  0.61
        11   Hinjilicut                     451        237         214      903                  0.42
        12   Jaganthaprasad                5795       3037        2758      908                  4.92
        13   Kavisuryanagar                 355        160         195     1219                  0.35
        14   Khallikote                    5010       2476        2534     1023                  3.65
        15   Kukudakhandi                  5478       2780        2698      971                  4.40


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                                                                                       % of ST
    Sl.                                                                   Sex
                 Block              Person          Male      Female                Population to
    No.                                                                   Ratio
                                                                                   Total Population
        16Patrapur                        13632      6939        6693       965                11.54
        17Polasara                         3020      1513        1507       996                 2.58
        18Purusottampur                     250       119         131      1101                 0.19
        19Rangeilunda                       586       285         301      1056                 0.42
        20Sanakhemundi                     6005      3005        3000       998                 4.06
        21Sheragada                         598       291         307      1055                 0.51
        22Surada                          12844      6270        6574      1048                10.19
          Rural                           87311     43885       43426       990                 3.35
          Urban                            3608      1958        1650       843                 0.65
          District                        90919     45843       45076       983                 2.88
    Source: Census of India, 2001

    Out of total ST population more than 29% STs found both in Patrapur and Surada blocks.
    Patrapur and Surada blocks predominated by ‘Saura’ tribes. Bisides ‘Saura’, ‘Kandha’ tribe are
    also found in the district. Tubma Development Agency (TDA) is working in the 58 villages of
    Patrapur block. For the conservation and development of Saura tribes, TDA is providing support
    in Tumba areas in the field of education, health, livelihood, infrastructure etc.

    7.2: Education

    There are 42 schools in the Tribal area of the district under SC & ST development department
    as per Annual Work Plan, SSA, Ganjam. The rate of literacy among STs is 35.54% against the
    overall district literacy rate of 60.77% as per 2001 Census. The overall tribal male and female
    literacy rates are 50.22% and 20.65% respectively (table 7.2). The tribal female literacy is
    comparatively lesser than the district female literacy of 46.44%, which needs attention. The
    overall gender disparity index for literacy is 1.43, in respect of rural areas it is 1.57. While
    compare with district as well as rural gender disparity among STs, the gender disparity in urban
    area is in better position (0.33). The district and the state administration have taken this into
    consideration and initiated actions reduce disparity by emphasizing more on girls’ education.

                     Table 7. 2 Literacy Rate by Sex among STs across Blocks

                                                                                   Gender Disparity
    Sl. No.          Blocks               Male         Female          Total
                                                                                     in Literacy
         1    Aska                          24.80           18.80        21.80                   0.32
         2    Beguniapada                   27.70           24.30        26.00                   1.28
         3    Belaguntha                    25.30           19.80        22.50                   1.55
         4    Bhanjanagar                   25.10           17.90        21.50                   2.08
         5    Buguda                        25.60           20.20        22.90                   1.53
         6    Chatrapur                     25.80           21.00        23.40                   1.46
         7    Chikiti                       25.90           20.80        23.40                   1.49
         8    Dharakote                     27.40           26.30        26.90                   1.08


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                                                                                    Gender Disparity
    Sl. No.          Blocks                Male         Female         Total
                                                                                      in Literacy
         9   Digapahandi                       28.10        26.00         27.10                   1.16
        10   Ganjam                            27.40        26.00         26.70                   1.11
        11   Hinjilicut                        25.90        21.80         23.90                   1.38
        12   Jaganthaprasad                    27.20        24.50         25.90                   1.22
        13   Kavisuryanagar                    26.40        22.70         24.60                   1.33
        14   Khallikote                        27.80        25.00         26.40                   1.22
        15   Kukudakhandi                      26.30        22.20         24.30                   1.37
        16   Patrapur                          28.00        26.10         27.00                   1.14
        17   Polasara                          28.20        28.60         28.40                   0.97
        18   Purusottampur                     27.00        23.90         25.40                   1.26
        19   Rangeilunda                       29.40        27.50         28.50                   1.13
        20   Sanakhemundi                      28.50        26.50         27.50                   1.15
        21   Sheragada                         28.20        25.80         27.00                   1.18
        22   Surada                            28.90        26.70         27.80                   1.16
             Rural                             48.43        18.85         33.70                   1.57
             Urban                             88.26        66.22         78.23                   0.33
             District                          50.22        20.65         35.54                   1.43
    Source: Census of India 2001

    7.3 Landholding Patterns

    The land holding pattern among Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Ganjam district is highly skewed.
    Among all categories the ST marginalized community has least share in land. Large numbers of
    household have small holdings. They are not in a position to heavily rely on farming as a
    principal livelihood option. They have slowly but steadily shifted to the category of other
    workers. More than 56% and nearly 29% belongs to marginal and small category with an
    average holding size 0.48 ha and 1.39 ha respectively. Overall average holding size for ST is
    1.15 ha in the district against the state average of 1.33% (table 7.3).

        Table 7. 3 Class-wise Number and Area of Operational Holding for the ST Population

    Operational     Size          No. of     %age of     Area of                %age of       Average
     Holding       Groups       Operational Operational Operational             Area of       holding
      Class                      Holding     Holding     Holding               Operational      Size
                                                          (in ha.)              Holding       (in ha.)
                                                                                 (in ha.)
                  Below 1
    Marginal                            8588           56.46           4137           23.60       0.48
                  ha.
    Small         1-2 ha.               4392           28.88           6111           34.86       1.39
    Small
                  2-4 ha.               1793           11.79           4777           27.25       2.66
    Medium
    Medium        4-10 ha.               397            2.61           2067           11.79       5.21



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    Operational                     Size                   No. of     %age of     Area of           %age of      Average
     Holding                       Groups                Operational Operational Operational        Area of      holding
      Class                                               Holding     Holding     Holding          Operational     Size
                                                                                   (in ha.)         Holding      (in ha.)
                                                                                                     (in ha.)
                                Above 10
    Large                                                         40         0.26            437          2.49     10.93
                                ha.
    All Classes                      15210                      17529                    1.15
    Source: Report on Agricultural Census, 2000-01 Orissa (DES, Bhubaneswar), Page 35-36

    7.4: Occupation Pattern and Livelihood Programme

    A number of livelihood support programmes have been implemented in various sectors and
    departments in convergence. Swarnajayanti Gramya Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), Backward
    Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) and National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) are
    major flagship programmes implemented in the district to generate employment and income.
    Under agriculture and allied activities Rastriya Krishi Vikash Yojana (RKVY) and National Food
    Security Mission (NFSM) are two flagship programmes currently ongoing to accelerate
    production of foodgrains that would ensure better equity and reduce food insecurity and
    vulnerability. Social security measures to support the old age and distressed tribes, various
    provisions have been made in convergence with several programmes such as pensions to
    destitute, provision of supply of rice @ Rs.2/- per kg. and strengthening the Public Distribution
    System (PDS) for the reduction of burden on the tribes.

    Under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) Jobs have been provided to
    tribal households demanded for employment. Job cards have been provided to 23429* no. of
    households. 572,674 no. of person-days was generated during 2008-09 among tribes which is
    5.87% to total person-days generated in the district. Further, SC & ST households had higher
    shares in employment through NREGS as compared to their share in the population.


    Objectives of TSP

                 Socio-economic development of ST and their inhabitation
                 Protection of tribes from exploitation. This can be achieved with:
                     1. Secure forest right
                     2. Proper land reform
                     3. Improve and protect primitive tribal culture and tradition
                     4. Regulate procurement of NTFP produces from the forest
                     5. Reduce exploitation from money lenders promoting SHG & other small
                         enterprises
                 To protect tribal rights on forest, land other natural resources.

                                                               
                                            
     



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           To develop communication facilities and sustainable common infrastructure for tribal
            areas
           To provide basic health service at rural tribal area
           To reduce MMR/IMR promotion of institutional delivery
           To achieve Universalization of Elementary Education, Compulsory education for all
    Strategy

           Education being the most effective tool of empowerment has been given high priority in
            tribal areas
                1. Establishment of new residential schools and hostel for tribal children
                2. Provision for good quality food in MDM. Provision for writing and reading
                     materials and extra classes for slow learners as well as bridge course for
                     dropouts. Scholarships to increase enrollment and retention of the tribal children.
                     Beside this special campaigns for enrollment in tribal pockets
                3. To reduce language (dialectical) barrier between teacher and students; can be
                     achieved through special orientation course for teachers
           Women development and empowerment is another instrument to achieve socio-
            economical development rapidly
                1. Formation of new SHGs and ensuring all tribal women being a member of any
                     SHG
                2. Strengthening and capacity building of SHG through training on various
                     handicrafts and other income generating activities considering the aptitude of
                     local tribal and feasibility in respective areas
           Adequate training and supervision to beneficiaries in all individual benefit oriented
            programme like SGSY, and other schemes
           SHGs and PRIs are being strengthened under amended money lending regulation to
            enable the community to protect the individuals from exploitation by money lenders
           Check and curb enforcement of land transfer from tribals to non-tribals and even from
            tribals having marginal and small land holdings to other tribals having larger land
            holdings
           Provision for forest rights especially for forest dwellers and shifting cultivators
           Strengthen SHGs, PRIs, and regulated markets to prevent distress sale of forest
            produce, and training for value addition for forest products
           Rural connectivity for all tribal villages having more than 500 population
           Integrated Awareness Campaign through IEC about various development programme,
            health, nutrition, sanitation, hygiene, importance of child care and education. Awareness
            about savings and reducing evil consequences of alcoholism and dogmatism have been
            given equal importance
           Ensure proper implementation of employment generation scheme viz.; NREGS, BRGF,
            SGSY, IWDP, IAY and Cluster Micro Project




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    7.4: Schemes under Tribal Sub-Plan

    A number of schemes under TSP are currently running in the district. Employment generation
    schemes such as NREGS, BRGF, SGSY, IWDP, IAY, and Cluster Micro Project are being
    implemented in the district. For the agricultural development schemes like RKVY and AIBP are
    going on. For social security measures, SNP, AY, NOAP, NFBS, and MBPY schemes are being
    implemented. Priority has been given to tribal hamlets and villages in PMGSY for rural
    connectivity. Separate development agency for the Soura community is set up in Tumba in
    Patrapur block of GanjamDistrict.

    7.5: Tribal Sub-Plan 2012-13

    The Annual Plan TSP for the year 2012-13, has main emphasis for the socio-economic
    development of the ST communities of the district. An estimated budget plan of Rs. 4492.61
    lakh (2.29% of the total outlay)has been proposed for TSP. The sector wise outlay for the year
    2012-13 is summarized below:

               Table 7. 4 Proposed Outlay for Tribal Sub-Plan 2012-13Under different Sectors

        Sl. No.                        Sector                           Proposed Outlay 2012-13 (Rs.
                                                                                  In lakh)
           1       Agriculture and Allied Activities                                          189.53
           2       Rural Development                                                          316.76
           3       Special Areas Programmes                                                   134.96
           4       Irrigation & flood Control                                                 691.88
           5       Energy                                                                       0.69
           6       Industry and Minerals                                                      100.66
           7       Transport                                                                  913.37
           8       Science,Technology & environment                                            33.27
           9       General Economic Services                                                   77.76
          10       Social Services                                                           2033.73
                                           Total                                             4492.61




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                                                                                       CHAPTER-VIII



                             SCHED ULED C AST E SUB -PL AN (SCSP)


    Schedule Caste Sub-Plan focuses on comprehensive and holistic views of problems of SCs to
    bring down the gap in pace of socio-economical development between SC community and
    others. This is oriented towards household income generating schemes in the field of
    agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fishery, goat keeping, poultry etc. and elimination of
    exploitation, human resource development through education and training programme and
    special emphasis to women empowerment. Unlike Tribal Sub-Plan, the Scheduled Caste Sub
    Plan is not area specific. The SC population is scattered all over the district. A comprehensive
    SCSP is formulated by coordinating plans of different sectors and ensuring adequate flow of
    funds for the benefits of the SC population.

    8.1 Demographic Profile

    Ganjam has 18.57% of Schedule Caste population with 586,798 persons. Out of the total
    Schedule Caste population of the district, 518035 (88.28%) reside in rural areas and 68763
    (11.72%) reside in urban areas. The SC Population in the district varies from 2.49% to 5.79%
    across blocks (table 8.1). Less number of SCs found in Belaguntha (2.49%) Block and more
    SCs found in Purusottampur (5.79%) Block. The Sex ratio of SC communities in the district
    found better (1012) compare to other social communities. The concentration of Scheduled
    Castes in the district is presented in the map.

                          Table 8. 1 Demographic Profile of SC Population

                                                                           Sex          % of SC
    Sl. No.          Block           Person        Male       Female
                                                                           Ratio       Population
         1     Aska                   24396       12064       12332        1022           18.29
         2     Beguniapada            20269       9926        10343        1042           17.94
         3     Belaguntha             14631       7065        7566         1071           14.19
         4     Bhanjanagar            26011       13047       12964         994           21.24
         5     Buguda                 20901       10287       10614        1032           19.58
         6     Chhatrapur             33892       17079       16813         984           26.97
         7     Chikiti                25898       12887       13011        1010           27.57
         8     Dharakote              17706       8689        9017         1038           17.44
         9     Digapahandi            21398       10520       10878        1034           15.66
        10     Ganjam                 19098       9749        9349          959           23.09
        11     Hinjilicut             24065       11959       12106        1012           22.48



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                                                                           Sex             % of SC
    Sl. No.          Block           Person        Male       Female
                                                                           Ratio          Population
        12    Jaganthaprasad         27528        13716        13812       1007              23.35
        13    Kavisuryanagar          17853        8821        9032        1024              17.43
        14    Khallikote             30670         15323       15347       1002              22.36
        15    Kukudakhandi            29508        14836       14672        989              23.68
        16    Patrapur                19075        9189        9886        1076              16.15
        17    Polasara                17222        8335        8887        1066              14.68
        18    Purusottampur           33963        16782       17181       1024              26.23
        19    Rangeilunda            27372        13579       13793        1016              19.60
        20    Sanakhemundi            19634        9817        9817        1000              13.29
        21    Sheragada               21455        10846       10609        978              18.24
        22    Surada                  25490        12787       12703        993              20.22
              Rural                  518035       257303      260732       1013              19.89
              Urban                  68763        34379       34384        1000              12.36
              District               586798       291682      295116       1012              18.57
    Source: Census 2001

    8.2: Education

    There are 42 Schools in the district under SC & ST development Department as per Annual
    Work Plan, SSA Ganjam. The Scheduled Castes have overall literacy rate is 44.56% as against
    the overall district literacy rate of 60.77% as per 2001 Census. The SC male and female literacy
    rates are 61.93% and 27.61% respectively (table 8.2).

                      Table 8. 2 Literacy Rate by Sex among SCs across Blocks

                                                                                      (Figure in %)
                                                                                     Gender Disparity in
    Sl. No.          Blocks               Male          Female         Total
                                                                                           Literacy
         1    Aska                        49.50           37.60        43.50                 0.59
         2    Beguniapada                 55.50           24.30        39.90                 0.82
         3    Belaguntha                  50.50           19.80        35.20                 0.47
         4    Bhanjanagar                 55.10           17.90        34.00                 0.60
         5    Buguda                      51.20           20.20        35.70                 0.59
         6    Chatrapur                   51.60           21.00        36.30                 0.75
         7    Chikiti                     51.80           20.80        36.30                 1.04
         8    Dharakote                   54.80           26.30        40.60                 0.81
         9    Digapahandi                 56.20           26.00        41.10                 1.04
        10    Ganjam                      54.80           26.00        40.40                 0.94
        11    Hinjilicut                  51.80           21.80        36.80                 0.66
        12    Jaganthaprasad              54.50           24.50        39.50                 0.61
        13    Kavisuryanagar              52.80           22.70        37.80                 0.77



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                                                                                       Gender Disparity in
    Sl. No.           Blocks                Male           Female         Total
                                                                                           Literacy
         14 Khallikote                      55.60           25.00         40.30              0.89
         15 Kukudakhandi                    52.60           22.20         37.40              0.33
         16 Patrapur                        55.90           26.10         41.00              0.88
         17 Polasara                        56.30           28.60         42.50              0.78
         18 Purusottampur                   53.90           23.90         38.90              0.88
         19 Rangeilunda                     58.70           27.50         43.10              0.59
         20 Sanakhemundi                    57.00           26.50         41.80              0.95
         21 Sheragada                       56.30           25.80         41.10              0.75
         22 Surada                          57.70           26.70         42.20              0.97
            Rural                           60.39           25.37         42.65              1.38
            Urban                           73.10           44.26         58.62              0.65
            District                        61.93           27.61         44.56              1.24
    Source: Census of India 2001


    It is observed from the table above that gender disparity is lower where literacy rate of female is
    high. Overall gender disparity index for literacy in rural areas is 1.38 and in respect of urban
    area it is 0.64. For the district as a whole (rural+urban), the disparity is 1.24. The district and the
    state administration have taken this into consideration and initiated actions to reduce disparity
    by emphasizing more on girls’ education.

    8.3 Landholding Patterns

    The land holding pattern among Scheduled Castes (SCs) in Ganjam district is highly skewed.
    Among all categories the SC marginalized community has least share in land. Large numbers of
    household have small holdings of land. They are not in a position to heavily rely on farming as a
    principal livelihood option. They have slowly but steadily shifted to the category of other
    workers. In Scheduled Caste group more than 74% belong to marginal category with average
    holding size of 0.40 ha. More than 18% belongs to small category with 1.35 ha average holding
    size (table 8.3). Overall average holding size for SC group is 0.76 ha.

          Table 8. 3 Class-wise Number and Area of Operational Holding for the Year 2000-01
                                      Among SC Social Group

        Operational    Size         No. of          Percentage       Area of      Percentage      Average
         Holding      Groups      Operational           of          Operational    of Area of     holding
          Class                    Holding          Operational     Holding (in   Operational       Size
                                                     Holding           ha.)         Holding       (in ha.)
                                                                                    (in ha.)
                      Below 1
    Marginal                            31460             74.28          12625            39.02       0.40
                      ha
    Small             1-2 ha              7774            18.36          10487            32.41       1.35
    Small
                      2-4 ha              2712             6.40           7102            21.95       2.62
    Medium



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    Medium         4-10 ha               395            0.93           2036            6.29        5.15
                   Above
    Large                                 10            0.02             106           0.33       10.60
                   10 ha
    All Classes                     42351                       32356                              0.76
    Source: Report on Agricultural Census, 2000-01 Orissa (DES, Bhubaneswar), Page 35


    8.4: Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan (SCSP) Approach

    Schedule Caste Sub-Plan approach for the development of the Schedule Caste has been
    adopted in the district from the beginning of the Sixth Five Year Plan. It is a strategic policy to
    secure overall development of SCs and to remove socio-economic disparities between the
    people belonging to this community and others in the society. The SCSP is formulated by
    coordinating the different sectoral plans; ensure adequate flow of funds directly for the benefit of
    SC people. This is oriented towards household income generating schemes in the field of
    agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fishery, goat rearing, poultry, etc. Elimination of
    exploitation, human resource development through education, health and training programme
    and special emphasis to women empowerment are aims of the plan.

    8.5: Thrust Areas

    The people of the Schedule Caste community are relatively poor and substantial part of this
    community is engaged in scavenging and un-clean occupations. This community has a low
    female literacy rate and dropout rate among the girl children is very high. The major thrust under
    SCSP is to provide these poor people access to resources and enhance their employment
    opportunities through need based composite programs like weaving, leather work, fishery, and
    wage employment etc. with emphasis on the supply of raw materials, developing market
    linkages for their products, skill up-gradation in vocations and introduction of modern
    technology.


    Objectives of SCSP

           Socio-economic development of SC and their inhabitation
           Protection of SC from exploitation of higher caste
           Encouraging the SC community to integrate them in mainstream of society
           Providing free education, health, housing and livelihood promotion
           Providing basic minimum services to enhance the quality of life
           Empowerment through effective legislative and regulatory measures
           Develop communication and sustainable common infrastructure development for SC
    Strategy

           Education being the most effective tool for empowering SC has been given high priority.
            This can be achieved through:
                  1. Establishment of new residential schools and hostels for tribals



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                   2. Provision for good quality food in MDM, provision for writing and reading
                       materials and extra classes for slow learners. Bridge courses for dropouts.
                       Provide scholarship to increase enrollment and retention of the SC children.
                       Beside this special campaign for enrollment in tribal pockets
            Women development and empowerment is another instrument to achieve socio-
             economical development rapidly
               1. Formation of new SHGs and ensuring all SC women to become a member of a
                   SHG
               2. Strengthening and capacity building of SHG through training on various micro
                   enterprises such as weaving, leather work, sericulture and other income generating
                   activities considering the aptitude of local SC and feasibility in respective area
            Adequate training and supervision to beneficiaries in all individual benefit oriented
             programme like SGSY and its industrial promotion opportunities
            SHGs and PRIs are being strengthened under amended money lending regulations to
             enable the community to protect the individual from exploitation by money lenders.
             Special campaigns are being set up for saving schemes
            Check and curb enforcement of land transfer from SC to non SC and even from SC
             having marginal and small land holdings to other SC having larger land holdings
            Awareness and rehabilitation programme for SC alcoholics. Establishment of Alcohol
             Addict Rehab centers and Counseling Centers at block level
            Strengthen capacity building of SHGs, PRIs, and regulated markets to prevent distress
             sale of their products. Training for value addition to products
            Integrated Awareness Campaign through IEC about various development programme,
             health, nutrition, sanitation, hygiene, importance of child care and education. Awareness
             about savings and reducing evil consequences of alcoholism and dogmatism have been
             given equal importance
            Ensure proper implementation of employment generation schemes viz.; NREGS, BRGF,
             SGSY, IWDP, IAY and Cluster Micro Project

    8.5: Schemes for Scheduled Castes

    A number of schemes under SCSP are currently running in the district. Employment generation
    schemes such as NREGS, BRGF, SGSY, IWDP, IAY and Cluster Micro Project are being
    implemented in the district. For the agricultural development schemes like RKVY and AIBP are
    going on. For social security measures, SNP, AY, NOAP, NFBS, and MBPY schemes are being
    implemented. Priority has been given to SC dominated hamlets and villages in PMGSY for rural
    connectivity.

    8.6: Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan 2012-13

    The Annual Plan SCSP for the year 2012-13, has main emphasis for the rural development,
    social services and special area programme of the SC communities of the district. An estimated
    budget plan of Rs28811.45 lakh (18.58% of the total outlay) has been proposed for SCSP. The
    sector wise outlay for the year 2012-13 is summarized below:



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    Table 8. 4 Proposed Outlay for Scheduled Castes Sub-plan 2012-13under Different Sectors

             ANNUAL PLAN – 2012-13 FINANCIAL OUTLAYS : PROPOSALS FOR SCSP
                             Sectors                                           Budget
     Agriculture and Allied Activities                                                   1222.05
     Rural Development                                                                   2042.44
     Special Areas Programmes                                                             713.65
     Irrigation & flood Control                                                          4461.17
     Energy                                                                                 4.46
     Industry and minerals                                                              649.0661
     Transport                                                                           5889.39
     Science andTech                                                                    214.5281
     Gen economics                                                                        501.39
     Social services                                                                    13113.32
     TOTAL                                                                              28811.45

                  (The chart shows sectors wise SCSP outlays for the year 2012-13).




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                                                                                        CHAPTER-IX



                             B ACKR W AR D REGIO N GR ANT F UND
    The district has been identified as the backward district of Orissa henceforth was made eligible
    to BRGF funds. Previously the district was covered under RSVY and it moved from RSVY to
    BRGF in 2007-08. The district has received Rs. 22.85 crores under BRGF during 2007-08, Rs.
    15.41 crores during 2008-09, Rs. 14.98 crores during 2009-10 and Rs. 22.85 crores during the
    year 2010-11. The district had the entitlement for the plan year (2011-12) is 2285 Lakhs and
    plan proposed for the year 2012-2013 is Rs.38.18 crore. The planning proposal has been
    inflated 150% to cover the previous years spillover projects. Total BRGF fund is allocated to
    urban and rural bodies in ratio of 32.62:67.38. The 67.38 percent share of the funds of rural
    local bodies is further distributed in ratio of 50:30:20 percent to GPs, PSs and ZP respectively.

    Dovetailing of BRGF fund for Distribution Transformer Systems.

    The proposal of the Chief Secretary, Odisha received vide his L. No. 12808 (30) Dt.31.10.2011
    for dovetailing of Rs. 4.00 crore from the BRGF fund for each of the years 2011-12 and 2012-13
    for replacement of burnt transformers, supplementation of additional transformers, reconducting
    of 33 KV/11KV lines and installation of equipments like theft proof energy meters etc was placed
    before the Committee for discussion and decision. The committee was also apprised of the
    advisory issued by the Commissioner-cum-Secretary to Govt. in P.R. Department, Odisha to
    obtain the approval of the DPC on suitable modification of the approved Action Plan of BRGF,
    2011-12 and the proposal of dovetailing of Rs.4.00 crore from the BRGF, 2012-13 for the above
    purpose. The committee discussed the issue and felt the need of supplementing BRGF fund for
    Distribution Transformer Systems. But the Committee did not agree for dovetailing the BRGF
    fund, 2011-12 for the purpose due to the reason that works from the Action Plan already
    approved have commenced and modification of that list would not be possible However, a
    consensus was arrived at for dovetailing of Rs. 4.00 crore out of the BRGF, 2012-13 for
    Distribution Transformer Systems. The Committee approved these decisions.

    The Committee was apprised of the entitlement of the district under BRGF for 2012-13 and the
    size of the fund for which the Action Plan need be approved as per the following distribution.

    A.     Entitlement of Ganjam district under BRGF, 2012-13 Rs. 25.45 crore
    B.     Amount for which Action Plan need be prepared (25.45X150%): Rs.38.18 crore
    C.     Distribution of fund for which different Local Bodies are required for preparation of Action
           Plans.




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        Sl.           Local Bodies              Amount for which projects are to be included in
        No.                                       the Annual Plan,2012-13 (Amount in crore)
         1.                ULBs                                     12.45
        2.                 GPs                                         12.86
        3.          Panchayat Samitis                                   7.72
        4.            Zilla Parishad                                    5.15

    In view of the approval of the Committee for dovetailing of flat Rs. 4.00 crore of BRGF fund,
    2012-13 for the Distribution Transformer Systems, need for short sizing of the Action Plans of
    the Local Bodies so far decided by them was discussed. But the Committee after deliberation
    viewed that the Action plans have been prepared with the list of projects for 150% of the entitled
    amount in a prioritised manner. The funds will be released as would be received from the Govt.
    of India and accordingly the projects would be taken up as per the instruction to be issued by
    the PD, DRDA, Accordingly the local bodies would take up the projects for execution from the
    priority list. Since Rs. 4.00 crore was decided to be allotted for Distribution Transformer
    systems, the committee was apprised that proportionate curtailing of funds from the funds to be
    earmarked as per distribution formula being adopted would be resorted to. The committee
    however decided to approve Annual Plan, 2012-13 under BRGF of the district as received for
    the amount as mentioned as per the above noted distribution, particulars.

    RURAL – URBAN ALLOCATIONS;

    RURAL SECTOR PLAN

    As per the instruction of State Government, the Annual BRGF Plan of each district is prepared
    150% more than the actual entitlement and the projects are taken up on priority basis. Details
    about the number of block-wise projects proposed to be taken up during 2012-13 and estimated
    budgets are presented in the table.

                          Table 9.1 Number of Projects with cost involved
    Name of the Block               Number of Projects       Approximate Cost (in Lakhs)
    Aska                                         77                                172.46
    Beguniapada                                  31                                60.87
    Bellaguntha                                  32                                67.03
    Bhanjanagar                                  42                                85.32
    Buguda                                       27                                69.27
    Chatrapur                                    45                                65.25
    Chikiti                                      24                                57.12
    Dharakote                                    36                                58.26
    Digapahandi                                  56                                160.19
    Ganjam                                       26                                46.60
    Hinjilicut                                   55                                95.66


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    J.N.Prasad                                   21                              64.07
    K.S.Nagar                                     43                             97.30
    Khallikote                                   56                              139.4
    Kukudakhandi                                 50                              96.08
    Patrapur                                     26                              64.03
    Polosara                                     65                             151.42
    Purushottampur                               78                             157.18
    Rangeilunda                                  62                             140.53
    Sanakhemundi                                 43                             116.12
    Sheragada                                    22                              71.87
    Surada                                       28                              72.97
    Grand Total                                  944                            2109.00


                         PRI-wise distribution of Rural Sector Allocation:

    As mentioned earlier total allocation of BRGF for rural sector of the district is distributed on
    50:30:20 basis among Gram Panchayat (GP), Panchayat Samiti (PS) and Zilla Parishad (ZP)
    respectively. Block-wise details of GP, PS and ZP sector projects and estimated budget is
    presented in the table given below.

         Table 9.2 Distribution of Projects with costs involved at different levels (Cost: Rs. In
                                                 Lakhs)

        Block Name              PS Share                   ZP Share                     GP Share

                        Total         No. of       Total         No. of         Total        No. of
                        Cost         Projects      Cost         Projects        Cost        Projects

    Aska                38.46          14            24            15           110            48
    Beguniapada         32.87          22            18             4            10             5
    Bellaguntha         29.03          16            18             6            20            10
    Bhanjanagar         37.32          22            18             9            30            11
    Buguda              31.27          12            18             8            20             7
    Chatrapur           38.25          28            17            11            10             5
    Chikiti             29.12          15            18             5            10             4
    Dharakote           30.26          23            18            10            10             3
    Digapahandi         40.19          15            24             7            96            34
    Ganjam              24.60          16            12             6            10             4
    Hinjilicut          31.66          26            14            11            50            18
    J.N.Prasad          36.07          11            18             7            10             3
    K.S.Nagar           29.30          15            18             7            50            21
    Khallikote          41.40           9            18            12            80            35
    Kukudakhandi        38.08          24            18             7            40            19
    Patrapur            36.03          16            18             7            10             3



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    Polosara         33.42          14             18            7            100       44
    Purushottamp      39.18         40             18            7            100       31
    Rangeilunda      40.53          21             30           12             70       29
    Sanakhemund      42.12           9             24           13             50       21
    Sheragada        33.87           8             19            8             20        7
    Surada           38.97          13             24           11             10        4
    Grand Total      772.00         389          421.00         189          916.00     366


    Urban Sector Plan

    Ganjam has 17 Notified Area Councils and 1 Municipal Corporation. The share of Urban sector
    put of total BRGF allocation is 32.62 percent of total allocation.

                        Table 9.3 Number of projects proposed by the ULBs

    Municipality/ NAC                                            No. of Projects
    Aska NAC                                                                       7
    Bellaguntha NAC                                                                3
    Berhampur Municipal Corporation                                               95
    Bhanjanagar NAC                                                                3
    Buguda NAC                                                                     2
    Chatrapur NAC                                                                 13
    Chikiti NAC                                                                    2
    Digapahandi NAC                                                               16
    Ganjam NAC                                                                     8
    Gopalpur NAC                                                                   1
    Hinjilicut NAC                                                                 3
    Kabisuryanagar NAC                                                             6
    Khallikote NAC                                                                 5
    Kodala NAC                                                                     2
    Polasara NAC                                                                   6
    Purushottampur NAC                                                             3
    Rambha NAC                                                                     2
    Surada NAC                                                                     4
    Grand Total                                                                   181




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                    Table 9.4 Total allocation to ULBs (Budget: Rs. In Lakhs)

                                  ULBs                                           Total Budget
    Aska NAC                                                                        49.29
    Bellaguntha NAC                                                                 23.54
    Berhampur Municipal Corporation                                                665.14
    Bhanjanagar NAC                                                                 47.51
    Buguda NAC                                                                      30.03
    Chatrapur NAC                                                                   38.00
    Chikiti NAC                                                                     27.05
    Digapahandi NAC                                                                 25.86
    Ganjam NAC                                                                      25.79
    Gopalpur NAC                                                                    14.16
    Hinjilicut NAC                                                                  52.31
    Kabisuryanagar NAC                                                              38.96
    Khallikote NAC                                                                  24.25
    Kodala NAC                                                                      30.00
    Polasara NAC                                                                    44.58
    Purushottampur NAC                                                              35.08
    Rambha NAC                                                                      28.45
    Surada NAC                                                                      45.00
    Grand Total                                                                    1245.00


    The BRGF annual action plan for the year has been prepared and passed at NAC level and GP
    level plans have been approved by the respective panchayat samitis.The district level plans
    approved by the Zilla Parishad. Then these three level plans have been consolidated and
    placed before the District Planning Committee in its meeting held on 02.11.2010. A separate
    booklet/report on BRGF has been prepared and submitted.




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                                                                                        CHAPTER-X



                                        GENDER S UB PL AN


    Introduction

    Women constitute 49.94% of the total population of the district and the sex ratio is 998 females
    for 1000 males. The successive annual and five-year plan periods consistently and incessantly
    attempted to emphasize to bring women on par with men in socio-economic and political
    arenas. Therefore, the objective behind the series of schemes is to empower women and their
    children to become self-reliant and independent. The Integrated plan envisages a position of
    empowered women in the district along with a high quality of life for their children.

    Ensure Gender Equality:
    Currently the Gender Ratio in Ganjam is 998. But this figure is affected to an extent by male out-
    migration. A better measure in terms of gender ratio is of the 0-6 year age group which is 928.
    The district should aim to increase this to 960 by 2015. Sex determination test through
    ultrasound and amniocentesis techniques should be prohibited.

    Women Participation:

           Better participation in decision making process at all level
           The female literacy level of the district is 47.70%. Once the education level and earning
            of the women folk is developed, they can better participate in the decision making not
            only in their households but in the society at large. Total literacy along with some
            financial support can go a long way in this regard
           Effective functioning of Women SHGs and income generation. To make SHGs more
            efficient, the members of the WSHGs should be given trainings. The capacity building of
            the SHGs can be achieved by exposure visit to other successful SHGs of the state as
            well as national NGOs

    Empowerment of Women:

    Women Empowerment: Women empowerment is a challenging task as gender based
    discrimination is a deep rooted social malice practiced in India since thousands of years.
    Formulating laws and policies are not enough for measurable improvement as the ground
    situation remains unchanged. Emphasizing the malice of gender discrimination and women
    empowerment in India is a long battle against powerful structural forces of the society which are
    against women's growth and development. This can be substantially controlled by focusing on



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    changing the social attitude and practices prevalent in the society. This would be initiated by
    working with women at the grassroots level and focusing on increasing women's access and
    control over resources and increasing their control over decision making. There are many
    programmes that are currently running to strengthen their political, social and financial condition.

    Mission Shakti is a self help mission which aims at empowering women through formation and
    promotion of one lakh SHGs over a period of four years from 8th March 2001. The target was
    further revised to 2 lakh Women SHGs and the time was extended to March 2008. Mission
    Shakti has made efforts to train SHGs in many non-traditional crafts for women, like Masonry,
    Pisciculture, Phenyle making, Agarbati making as well as Bookbinding and Badi and Papad
    making.

    Progress of DMASS in the district-

    To meet the problems of rural women, Ganjam district administration conceptualized the idea of
    formation of Women Self Help Groups in each and every village of Ganjam district during the
    year 1998-99 and expanded it to the Block level through the “Mahila Sanchayika Sangha”
    (MASS) or (B-MASS). All the Block MASS, at district level forms the District MASS or D-MASS,
    which is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. SHGs are formed in each village
    through a house hold survey. A group of women consisting of 10 to 20 members of a locality
    form the SHG on the basis of thrift & credit. The business rules, principles, terms & conditions
    for lending are framed & governed by the group members themselves. The group is not formally
    registered. The activities undertaken by the SHGs are Pisciculture, Floriculture, Banana
    cultivation. Mushroom cultivation, Spices making, Pottery, Candle making, Stone cutting, Khalli
    stitching, Agarbati making, Handloom Sarees, Bamboo product making, Kweda flower business,
    Broom making etc.The basic principle of Self Help Groups is of mutual help & savings. The
    SHGs linkage to Banks for economical requirements is essential. The Mahila Sanchayika
    Sangha(MASS) at village level tries to meet the economical & financial needs of the groups,
    while B-MASS will provide financial assistance to these SHGs through Banks. Presently there
    are total 17,431 number of SHGs are formed in the district, covering 2,17,661 members of
    which 15,808 SHGs are enrolled in MASS and total members enrolled in MASS is 1,91,977.
    The total savings of all the SHGs in the district is Rs 3226.67 Lakhs and the total savings of all
    the MASS is Rs 274.88 Lakhs. It is very difficult to get a first hand information about the SHGs,
    their financial status, their product items and marketing strategies. At Govt. level also it is
    difficult to review different activities of SHGs. There is no scope to interact among themselves.
    Marketing of their products becames very difficult, occurs through only physical contact or
    brokers leading to loss & wastage.

    Process mapping of DMASS of Chatrapur Ganjam district.

    The members are all DMAAS of Ganjam district formed district level federation as DMASS(22
    block level federation & one urban federation) since 3rd July 2000 under the guidance of the
    advisering committee and managing by the governing body of 7 members elected by the block
    level federation members. Total numbers of groups under DMASS are 20460 from different part
    of Ganjam district.


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    The structure of DMASS-

    S. No     Name of the Committee members                  Designation
    1         District collector                             Chairperson
    2         Member Secretary                               Convener
    3         Poject Director, DRDA                          Member
    4         AGM, NABARD                                    Member
    5         Chairman, RGB                                  Member

    Role & Responsibility: The main role of DMASS is build the capacity of the group members of
    SHGs skill development like book keeping, accounting, group dynamics, repayment and
    vocational training for income generation activities.

    10.1 Achievements of DMASS on date March 2010

    Sno                       Particulars                                  Achievements
    1       No of WSHGs                                        202954(Revenue villages-3126)
    2       Total saving                                       Rs 5427.26 lakhs
    3       SHGs linked with bank                              16988
    4       Loan provided                                      Rs 14,981.69 lakhs
    5       No of SHGs members                                 252176
    6       Total Savings of SHGs                              5427.26 lakhs
    7       No of SHGs enrolled with BMASS                     234324
    8       Loan repayment                                     78%
    9       No of woman centered constructed by WSHGs          66
    10      Financial assistance for skill development( per 2 lakhs
    11      Support   for   infrastructure   development   of RS 55,000(Per BMASS)
    12      Additional amount sanction for IGP of BMASS        1.5 lakhs(Per BMASS)
         Source: DSWO, Ganjam


    The activities of BMASS has been monitored by DMASS in a monthly review meeting once in
    every month, where the monthly achievements of each and every BMASS has been submitted
    by the members & UC for the sanctioned amounts has been received.

    ICDS:

    The ICDS programme is being implemented in 22 nos. of rural ICDS (Block) and one Urban
    ICDS (Berhampur Municipality) in 2882 Anganwadi Centers across the district. There are 2827
    Angan Wadi Workers and 2871 Angan Wadi Helpers working in the district.




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                                     Table 10. 1 ICDS Programme

    No. of ICDS Projects                                                                        23
    No. of AWCs                                                                               2882
    No. of AW Workers                                                                         2827
    No. of AW Helpers                                                                         2871
                                         Source: DSWO, Ganjam

        Table 10. 2 Annual plan: 2012-13 proposed outlays of ganjam district under women
                                           component

               SECTORS                     Eleventh Plan          Annual Plan      Of which flow
                                             (2012-17)              2012-13            to WC
                                          Projected Outlay      Proposed Outlay
                                                                    in lakh           In lakh

    AGRICULTURE & ALLIED                      36751.75               6580.77         1974.23
    ACTIVITIES
    RURAL DEVELOPMENT                         55139.08              10998.60         3299.58
    SPECIAL AREA PROGRAMMES                   19215.00               3843.00         1152.90
    IRRIGATION & FLOOD                        117547.99             24023.51         7207.05
    ENERGY                                      120.00                24.00            7.20
    INDUSTRY AND MINERALS                     19449.96               3495.24         1048.57
    TRANSPORT                                 149044.51             31714.54         9514.36
    SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY &                      5823.94               1155.24          346.57
    GENERAL ECONOMIC                          13500.00               2700.00          810.00
    SOCIAL SERVICES                           315125.33             70615.62         21184.69
             GRAND TOTAL                      731717.56             155150.51        46545.15




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                   Table 10. 3 Gender Sub Plan Ganjam district 2012-13 (Financial in lakh)

                                                                                              FINANCIAL

                                Obj        Budget Estimate (BE)                            Actual Expenditure(AE)                              Budget Estimate (BE)
                                ecti                   (2011-12)                                     (2011-12)                                          (2012-13)
                                 ve




                                                         Amt for targetted




                                                                                                             Amt for targetted




                                                                                                                                                        Amt for targetted
                                                         interventions for




                                                                                                             interventions for




                                                                                                                                                        interventions for
    Sl.         Name of the      of




                                                           girls/women




                                                                                                               girls/women




                                                                                                                                                          girls/women



                                                                                                                                                                            (11/10) X100
    No.           scheme        the




                                                                              (5/4) X100




                                                                                                                                 (8/4) X100
                                                                               % of BE




                                                                                                                                  % of BE




                                                                                                                                                                              % of BE
                                sch

                                               Total




                                                                                                     Total




                                                                                                                                                Total
                                em
                                 e


          1                 2    3         4                  5                6              7                    8               9            10         11                12
               Agriculture &                                                                                     1258.            28.2        6580.      2137.4
           I   Allied                   5598.95         1582.82              28.27          4451.80               52               7            77          3               32.48
               Rural                    11361.3                                                                  1380.            40.5        1099       4622.7
          II   Development                 8            4608.18              40.56          3402.56               08               6           8.60         1               42.03
               Special Area                                                                                      364.8            33.4        3843.      1286.2
         III   Programmes               3449.09         1154.41              33.47          1090.02                3               7            00          5               33.47
               Irrigation &             23919.1                                                                  6669.            30.0        2402       7207.0
         IV    Flood Control               3            7175.74              30.00         22231.89               57               0           3.51         5               30.00
                                                                                                                                  35.0
          V    Energy                    28.00             9.80              35.00           28.00                9.80             0          24.00       8.40              35.00
               Industry &                                                                                        1572.            48.0        3495.      1674.5
         VI    Minerals                 3276.15         1572.55              48.00          3276.15                55              0            24          7               47.91
                                        24382.0                                                                  1077             44.7        3171       14223.
        VII    Transport                   8           10920.73              44.79         24064.14               8.33             9           4.54        97               44.85
               Science
               Technology &                                                                                      366.2            36.0        1155.
        VIII   Environment              1010.20         363.67               36.00          1017.27                2               0           24        415.89             36.00
               General
               Economic                                                                                          609.6            34.0        2700.
         IX    Services                 1793.00         609.62               34.00          1793.00                2               0            00       918.00             34.00
               Social                   94342.5                                                                  3835             43.3        7061       30788.
          X    Services                    5           40850.33              43.30         88581.56               5.81             0           5.62        41               43.60
                                        169160.                                                                  6151             41.0        1551       62246.
                      Total               53           69406.57              41.03         149936.38              8.9              3          50.51        39               40.12




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                                                                                     CHAPTER-XI




                     CONVERGENCE PROGRAMMES AND RESOURCES


    14.1 Need and Benefits of Convergence of Resources:

    Convergence brings synergy between different government programmes and /or schemes in
    term of their planning, process and implementation. Convergence is understood as “Optimum
    use of available resources for common outcome”. There has been lot of debates as to how
    convergence can happen and how to grow up to a level from the so called scattered and
    sporadic models to widespread application over a bigger geographical area in terms of
    convergence among all possible flagship schemes and government departments.
    It is expected that in the coming years, convergence is likely to gain further momentum due to
    its beneficial dimensions. When demand and supply situation align to each other, it would be
    obvious that many departments will be interested for convergence for a higher output. This will
    enable them to realise significant benefits and enhance the development impact. For this to
    happen, however, it is essential that the policy and convergence frameworks allow different
    schemes to function in a collaborative manner rather than competing with each other or with a
    standalone approach. If policy frameworks restrict or stop convergence, that may lead to sub-
    optimal outcomes and reduced development impact. By minimizing the policy constraints,
    people can have increased access to advanced technologies, innovations and high-quality
    services by removing convergence barriers, if any such barrier prevails. So, an enabling policy
    environment for convergence is highly essential.

    It is commonly believed that convergence can benefit development and support to create an
    environment that actively promotes innovations and supportive service provision. Enabling
    policy environment allow service providers to evolve different strategies to render quality
    services at people’s doorstep with the introduction of new service types or revamping the
    existing ones based on the demand. Policy that promotes convergence will accelerate growth
    and innovation. This reduces inconsistencies and artificial barriers, cuts risks and costs, and
    creates a better environment for different sectors / sub-sectors to grow. Further, users of
    services gets benefit from increased access to available convergent based services.

    In order to create an enabling environment, different departments are to be involved, may be at
    different levels or under a common platform. Government can think of amending existing policy,
    if any, to address convergence and remove barriers and restrictions. A policy response to
    convergence will resolve some of the conflicting rules among converging departments /
    schemes and can create a ground for all the players to converge their strengthens and minimize
    their weaknesses focusing on the development of people and meeting their aspirations. Such
    policy prescriptions can provide a significant push during the early stages of convergence.


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    Convergence seems to be the order of the day and a development requirement to expand the
    outreach with quality of services that have higher impact at people’s end. From people’s
    perspective, they can avail different services under one roof that are essential for their growth.
    Undoubtedly, convergence is having significant potential benefit dimension if it is structured
    properly and supported with policy measures. As such, a policymaker’s role is to respond to the
    prevailing changes and taking steps to in Ganjam, the UN team has strived hard on
    convergence among NREGS and Watershed projects in the district as a first step in this regard.

    14.1.1 Experience of the district in piloting convergence:

    As the UN team had ample opportunity to interact with the ex-PD, DRDA Mr. R.Vineel Krishna,
    IAS, the issue of convergence came up and appreciated by the Mr. Krishna also. But the
    thought could really got momentum as the Ministry of PR circulated a proposal with guidelines
    for possible convergence among NREGS, Watershed and SGSY. The guidelines also stressed
    for convergence among other schemes with NREGS as the same being a demand driven
    scheme and the higher the demand generated, the greater amount of resources can be
    mobilized to the district.

    14.1.2 Tangible benefits of Convergence (NREGS+Watershed):

    There are many benefits of this convergence model. Such as a) each individual scheme is
    strengthened in terms of performance, as NREGS can end up with generation of more man-
    days & Watershed with more resources b) NREGS being a demand driven scheme, more
    resources can be mobilized to the district, c) better quality structures can be ensured under
    watersheds which can be good asset for the community, as for example if a Water harvesting
    structure is well built with additional resource, the benefit of the same can be realized for a
    longer period by the community, d)greater cooperation among the individual scheme
    implementers and ultimately better service delivery, e)maximum benefit to the community.

    14.1.3 Horizontal and Vertical convergence:

    NREGS & SGSY Convergence model:

    Convergence can be horizontal and vertical.

    In the case of first one, linking up of schemes and programs having common agenda thereby
    utilizing the common resource available to ensure optimum use of resources can be done. In
    the second instance, the end product produced by one of the scheme can be taken up by the
    other scheme for value addition under its agenda and the utility of the product can be multiplied.
    The NREGS and Watershed model can be an example of horizontal convergence while
    the NREGS and SGSY is an example of vertical convergence in which after digging the
    pond, the value addition part is done by the other scheme.




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    14.1.4 Recent development (Proactiveness of the State Government):

    The Planning and Coordination Department, Government of Orissa has resolved in constituting
    District Level Steering Committee on Fostering Convergence to meet the Millennium
    Development Goals (MDGs) on 12th.May’2010.

    1. The Government of Orissa is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals
    (MDGs) by enhancing and promoting convergence at the district level across large number of
    Government programmes through strengthening Integrated District Planning. Collaborative
    Implementation and Monitoring in conformity with the priorities of Eleventh Five Year Plan and
    directives of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (SARC). The State Government,
    therefore, have adopted in principle the Government of India-United Nations Development
    Assistance Framework (UNDAF)-Joint Programme : Outcome 3 and have selected its five
    Backward Districts, namely, Ganjam, Kandhamal,Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh for
    their sustained economic growth and social development by effective implementation of the
    district plans through convergence of public resources for improved delivery of social services.

    2. With a view to monitoring the implementation of development programmes, the State
    Government have been pleased to constitute the “District Level Steering Committee on
    Convergence (DLSCC)” for Ganjam district under the Chairmanship of the Collector and
    Member-Secretary to District Planning Committee (DPC), Ganjam and concerned line
    departments as members to the committee.

    3. The Chairperson of the “District Level Steering Committee on Convergence” is competent to
    invite any person/officer/organization/institution including experts to attend the meeting of the
    committee as special invitees, if need be.

    4. Among others, the main functions of the District Level Steering Committee on Convergence
    for implementation of the Joint Programme are given below to :
    (i)   To lead and guide Convergence initiatives in the district and formulate and implement
          district plans in conformity with the Planning Commission and BRGF guidelines.
    (ii)    To finalise district specific Annual Work Plans for the Joint Convergence Programme in
            consultation with the UN agencies contributing to the Programme and the State
            Government to set out time lines and enable tracking of progress and make any course
            correction required for achieving the results of the Joint Programme in the district.
    (iii)   To facilitate interaction and consultation with concerned heads of District Level Officers
            and collect data, reports, other information pertaining to Districts on various schemes
            under Central, State and District Sectors.
    (iv)    To prepare district resource envelope including untied funds and other sources.
    (v)     To review progress of the Joint Convergence Programme periodically and remove
            bottlenecks and hurdles, if any.



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    (vi)       To convene meetings of concerned District Level Officers and other stakeholders to
               expedite the progress of Joint Convergence Programme.
    (vii) To sensitize and facilitate dialogue with the concerned D.L.O., P.R.I. and U.L.B. and other
          stakeholders on district planning and convergence.
    (viii) To assure timely delivery of programme outputs (situation analysis, needs assessment,
           district vision, consolidated district plan and documentation of implementation) for the
           district.
    (ix)       To monitor implementation and documentation of convergence at the district level and
               regularly report physical and financial progress and the achievement of programme
               outcomes.
    5. The District Planning Office is the Nodal Office and the Collector of the District as the District
    Project Director for the purpose of the Joint Programme on convergence. The funds under
    India-UNDAF Outcome, if any, to be released by the UN Agencies and Government of India,
    shall be maintained in a separate account of District Planning Office for functioning of the Joint
    Programme and release of amount to the desired quarters as per instructions of Planning & Co-
    ordination Department from time to time. The Collector and Chairperson of the District Level
    Steering Committee shall be responsible for all financial and administrative functions of the Joint
    Programme with the directives of the Planning & Co-ordination Department.

    6. The India-UNDAF Outcome Joint Programme functions shall be discharged by the District
    Planning Office in the district under the administrative control of Planning & Co-ordination
    Department, which will also function as Joint Programme Monitoring Cell for the purpose of this
    pilot project. The Joint Programme Monitoring Cell in the District Planning Office shall be
    headed by the Deputy Director, Planning/District Planning Officer under the overall supervision
    and guidance of the District Collector who is also the Chairperson of the “District Level Steering
    Committee on Convergence”. The Cell will be well equipped with required H.R., equipment,
    sundry expenses and logistics as per the proposal agreed upon by the UN agencies and the
    State Government.

    7. The District Level Steering Committee has been entrusted with the overall responsibilities for
    overseeing the implementation of the India-UNDAF Outcome Joint Programme and shall
    devise its own rules of business as per specific need of the district.

          Table 14.1 Types of Schemes(National, State, National-State) for the year 2011-12
        Sl No         Schemes under different Sectors           National-      National     State
                                                                 State

           I        AGRICULTURE & ALLIED ACTIVITIES
                    Crop Husbandry
                    1.Work Plan (Rice, Ragi,Sugarcane
                    Development)                                            √
                    2. ISOPOM (Pulses,Oilseeds, Maize)                      √



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              3. ICDP (Cotton)                                       √
              4.Extension & Training for VAW/Rural Women             √
              5. Development & strengthening of
              infrastructure facility for production and
              distribution of quality seeds                          √
              6. Support to State Extension Programme for
              Extension Reforms (ATMA)                               √
              7.NFSM                                                 √
              8.Work Plan (Farm Mechanisation)                       √
              9.KSK                                                  √
              Horticulture
              1.Horticulture Work Plan                               √
              2.Coconut Development Board                            √
              3.ISOPOM(Oilpalm)                                      √
              4.Micro Irrigation                                     √
              5.NHM
              Soil Conservation
              1. Macro Management Mode of                            √
              2. Watershed Development under IWDP                    √
              Fisheries
              1. Development of water logged area through            √
              2. Integrated Development of Inland Captured           √
              3.Development of Brakish Water Aquacuture              √
              4.Assistance for Mechanisation Programme               √
              5.Safety of Marine Fishermen at sea                    √
              6. Establishment of Fishing Harbour                    √
        II    RURAL DEVELOPMENT
              Special Programme for Rural Development
              1. DRDA Administration                                 √
              Rural Employment Programme
              1. SGSY                                                √
              2. NREGS                                               √
        III   ENERGY
              1. RGGVY                                                          √
        IV    IRRIGATION & FLOOD CONTROL
              Minor Irrigation Flow
              Repair, Restoration & Renovation of Water              √
        V     SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND
              Forestry & Wildlife
              Intensification of forest management                   √
              Integrated Forest Protection                           √
              Elephant Management Project                                       √
              CAMPA Fund                                                        √
        VI    INDUSTRY


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               Handicraft & Cottage Industry
               1.Development of Salt Industries                        √
               Handloom & Sericulture
               1. Integrated Handloom Development Scheme               √
               2. Integrated Handloom Development Scheme               √
               3. Integrated Handloom Development Scheme               √
               4. Health Insurance Scheme                              √
        VII    GENERAL ECONOMIC SERVICES
               1.EARAS                                                            √
               2.Crop Estimation Survey on Fruits,                                √
               3.MPLAD                                                            √
        VIII   SOCIAL SERVICES
               General Education
               1.Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)                            √
               2.National Programme of Education for Girls at          √
               3.Kasturba Gandhi Valika Bidyalaya (KGVB)               √
               Medical and Public Health
               1. NRHM                                                 √
               2. National Fileria Control Programme (NFCP)            √
               3. National Malaria Eradication Programme               √
               4..RCH –II                                                         √
               5.Revised Nationa Tuber Culosis Control                            √
               6.Immunisation                                                     √
               7.IPPI                                                             √
               8.IDSP                                                             √
               9.GFATM                                                            √
               10.NPCB                                                            √
               11.NLEP                                                            √
               Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
               Rural Water Supply
               1.National Rural Drinking Water Programme-              √
               2.National Rural Drinking Water Programme-              √
               Rural Sanitation                                        √
               Total Sanitary Campaign - Rural sanitation              √
               Housing
               1. Indira Awas Yojana                                   √
               Developmentof SCs, STs & OBCs
               Incentives to couples for inter caste marriage          √
               Child Welfare
               1. ICDS Scheme (Project)                                √
               Nutrition
               1. Supplementary Nutrition Programme                    √
               2. Mid Day Meal Programme                               √



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        IX     URBAN COMPONENT
               General Education
               1.Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)                            √
               2.National Programme of Education for Girls at          √
               Health
               1.NRHM                                                  √
               2.RCH                                                                  √
               Housing & Urban Development
               IHSDP                                                   √
               SJSRY                                                   √
               UIDSSMT                                                 √

                       Table 14.2Sector Schemes & Convergence benefits:

                    Sector-wise schemes and Expected Convergence Benefits
    Sector & key schemes                     Broad goals               Reasons for Convergence
    Public health & family          1. Assured, effective and         1. Maternal mortality rate
    welfare                            affordable basic                  reduction
                                       healthcare for all             2. Infant mortality rate
    National Rural Health Mission   2. Adequate protection               reduction
    (NRHM)                             against transmitted            3. Child mortality rate
                                       diseases and epidemics            reduction
    Reproductive and Child          3. Access to safe and sure        4. Anaemia reduction in
    Health (RCH)                       means of family planning          women
                                    4. Adequate care during           5. Anaemia reduction in
                                       pregnancy                         children under six
                                    5. Access to institutional        6. Disease prevalence:
                                       deliveries                        Malaria, Tuberculosis,
                                    6. Assured full coverage of          HIV/AIDS
                                       immunisation                   7. Reduction of
                                    7. Protection against                gastroenteritis, diarrhoea
                                       infant/child mortality            and other waterborne
                                                                         diseases
    Food & nutrition security       1. Assured access to              1. Targeted PDS coverage
                                       adequate food                  2. Malnourished children (0-
    Integrated Child Development    2. Assured adequate                  6): normal to Grade IV
    Services (ICDS)                    nutrition during infancy       3. Supplementary nutrition
    Mid-Day Meal (MDM)                 and early childhood               coverage
    Annapurna
    Public Distribution System
    (PDS)
    Education                       1. Assured enrolment in           1. Enrolment in Class I-IV
                                       school                         2. Education quality
    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)     2. Assured retention in              assessment
    Ashram Schools                     school for minimum             3. Sex-wise literacy
    Kanyashram Schools                 desired years of schooling     4. Less dropouts in



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                     Sector-wise schemes and Expected Convergence Benefits
    Sector & key schemes                      Broad goals               Reasons for Convergence
    Navodaya Schools                  3. Acquisition of basic               education
                                         literacy and minimum          5.   Improvement in pass
                                         educational competencies.          percentages
                                      4. Access to opportunities of    6.   Free coaching
                                         continued/life-long           7.   Scholarship to ST/SC
                                         education                          students
                                                                       8.   Residential
                                                                            education/schooling
    Natural resource                  1. Access to adequate and        1.   Potable quality of drinking
    management and water                 safe drinking water                water
    security                          2. Adequate water supply for     2.   Assured access to clean
                                         sanitary, household and            water for domestic use
    Accelerated Rural Water              irrigation purposes                (litres of water per person
    Supply Programme (ARWSP)                                                and domestic animals per
    Accelerated Irrigation Benefits                                         day as per national or
    Programme (AIBP)                                                        state norm)
    Sanitation                        1. Assured and convenient        1.   Coverage of habitations
                                         access to clean toilets            with public toilets
    Total Sanitation Campaign         2. Assured and adequate          2.   Coverage of households
    (TSC)                                water supply for a hygienic        with attached toilets
    JNNURM                               way of life
                                      3. Adequate environmental
                                         sanitation
    Roads                             1. Adequate and all-season       1. Availability of roads
                                         access to physical            2. All-season dependability
    Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak            connectivity                     on roads
    Yojana (PMGSY)
    JNNURM
    Energy                            1. Adequate and assured          1. Electricity connection to
                                         energy resources for             each household
    Rajiv Gandhi Gramin                  household, economic and       2. Consumption in
    Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY)          public activities                kwh/person (electricity)
    Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana
    Renewable Energy [Through
    OREDA]

    Housing                           1. Assured, adequate,            1. Families with pucca
    Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)             affordable and all-season        houses
    JNNURM                               housing to every family       2. Dwellers in kachcha
                                      2. Adequate housing for             houses
                                         urban poor including slum     3. Homeless persons
                                         areas                         4. Houses at affordable cost
                                                                          for slum dwellers/urban
                                                                          poor/EWS/LIG category
    Livelihoods                       1. Sustained and equitable       1. Families assisted under
                                         access to natural                agriculture, horticulture,



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                     Sector-wise schemes and Expected Convergence Benefits
    Sector & key schemes                      Broad goals               Reasons for Convergence
    Swarnajayanti Grameen                 resources                     AH, fisheries and allied
    Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)           2. Adequate access to, and        schemes
    National Rural Employment             returns from farm          2. Active SHGs
    Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)               livelihoods                3. SGSY assistance
    Centrally-sponsored               3. Adequate access to non-     4. MGNREGA:
    agriculture-based schemes             farm livelihoods including        a. Registered
                                          credit capital, technical         b. Given job cards
                                          support and market                c. No. of man-days
                                          linkages                              provided on
                                      4. Assured and adequate                   average to persons
                                          employment – both skilled             issued job cards
                                          and non-skilled with       5. Enrolment in employment
                                          assured minimum wages         exchange
                                      5. Adequate access to
                                          organised sector
                                          employment
        Source of Reference: District Planning Handbook / Manual, Planning Commission, Govt. of
                                                    India

    14.2 Sector wise convergence plan: Convergence of schemes:-

           Table 14.3 Scheme wise Projected Allocation of Outlays under District Plan:2012-13
                             Schemes                                     Budget in lakh Rs.
        RKVY                                                                                1425.37
        NREGS                                                                              10865.80
        BRGF                                                                                3818.00
        IAY                                                                                 3293.30
        SSA                                                                                17253.06
        NRHM                                                                                  4216.05
        TSC                                                                                   6134.93
        MPLAD                                                                                 1400.00
        MLALAD                                                                                1300.00


    14.3 Intersectoral convergence:

    14.3.1 Inter sectoral strategy for creation of durable and productive assets:
        From mere wage employment to sustainable rural livelihoods
        From unskilled to skilled labour through knowledge & technology input, training &
            capacity building in productivity increases, water-use efficiency, backward–forward
            linkages




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                 Significant productivity increases could be stimulated by NREGA on holdings of small
                  and marginal farmers in rainfed areas

            14.3.2 Parameter for Convergence:
                A process that brings together on-going schemes
                Guidelines are a broad facilitating framework
                Parameters of NREG Act and Guidelines as well as the guidelines of the other
                   development Schemes with which convergence is attempted are not altered.
                Convergence is expected to create value addition through resource and activity
                   synergies as well as infusion of technology input and professional quality in planning
                   and implementation
                Joint monitoring of Convergence
                Convergence at planning, management and works level

                                Table 14.4 Showing intersectoral plan of convergence

    SN Department                       Functions                Expected Contribution        Schemes
                                                                      [Indicative]

        1       Agriculture    1. To identify location      1. Technical knowhow         1. Rashtriya   Krisi
                [ATMA,KVK,        specific      needs       of
                                                            2. Agriculture                  Vikas     Yojana
                ICAR, OUAT]       farming community for         convergence                 [RKVY].
                                  farming system based          planning                 2. National   Food
                                  Agricultural              3. Capacity building of         Security Mission
                                  development.                  farmers                     [NFSM].
                               2. To set up priorities for  4. Service & resource        3. Watershed
                                  sustainable agricultural      dovetailing                 Development
                                  development            with
                                                            5. Agriculture               4. Rain-fed    Area
                                  farming           systems     performance                 Development.
                                  approach.                     monitoring.
                               3. To draw plans for         6. Promote            farm
                                  production           based    mechanisation.
                                  system activities to be   7. Support           input
                                  undertaken                by  subsidy.
                                  farmers/ultimate users.   8. Promote           seed
                               4. To       execute      plans   replacement.
                                  through                 line
                                                            9. Agriculture
                                  departments,       training   Infrastructure
                                  institutions,       NGOs,     supports.
                                  farmers organizations     10. Agriculture marketing
                                  and allied institutions.      support
                                                            11. Agro-enterprise
                                                                promotion support
        2       Horticulture   1. Horticulture promotion 1. Technical knowhow            1. National
                                  through     horticultural 2. Horticulture plan            Horticulture
                                  area expansion.           3. Capacity building of         Mission [NHM]
                               2. Promotion of fruit crops,     farmers



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    SN Department                   Functions              Expected Contribution               Schemes
                                                                [Indicative]

                             vegetables,         spices, 4. Services & resources
                             floriculture etc.            5. Monitoring.
                          3. Dissemination             of 6. Support             input   2. National
                             technology                       subsidy.                      Horticulture
                                                          7. Agro-enterprise                Board
                                                              promotion
        3   Animal        1.   To      augment      milk 4. Technical support            1. Fodder
            Husbandry          production                 5. Vaccination/de-                development       –
                          2.   Fodder development             worming                       seed distribution.
                          3.   Infrastructural support    6. Infrastructural             2. Training         to
                                                              support                       unemployed
                                                          7. Capacity building              educated youths
                                                          8. Enterprise                  3. Strengthening
                                                              development                   milk production
                                                          9. Fodder farming                 infrastructure
                                                          10. Market facilitation
        4   Fishery       1.   Fishery development        1. Inland           fishery    1. Construction of
                          2.   Welfare       of      the      promotion                     fish        lending
                               fishermen                  2. Credit    to     fishery       centres
                          3.   Infrastructure support         cooperatives               2. Credit to fisher
                          4.   Market promotion           3. Training / awareness           cooperatives
                                                          4. Water      log       area   3. Market promotion
                                                              development                   through      buyer-
                                                          5. Insurance for marine           seller meet
                                                              fishermen                  4. Training            /
                                                                                            awareness
                                                                                         5. Inland          fish
                                                                                            promotion
                                                                                         6. Brackish      water
                                                                                            fish promotion
                                                                                         7. Fisheries
                                                                                            extension
                                                                                         8. Development of
                                                                                            post       harvest
                                                                                            infrastructure
                                                                                         9. Cluster
                                                                                            development in
                                                                                            brackish      water
                                                                                            culture
        5   Irrigation  & 1. Increase     irrigation 1. Repairing         lift           1. Biju     Krushaka
            Flood Control    coverage                   irrigation points                   Vikas Yojana
                          2. Water management        2. Improvement        of            2. Orissa
                          3. Drainage   &      flood    tanks                               Community Tank
                             control                 3. Fish      farming  in               Management
                                                        renovated tanks                     Project
                                                     4. Promotion of WUA /               3. Orissa Integrated



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    SN Department                  Functions              Expected Contribution              Schemes
                                                               [Indicative]

                                                            PP                             Irrigated
                                                         5. Command            area        Agriculture    &
                                                            development                    Water
                                                                                           Management
                                                                                           Project
                                                                                      4.   Command Area
                                                                                           Development
                                                                                           Programme.
        6   Forest   and 1. Improving         forest 1. Self-employment         1.         Orissa Forestry
            Environment     coverage                    training on grafting &             Sector
                         2. Promoting livelihood of     gardening                          Development
                            forest dwellers          2. Infrastructure      for            Project [OFSDP]
                                                        forest       resource 2.           Grafters        /
                                                        based crafts.                      Gardeners
                                                     3. Decentralised                      training
                                                        nursery        raising 3.          Bamboo sector
                                                        through SHGs                       infrastructure
                                                                                           development
                                                                                      4.   Nursery raising
                                                                                           as enterprise
        7   Education     1. Development           of    1. Pre and post 10th 1.           SSA
                             education with special         scholarship          2.        DPEP
                             focus on girl child         2. Girl child enrolment
                             education                      and education
                          2. Promotion             of    3. Vocational trainings
                             educational
                             infrastructure
        8   Health                                  1. Training / awareness 1. National
                        & 1. Improve health status of                                           Rural
            Family           the people             2. Medicines free of           Health Mission
            Welfare       2. Rendering        quality  cost                     2. National malaria
                             health services        3. Health infrastructure       eradication
                          3. Strengthening          4. TB
                                               health         and      malaria     programme
                             infrastructure            eradication              3. National    Filaria
                          4. Health                 5. Family
                                               status                 planning     control
                             improvement in tribal     measures                    programme
                             areas                                              4. National
                                                                                   Tuberculosis
                                                                                   control
                                                                                   programme
                                                                                5. National    Goitre
                                                                                   control
                                                                                   programme
        9   Social        1. Empowerment         of 1. Training              & 1. National Old Age
            Welfare          women and children        rehabilitation        of    Pension
            [Women      &    and     their improved    physically challenged 2. National Family
                             quality of living.     2. Training of women           Benefit Scheme
            Child


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    SN Department                Functions              Expected Contribution            Schemes
                                                             [Indicative]

         Development] 2. Social             security 3. SHG promotion             3. National
                         coverage        to   aged, 4. Capital fund support          Maternity Benefit
                         disabled       and   other     to SHGs                      Scheme
                         sections                    5. Girl child education      4. Madhu          Babu
                                                     6. Food grain support-          Pension Yojana
                                                        Annapurna                 5. ICDS
                                                     7. Monthly pension           6. Supplementary
                                                     8. ICDS for women &             Nutrition
                                                        child      health    &       Programme
                                                        nutrition                 7. Mid Day Meal
                                                                                     Programme
                                                                                  8. Nutrition        for
                                                                                     Adolescent Girls
    10   ST/SC          1.   Social and economic 1. Pre and post 10th 1. Pre matric & post
         Welfare             mainstreaming                scholarship                matric
                        2.   Promotion of education 2. IEC on tribal welfare         scholarship
                             including    girl   child    programmes              2. Supply of reading
                             education                 3. Educational training /     materials
                        3.   Legal & social security      coaching                3. Legal     aid     to
                             of SC/ST                  4. Financial support          atrocity victims
                                                       5. Legal advisory & 4. Coaching for civil
                                                          support                    services
                                                       6. Vocational training
                                                       7. Infrastructure      for
                                                          ST/SC students
    11   Industries   & 1.   Promotion of MSMEs        1. Financial assistance 1. Financial
         Minerals       2.   Promotion of enterprise      for            product     assistance       for
                             clusters                     promotion                  road shows
                                                       2. Market support          2. MSE          cluster
                                                       3. Development          of    development
                                                          product clusters           programme
                                                       4. Financial assistance 3. Facilitating bank
                                                          for technical know         linkage for MSEs
                                                          how
    12   Rural water 1.      Providing safe drinking 1. Operation              & 1. Accelerated rural
         supply     &        water to the rural           maintenance of tube        water        supply
         sanitation          people                       wells                      programme
                      2.     Operation            and 2. Pipe water supply to 2. Rural pipe water
                             maintenance of water         the villages               supply
                             supply system             3. Awareness           on 3. Rural sanitation
                        3.   Ensuring    quality    of    sanitation                 programme
                             services
    13   Science    & 1.     Popularisation,           1. Weather information 1. Smart Panchayat
         Technology          improved      application    to farmers              2. National          e-
                             and         governance 2. Market information to         Governance
                             strengthening through        farmers                    project [CSC]



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    SN Department                    Functions              Expected Contribution            Schemes
                                                                 [Indicative]

                                science and technology     3. Vocational training of
                                                              youths
                                                           4. Promotion of self
                                                              employment


    14.4 Possible Convergence of different Missions:

    Table 14.5 Showing Possible Convergence of different Missions:

        Sl    Missions                                    Areas of Convergence
        No

        1    National       -Training farmers through farmers
             Horticulture   -Rejuvenation programme for old/senile plantations, organic farming, creation of
             Mission        water sources, post harvest management, marketing, creation of new gardens,
                            women farmer and SHG members.
                            -A mix of either and/or cooperatives (NDDB pattern), incorporated companies,
                            individual entrepreneurs, State Government undertakings, or any of the recognised
                            agencies are involved for ensuring proper delivery.
        2    National       -Awareness programme in village sanitation, safe drinking water, AIDS campaign
             Rural          and other health related issues at
             Health         Panchayat/Block level.
             Mission        -construction of household toilets, and other healthcare delivery programmes.

        3      Mission      -Financial Assistance to WSHGs
               Shakti       -Capacity building of SHGs more particularly in the field of Skill up gradation.
                            - Ensuring convergence of the efforts of the various Departments at the field level
                            for providing necessary technical inputs in areas like horticulture, floriculture,
                            mushroom cultivation, extraction of minor forest produce, handicrafts, dairy, poultry
                            and pisciculture etc.
                            -Establishing appropriate market linkages by involving other organizations like the
                            OFDC,ORMAS, TDCC etc.
        4     National      a. Villages where irrigation potential has increased as a result of construction of
               Food         dug wells on
              Security      the fields of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes SHGs, farmers are being
              Mission       linked with the
               NFSM         Seed Village Programme in the project areas.
                            b. Self Help Groups formed under SGSY are being associated for demonstration
                            programme and
                            farmer field school programme under NFSM




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    14.5 Gap Filling due to convergence:

    14.5.1 Gap Filling through NREGA

         i.    Areas treated under Watershed Development programme but not saturated because of
               insufficient cost norms.
        ii.    Difficult areas, being treated under the watershed Development programme, where the
               revised cost norms is also not sufficient to saturate the area.
        iii.   New areas; neither yet treated nor planned under watershed programme and where
               works are to be planned on watershed approach under NREGA.

    14.6 Working MNREGS Models For Ganjam:
    Working Convergence Models- Ganjam     Sectors
    Model –I
    *Community Tank under NREGS.               Horticulture & plantation
    *Fishery through SHG                       Irrigation &Water Conservation
    Model-II
    Watershed Development                      Irrigation
    under NREGS Fishery through the SHGs       Social Forestry
                                               Plantation & Social Forestry
                                               Irrigation & Water Conservation
                                               Soil & Water Conservation
                                               Animal husbandry
    Model-III
    Rural Connectivity under NREGS             Plantation
                                               Water Conservation
                                               Converting into Pucca Road through
                                                 PMGSY

    14.7 Major activities and Department Involved in Ganjam:

    Sl         Major Activities                              Departments involved
    No
    1          Tank-Pisciculture- Plantation-Irrigation      Fisheries, Irrigation, Horticulture, KVK
    2          Tank-Irrigation-Plantation-Rural connectivity Horticulture, Irrigation, Fishery,
                                                             Agriculture-KVK
    3          Tank-Plantation-                              Fisheries, Horticulture, Irrigation,
               Piscicultur-/Horticulture                     Agriculture-KVK
    4          Tank-Plantation                               Fisheries, Horticulture, Agriculture-KVK
    5          Tank-Poultry farm-Rural connectivity-         Fisheries, Horticulture, Agriculture-KVK
               Plantation
    6          Rural connectivity-Tank-Watershed             Horticulture, PMGSY, Fisheries, Forest,
               Development- Forestry-Plantation              Water Resources, Agriculture-KVK,
    7          Rural Connectivity- Tank-Plantation-          Horticulture, PMGSY, Fisheries, Forest,
               Watershed Development-Horticulture-           Water Resources, Agriculture-KVK
               Forestry


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    14.5.4 Identification of critical gaps and bridge up with BRGF:

    Existing schemes/ programmes sponsored by central and state government; and being
    implemented in rural and urban areas hardly cater to the critical needs and priorities of the
    people. Absence of untied funds with the rural and urban local bodies makes no difference in
    the situation of the people. Introduction and implementation of BRGF in backward areas of the
    state have helped to identify the critical gaps and bridge up the same with adequate resources.
    This Fund is untied in nature and being used for the most resource crunch sectors, as specified
    in the guidelines, and addressing critical needs of the Existing schemes/ programmes
    sponsored by central and state government; and being implemented in rural and urban areas
    hardly cater to the critical needs and priorities of the people. Absence of untied funds with the
    rural and urban local bodies makes no difference in the situation of the people. Introduction and
    implementation of BRGF in backward areas of the state have helped to identify the critical gaps
    and bridge up the same with adequate resources. This Fund is untied in nature and being used
    for the most resource crunch sectors, as specified in the guidelines, and addressing critical
    needs of the people.

    The Annual BRGF Plan 2011-12 mostly focuses on connectivity, education, infrastructure
    development, drinking water, women and child development, electrification, sanitation, etc. in
    rural and urban areas. Sector-wise key activities proposed in the plan are given in the table as
    under.

                             Table 14.8 Sector-wise key activities proposed

        Sector                                Rural                                    Urban
    Connectivity             Construction of CC road                        Construction/improvement of
                             Construction of culvert                         road and drain
                             Community Development Road
                             CD work/ masonry guard wall
    Education                Construction of school boundary                Construction/ improvement
                             Construction     of  school    building/        of school building
                              additional classroom                           Additional    classroom in
                             Improvement of primary schools                  primary school

    Infrastructure           Construction of (new and additional) GP
    Development               building
                             Construction of GP boundary wall

    Women & Child            Construction of AWC building                   Construction     of     AWC
    Development                                                               building
    Drinking Water           Installation of tube-wells                     Sinking of production well
                             Piped-water supply                             Extension of PHD pipe-line


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                        Sinking of dug-well
    Sanitation         Construction of village drain                        Construction/ improvement
                                                                             of drain
                                                                            Construction of community
                                                                             latrine
    Sports             Improvement of playground


    Electrification                                                         Electrification            with
                                                                             Designed octagonal G.I.
                                                                             Pole with two way bracket
                                                                            Electrification of main road
    Community               Bathing ghat                                   Improvement of park
    Development             Rest shed                                      Community park
                            Guard wall                                     Development of parking
                                                                             area
                                                                            Improvement of Bus stand
    Animal                  Construction of LI Centers
    Resource
    Development
    Health                  Renovation of LHV Centre
                            Construction of Health Sub-centre
                            Toilet in PHC Campus
    Training                Construction of women artisan centre
    Infrastructure
    Development

    Basing on the local requirement, majority of the allotment is made towards sectors like Social
    Services, Rural Development, Transport and Irrigation & Flood Control which have been given
    high priority for the district. The requirement based on the proposals received from different
    levels which can be met from different flagship programmes. The total gap of resources for the
    year 2012-13 can be adjusted and narrowed down from programmes like BRGF,
    NREGS,RGGBY, BGJY, PMGSY and other Flagship programmes. With the availability of
    additional resources the gap pipeline would be converged.




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                                                                                                                                                   CHAPTER-XII
     


                                                 PL AN PERFOR M ANCE FOR T HE PREVIOUS YE ARS


    Ganjam district has been striving to quicken the pace of development, reduce poverty and deal effectively with regional, social and
    gender disparities. During the 11th Five Year Plan, the district has shown significant and balanced growth. Fund flow (allocation
    and utilization) to different sectors in tenth plan period is summarized below:

                                          Financial performance of different sectors every year during Eleventh Plan period 2007-12


    Sl       Name of the                2007-08                       2008-09                       2009-10                     2010-11                     2011-12
    no         scheme           Prop     Fund     Expe    Propo       Fund      Expen       Prop     Fund     Expe     Propos    Fund     Expen    Propo    Fund       Expend
                                osed     made     nditu    sed        made      diture      osed     made     nditur     ed      made     diture    sed     made        iture
                                Outla    avail     re     Outlay      availa                Outla   availab     e      Outlay    availa            Outlay   availa
                                  y      able                          ble                   y        le                          ble                        ble
        1                   2       3        4        5           6        7            8       9       10       11        12        13       14       15         16       17
            Crop Husbandry
        1   Work Plan           15.58    15.58    15.58   34.11       34.11     34.11       38.95    38.95    38.95    30.55     39.89    39.89     33.60   69.75      69.75
        2   S h Plan
            State   (E      t                                                                        7.01     7.01     37.20     37.20    37.20    130.00   125.9      125.98
        3   ISOPOM              24.31    32.72    24.32   27.12       37.82     37.82       40.83    12.34    12.32    14.57     72.56    57.67     16.03     8
                                                                                                                                                            93.04      93.04
        4   ICDP (Cotton)       28.66    30.44    28.06   29.67       229.6     29.67       29.67    20.77    20.77    44.64     9.35      9.35     49.10   12.27      12.27
        5   Jalanidhi           172.9    172.9    19.36   129.80        7
                                                                      129.8     56.60       65.09    65.09    65.09    632.60    87.40    87.40    695.86   98.70      98.70
        6   Extension &           6
                                 0.35      6
                                          0.35    0.35     0.73         0
                                                                       0.73      0.73       0.83     0.83     0.83      0.91     0.91      0.91     1.20     1.20       1.20
            training for VAW
            /Rural Women
        7   RKVY                300.0    269.7    449.9   210.00      89.97     72.72       240.0   264.35    275.8    899.25   218.57    650.72   989.18   907.3      907.33
        8   NFSM                  0
                                486.0      5
                                         486.0      2
                                                  486.0   578.80      578.8     578.80        0
                                                                                            668.0   411.21      6
                                                                                                              379.7    126.06   207.11    207.11   138.67     3
                                                                                                                                                            146.0      146.05
                                  0        0        0                   0                     0                 9                                             5
        9   ATMA                87.06    87.06    83.26   85.00       70.30     63.99       97.00    79.30    67.31    74.50     85.69    85.69     81.95              16.80

     
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        10   Seed             185.3    185.3   185.3   503.99   503.9   503.99   575.0   644.11   644.1   535.44   962.75   962.75   588.98   488.1    488.19
        11   Farm               6
                              65.40      6
                                       65.40     6
                                               32.20   85.70      9
                                                                504.4   504.48     0
                                                                                 98.56   126.00     1
                                                                                                  998.5   617.69   618.00   618.00   679.46     9
                                                                                                                                              699.0    699.00
        12   M
             KSKh    i   ti                                       8                                 6     457.20   127.00   127.00   502.92     0
                                                                                                                                              314.0    314.40
             Total            1365.    1345.   1324.   1684.9   1979.   1882.8   1853.   1669.9   1610.   3470.6   2466.4   2466.4   3906.9     0
                                                                                                                                              2955.    2972.69
             Soil Conservation 67       62      41       1       66       9       92       5       58       0        3        3        4        49
        1    N.W.D.P.R.A        9.00   6.74    6.74    35.86    8.80     8.80    59.00   16.90    16.90   12.19    12.19    12.19     3.89     3.89     2.33
             11th Plan
        2    NREGS            74.85    5.00    3.23    706.17   111.0   103.16   330.1   158.86   125.4   228.45   228.45   223.45   162.00   156.6    82.56
        3    IWDP-III                                  37.82      2
                                                                37.82   37.82      0
                                                                                 96.25   96.25      1
                                                                                                  18.00   78.25    78.25     7.52    70.73      0
                                                                                                                                              70.73    18.12
        4    R.K.V.Y                                   28.76    15.45    5.00    28.76   23.76    18.00    8.26     8.26     5.20     7.56     7.56     5.56
        5    IWDP-III                                                            25.14   25.14    12.17    7.23     7.23     7.23    40.94    40.94
        6    T.D.A                                                               3.58     3.58    1.35     5.54     5.54     4.61
             Total            83.85    11.74   9.97    808.61   173.0   154.78   542.8   324.49   191.8   339.92   339.92   260.20   285.12   279.7    108.57
             Animal Husbandry                                     9                3                3                                           2
        1    2403-A.H. 101-                                                                               15.24    15.24    15.24    76.90     2.60      2.60
             Vety. Services
        2    2403-A.H. 107-                                                      0.71     0.71    0.71     1.30     1.30     1.30     2.10     0.45      0.45
             Fodder and
             Feed
             Development
        3    2403-A.H. 800-   10.33    10.33   9.27     1.91     1.91    1.78    8.01    89.01    8.01     0.12     0.12     0.12    27.06     15.01    15.01
             Other
             Total            10.33    10.33   9.27     1.91     1.91    1.78    8.72    89.72    8.72    16.66    16.66    16.66    106.06    18.06    18.06
             Fishery
        1    Development of   27.16    23.97   16.05   46.50    42.51    35.20   78.64   76.23    32.12   94.08    70.13    35.70    94.08     32.87     5.26
             Fresh water
             Aquaculture
             under FFDA
             (SP)
        2    Development of            -1.94            7.52    20.42            8.00    20.42             2.00    20.42    10.15     2.00     10.27     3.02
             Waterlogged
             area through
             FFDA




     
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        3   Integrated          1.20      2.61    1.18      7.79     8.57     0.99     5.90     6.47      2.34     4.00     10.63      0.49      4.00       4.14
            Development of
            Inland Capture
        4   R
            Development of                2086    20.87                                4.00                       108.00     8.50      8.50     33.00
            Brackish Water                8.00
        5   Contribution                                                                                                    11.83      0.74                 26.09
            towards NFDB
            Assistance
            Total               28.36     45.51   38.10    61.81    71.50    36.19    96.54    103.12    34.46    208.08    121.50    55.58     133.08      73.36       8.28
        6   Training/                     1.00    1.00               0.50     0.50     0.50     0.50      0.50     0.50      0.75      0.75      1.00       0.50
            Exhibition/
            Awarness
            Camp/ Buyers
            sellers meet
            Total               56.72     2093    77.20    123.62   143.50   72.88    193.58   206.74    69.42    416.66    243.75    111.91    267.16     147.23      16.56
            Special Area Programme        9 16
        1   CCD                           44.33   44.33             50.91    50.91             65.22     65.22              73.81     73.81     71.81                  12.00
        2   SCA to TSP                    10.54   10.54             10.54    10.54             10.54     10.54              11.46     11.46     13.19      9.89        8.67
        3   Incentive Grant                                                                                                  2.11      2.11
        4   Art 275 (1)                                             25.00    25.00             40.00     40.00               5.43      5.43                5.93        2.22
        5   MEC                                                     39.39    39.39             39.30     39.30              30.00     30.00     30.00                  12.37
            Total                         54.87   54.87     0.00    125.84   125.84   0.00     155.06    155.06    0.00     122.81    122.81    115.00     15.82       35.26

            Minor Irrigation Division-I
        1   RIDF              56.65     56.65     56.65    99.99    99.99    99.99    205.34    205.3    205.3    43.16     43.16     43.16      75.00        75.00      13.87
        2   R.R &R.                                                                               4        4      722.45    722.45    722.45    5939.05     5939.05      846.3
        3   Critical MIP      224.00    224.00    224.0    224.00   224.00   224.00   291.50    291.5    291.5    459.51    459.51    459.51     616.00      616.00        6
                                                                                                                                                                         61.00
        4     d F.C.A.
            13thB ildi                              0                                             0        0                                     40.00        40.00
        5   Check Dam                                                                                              2.18      2.18      2.18      122.76       98.56      32.73
            Total             280.65    280.65    280.65   323.99   323.99   323.99   496.84    496.84   496.84   1227.30   1227.30   1227.30    6792.81     6768.61     953.96
            Irrigation Division Berhampur
            Plan Scheme -
        1   M j & M di
            RBO                 25.00     25.00   25.02     9.12     9.12    9.18      3.00      3.00     3.00      5.00                         10.00
        2   RIDF-XIII, GMP                                 100.00   100.00   96.59    100.00    86.69     77.80    100.00    100.00    99.33     500.00      500.00       6.90


     
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        3    RIDF-XVI,                                                                                                    50.00                             500.00      500.00        6.44
        4    G bi dDam I
             Check                                                                                                        71.14      71.14      16.40        54.74          54.74     3.00
        5    R,R & R of                                                                                                                                     327.00          50.00     50.00
        6    T k
             E.R.M                                                                                                        20.00      20.00      20.00       100.00
        7    Upkeep                                                                                                                                          20.00          20.00
             TOTAL (A)=        25.00    25.00    25.02     109.12     109.12    105.77    103.00     89.69     80.80      246.14     191.14     135.73      1511.74     1124.74       66.34
        8    Flood Control
        9    SP                                            52.60       52.60     52.60    144.00     144.0     144.00     169.00     169.00     169.00      150.00      150.00        30.00
        10   RIDF-XIV, & XVI                                                              373.50       0
                                                                                                     373.5     373.50     299.00     299.00     299.00      379.00      379.00        35.00
             TOTAL (B)=                                    52.60       52.60     52.60    5517.5       0
                                                                                                     517.5     517.50     468.00     468.00     468.00      529.00      529.00        65.00
        11   GRAND TOTAL                                                                    0          0
             (A Irrigation Berhampur
             Lift B)
        1    BKVY                       69.88    69.88               649.22     649.22              116.13     47.33     749.83      92.80       92.8       2625.00     1000.00
             Bhanjanagar Irrigation Division                                                                                                      0

             Plan Scheme -
        1    M j & M di
             RIDF-(CR)         363.4    363.4    363.9     686.5     686.50     685.50    733.19     733.19     723.04     552.04     552.04      541.72      220.00        220.0     90.05
        2    Check Dam           4        4        8         0                                                              31.77      31.77      31.76                       0
        3    E.R.M                                                                                                          20.00      20.00      20.01       150.00        150.0     7.58
        4    Development of                                                               98.00       98.00      98.43      20.00      20.00      20.00        60.00          0
        5    Bij P tt ik
             Upkeep            18.01    18.01    18.15     51.14      51.14      57.16
             TOTAL (A)=        381.4    381.4    382.1     737.6     737.64     742.66    831.19     831.19     821.05     623.81     623.81      613.49      430.00        370.0     97.63
        6    RIDF-XIV & XV       5        5        3         4
                                                           196.5     196.55     198.26    831.03     831.03     833.38     771.63     771.63      771.59      560.00          0
                                                                                                                                                                            560.0     149.9
        7    (RE)
             Flood                                           5
                                                           625.0     625.00     626.01    563.97     563.97     565.64     478.41     478.41      478.40                      0         9
        8    M           t
             Flood Control                                   0
                                                           103.8     103.89     105.75    107.34     107.34     102.85     467.04     467.04      466.96      250.00        250.0     100.0
             TOTAL (B)=                                     9
                                                          925.44      925.44    930.02    1502.34    1502.34    1501.90    1717.08    1717.08     1716.95      810.00         0
                                                                                                                                                                            810.00     1
                                                                                                                                                                                     250.00

             Minor Irrigation Division - II Berhampur
        1    RIDF              550.    539.6    521.3    560.0     552.14      567.73    1150.0     1125.15    1126.1     780.00     778.00     614.20      800.00      304.00       72.17
        2    R.R & R            00       5
                                       157.7      3
                                                157.7      0
                                                         32.00      31.30      20.35       0                     6        1150.0     1103.7     451.67      2200.0      2149.0       1448.1
        3    12TH F.C.A.                 5
                                       16.50      5
                                                16.50    35.00      32.99      32.98                                        0          7                      0           0            9
        4    CHECK DAM                                                                                                    129.41     129.41      86.97      793.00      60.00        60.00
        5    MGNREGS                                                                     20.00       20.00      20.00      80.45      15.15      10.15       65.35


     
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                                    Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



              TOTAL           550.0    713.90   695.5   627.00   616.43   621.06   1170.00    1145.15     1146.16     2139.86     2026.33     1162.99     3858.35     2513.00   1580.3
                                0                 8                                                                                                                               6
              Command Area Development (Agriculture), Berhampur
          1   AIBP
    i         Field channel   351.     72.00    77.55   352.0    281.51   229.25   310.5     547.17     341.47      256.50      288.50      430.83      378.00      147.85      340.20
    ii        Fileld drain     00
                              24.0                        8
                                                        20.00     4.00     1.98      1       10.60      10.31       28.00                    12.00       40.00       40.74      40.00
    iii       Farmer's         0
                              1.60      1.51    1.62    3.78      3.78     3.78    1.08       1.08       1.08        1.62        1.62       162.00        2.78                   2.78
    iv        T i i
              Crop            2.00      2.00    2.00    15.00    12.00    12.00    2.00       2.00       2.00       11.10       11.10        11.10       15.00                  15.00
          2   RKVY t ti
              D
    i         Field channel                                                                                         102.33      50.00        49.57      202.50      202.50      202.50
    ii        Fileld drain                                                                                                                               12.00       12.00      12.00
    iii       Farmer's                                                                                               0.43        0.43        0.43         1.08        1.08       1.08
    iv        T i i
              Crop                                                                                                                                       10.00       10.00      10.00
              DivisionaltiForest Officer, Ghumsur South Division, Bhanjanagar
              D      t
          1   MGNREGS         8.00      8.00    4.22    9.00      9.00     6.00    20.00     20.00       9.93       65.00       65.00        41.98      177.53      177.53      177.53
          2   NAP (FDA)       56.0     56.00    56.00   140.0    121.77   121.77   175.9     175.98     175.98      98.90       98.90        98.90       20.32       20.32      20.32
          3   NBM (OBDA)       0
                              20.0     20.01    20.01     0
                                                        14.88    14.88    14.88      8
                                                                                   23.09     23.09      23.09        4.48        4.48        4.48        28.85       28.85      28.85
          4   CAMPA             1                                                  108.1     108.15     108.15      273.17      273.17      273.17      292.17      292.17      292.17
          5   Non-Plan        41.5     41.50    41.50   43.72    43.72    43.72      5
                                                                                   32.66     32.66      32.66       23.66       23.66        23.66       25.63       25.63      25.53
          6   State Plan       0
                              100.     100.8    100.8   89.59    89.59    89.59    87.51     87.51      87.51       109.04      109.04      109.04      147.35      147.35      147.35
          7   CS Plan          85
                              4.15       5
                                       4.15       5
                                                4.15    5.71      5.71     5.71    2.50       2.50       2.50       23.25       23.25        23.25
          8   C Plan          0.07      0.07    0.07
          9   4406-COL-SP       37.2     37.26 37.26 44.85       44.85    44.85    59.00     59.00      59.00       45.32       45.32        45.32       74.42       74.42      74.42
                                  6
              District Welfare Officer, Ganjam, Chatrapur
          1   Pre. MS to SC   86.0     85.79    82.85   90.31    90.31    87.21    95.06     95.06      91.80       100.07      100.07      96.64       106.3       10.49       5.18
          2   Pre. t
              St d MS to ST    0
                              175.     175.9    173.7   185.2    185.21   182.93   1.14      194.96     192.55      205.22      205.22      202.69        0
                                                                                                                                                        222.9    106.13         68.31
          3   Pre. t
              St d MS to       95
                              30.7       5
                                       30.76      8
                                                30.76     1
                                                        32.38    32.38    32.38    194.9     34.08      34.08       35.88       35.88       35.88         6
                                                                                                                                                        39.47
          4   OBC/SEBC
              Pre. MS to       6
                              0.55      0.55    0.55     0.58     0.58     0.58      6
                                                                                   34.08      0.61       0.61        0.64        0.64        0.64       0.71
          5   Post it
              Mi Matric to    206.     206.5    146.2   217.3    217.39   153.94   0.61      228.83     162.05      240.88      240.88      170.57      187.6
          6   SC St d t to
              Post Matric      52
                              7.72       2
                                       7.72       5
                                                7.70      9
                                                         8.12     8.12     8.10    228.8      8.55       8.53        9.00        9.00        8.98         3
                                                                                                                                                         9.88       6.00
          7   ST St d tot
              Post MS                                                                3
                                                                                    8.55                                                                0.80        0.00
          8   OBC/SEBC
              Post MS to      0.19      0.19    0.19     0.02     0.02     0.02               0.02       0.02        0.02        0.02        0.02       0.02        0.00
              Mi it

     
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                                   Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



        9    Atrocity          21.2     21.22      9.39      22.34      22.34       9.89       0.02       23.51      10.41      24.75     24.75    10.96     12.05    13.79      2.00
        10   Incentive to       2
                               4.29      4.29      4.29      4.51       4.51        4.51       23.51      4.75        4.75       5.00     5.00      5.00     5.50      1.50
        11   I t C t IGS
             Bankable          212.     212.0      212.0     223.1     223.17      223.17      4.75      234.92     234.92      247.28   247.28    247.28    272.0
        12   (SC)
             Bankable IGS       01
                               38.3       1
                                        38.32        1
                                                   38.32       7
                                                             40.34      40.34      40.34       234.9      42.47      42.47      44.70     44.70    44.70       1
                                                                                                                                                             49.17
        13   (ST)
             Skill              2
                               2.37      2.37      2.37      2.49       2.49        2.49         2
                                                                                               42.47      2.63        2.63       2.76     2.76      2.76     3.04
        14   U
             Skill d ti        1.08      1.08      1.08      1.14       1.14        1.14       2.63       1.20        1.20       1.26     1.26      1.26     1.38
             TOTAL ti
             U     d                                                                           1.20
             Rural Works Division - I, Berhampur
        1    NABARD                   340.35      340.35              475.25       475.25                620.00      620.00              927.50    927.50             1317.00   338.68
        2    (RIDF)
             CWA                      55.00       55.00               112.00       112.00                102.50      102.50              105.00    105.00              80.00
        3    28-5054-SP-              98.60       98.60                91.00       91.00                 235.00      235.00              186.50    186.50             166.00     10.43
        4    28-5054-SP- f
             C     l ti                                                                                                                                               445.00
             Const. Of
             brides on Rural
        5    State Plan                                                                                   22.85       22.85               82.90     82.90              89.69
             Building
             Total 'A'                493.95      493.95              678.25       678.25                980.35      980.35              1301.90   1301.90            2097.69   349.11
        1    PMGSY                 1172.27       1172.27              2054.55     2054.55                2153.24     2153.24             2272.92   2272.92            621.77    621.77
             Total 'B'             1172.27       1172.27              2054.55     2054.55                2153.24     2153.24             2272.92   2272.92            621.77    621.77
             Total 'A' + 'B'       1666.22       1666.22              2732.80     2732.80                3133.59     3133.59             3574.82   3574.82            2719.46   970.88
              Rural Works
        1    NABARD II
             Di i i                   149.01      149.01               18.00       18.00                 110.13      110.13              563.01    563.01             1820.00   584.69
        2    (RIDF)
             CWA                      69.00       69.00               148.00       148.00                137.50      137.50              135.20    135.20             128.00     12.04
        3    28-5054-SP-              10.00       10.00                48.00       48.00
        4    28-5054-SP- f
             C     l ti               82.90       82.90                73.70       73.70                  62.86       62.86                                           100.00
        5    State Of
             C    tPlan                7.93        7.93                33.04       33.04                  76.97       76.79              140.07    140.07             210.60     7.39
        6    B ildi
             28-5054-S & I             1.00        1.00                2.25         2.25                   6.33       6.33                4.54      4.54               10.25     1.20
               d S&E
             Total 'A'                319.84      319.84              322.99       322.99                393.61      393.61              842.82    842.82             2268.85   605.32
        1    PMGSY                    937.86      937.85              3249.67     3249.67                3966.00     3966.00             3726.00   3729.00            1147.00   1147.00
             Total 'B'                937.86      937.86              3249.67     3249.67                3966.00     3966.00             3726.00   3726.00            1147.00   1147.00
             Total 'A' + 'B'       1257.70       1257.69              3572.66     3572.66                4359.61     4359.61             4568.82   4568.82            3415.85   1752.32
             Divisional Forest Officer, Ghumsur North Division, Bhanjanagar
        1    State Plan        8   84.35        84.35     98.22      98.22      98.22      126.03      126.03      126.03      147.81    147.81    147.81    109.08    125.13    35.06
                               4
     
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                                 Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



        2   Central Plan     0      0.48       0.48        11.21      11.21        11.21          2.50           2.50           2.50           0.91        0.91          0.91
        3   Central          1      1.81       1.81        11.21      11.21        11.21                                                      17.33       17.33         17.33
        4   S       d
            RSVY(DRDA)       0      0.80       0.48
        5   NREGS            6      6.00       6.00        60.20      46.20        27.69      888.10            20.00          11.01          114.65      15.60         24.06         614.65        61.60         27.69
        6   NAP (FDA)        1      127.0     117.7        230.7      1.50        143.71      165.51            150.00      127.86            171.74      15.88         47.40         163.84        60.15         60.77
        7   NBM              5
                             2        0
                                    24.17       8
                                              3.11           0
                                                           16.25      16.25        21.89      14.63             14.63          15.94           7.67        7.67          8.54          5.73         7.73             1.20
            (O B D A)
            Total            4
            Executive Engineer RWSS Division, Berhampur
            PWS Schemes      768.12        768.12     768.12       1578.13     1578.1        1578.1         676.25        676.25         676.25       1569.20     1569.2        1569.2        1828.      568.         568.0
            Sinking of      135.00 135.00 135.00       180.00                    3
                                                                               180.00          3
                                                                                             180.00         87.00          87.00         87.00         177.34       0
                                                                                                                                                                  177.34          0
                                                                                                                                                                                177.34         82
                                                                                                                                                                                              251.9       04
                                                                                                                                                                                                         69.7           4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      69.78
            TW
            Director of Employment, (Southern Zone), Berhampur, Ganjam                                                                                                                          5           8
            C.S.             10.2     10.24         10.24      13.0        13.05       13.05         12.85          12.85         12.85         7.06       7.06         7.06      9.43         4.56           3.73
            DSE               4
                             6.77      6.77         6.77        5
                                                               10.8        10.81       10.81         11.31          11.31         11.31        11.10      11.10        11.10      11.6         5.72           4.28
            FARAS            82.9     82.92         82.92       1
                                                               96.3        96.32       96.32         168.7         168.78         168.7        153.19     153.1        153.19      2
                                                                                                                                                                                  141.         89.42          55.23
            NSS               2
                             0.88      0.88         0.88        2
                                                               0.21        0.21            0.21        8                            8                       9                      58
                                                                                                                                                                                  2.32         0.31
            ULB              3.56      3.56         3.56
            VICS             0.84      0.84         0.84
            Eco. Surv        1.05      1.05         1.05       5.25        5.25            5.25          6.37       6.37          6.37          7.30       7.30         7.30      7.60         3.79           2.68
            MI               0.44      0.44         0.44       0.24        0.24            0.24          0.03       0.03          0.03          0.03       0.03         0.03
            Agro Census      0.06      0.06         0.06       0.02        0.02            0.02                                                                                   0.09         0.09           0.09
            Eco. Census      0.15      0.15         0.15       0.21        0.21            0.21
            F&V              0.10      0.10         0.10       1.39        1.39            1.39          2.65       2.65          2.65          1.82       1.82         1.82      0.93         0.85
            DES                                                                                                                                 0.01       0.01         0.01
            Total
            Inspector of School, Ganjam Circle, Berhampur,
        1   Science           0.70          0.68       0.68        0.50       0.42          0.42          0.50          0.41           0.41       0.55          0.51           0.51      0.60          0.56       0.56
            Exhibition
        2   Remuneration     82.50          82.45      82.44       166.9      166.8        166.76        250.10         250.0      250.05        701.50     701.01         623.75        771.2        771.1      771.11
            to Contractual                                           0          2                                         6                                                                0            1
        3   Block Grant      158.00        156.34     157.31       528.0      527.4        507.11        755.00         731.0      754.84        1011.5     1014.04        1011.3        1024.        1024.      1021.3
            (Tribal, Non-                                            0          1                                         5                        0                         9            20           04          9
            Tribal)
        4   Salary to        99.00          98.27      98.27       160.5      160.0        160.01        200.50         200.5      200.50        590.50     590.05         317.92        650.0        649.0      349.92
            U.L.B. High                                              0          1                                         0                                                                0            5

     
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                                   Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



        5   Salary of           15.90    15.85      15.89    20.00    19.92    19.17
            Sanskrit Tols
            under 151 Non
        6   610-G.I.A.          279.00   278.91    278.91
            (N T )
            Total
            Distrist Social Welfare Officer, Ganjam, Chatrapur
        1   Social Security &
            S i l W lf
            MBPY (OAP)                   1351.23    1351.2           2434.    2434.20      2677.62    2677.6   2082.22   2082.22   2290.44   2290.4
            MBPY (ODP)                   350.83       3
                                                    350.83            20                                2      489.62    489.62    538.59      4
                                                                                                                                             538.59
            NSAP
            IGNOAP/IGNWP/I               1107.18    1107.1           966.7    966.79       1063.47    1063.4   2674.10   2674.10   2941.51   2941.5
            GNDP HIV+
            MBPY                          20.56        8
                                                     20.56             9                                7       93.36     93.36    102.70      1
                                                                                                                                             102.70
            NFBS                         268.00     268.00           239.0    239.00       262.90     262.90   358.10    358.10    393.91    393.91
            Welfare of                                                 0
            H di        d
            Assistance for                                                                                      2.42      2.42      2.66      2.66
                  &
            AIDS Security
            Food
            MDM                          1559.93    1559.9           1649.    1649.19      1814.10    1814.1   3286.76   3286.76   3615.44   3615.4
            KITCHEN SHEED                930.60       3
                                                    930.60            19
                                                                     1138.    1138.20      500.00       0
                                                                                                      500.00                                   4
            UTINSIL                       61.29     61.29             20
                                                                     94.60     94.60
            MME                           24.13     24.13            13.40     13.40        1.35       1.35     38.16     38.16     41.98    41.98
            TC                            37.92     37.92            20.91     20.91        60.55     60.55     65.61     65.61     72.17    72.17
            SNP                                                                                                4313.28   4313.28   4744.61   4744.6
            Integrated Child Development Services                                                                                              1
            MEDICINE KITS                12.77     12.77             22.98     22.98       25.28     25.28
            PRESCHOOL                    14.41     14.41             14.41     14.41       158.5     158.51
            KITS
            CONSTRUCTION                 32.51     32.51             32.51     32.51         1
                                                                                           32.51     32.51      80.00     80.00    88.00     88.00
            OF AWCOF AWW
            AWARD                        0.16       0.16             0.15      0.15        0.15       0.15
            VERVAL                       23.40     23.40
            ATOSPY
            CDPO OFFICE
            BUILDING
            POSITIVE
            DEVAINCE AWC
            REPAIR OF                                                20.75     20.75                            5.00      5.00      5.50     5.50
            REDUCTION OF                                             5.76      5.76
            MALLNUTRETIO

     
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                                   Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 



            CMRF                                                28.43    28.43
            Mission Shakti
            MICRO CREDIT                                       293.5    293.55             138.60     138.60      148.40      148.40            163.24       163.24
            SUPPORT
            STRENGHENING                                         5
                                                               55.00     55.00              34.00     34.00       12.96       12.96             14.26        14.26
            OF WSHG FOR
            SEED MONY                                                                                             200.00      200.00            220.00       220.00
            FEDRATION
            CAPACITY                                                                                               0.97        0.97              1.07         1.07
            BUILDING
            CAPACITY
            BUILDING (SKILL
            INSURANCE TO
             P H MEMBER
            SHG Division,Berhampur
        1   Laying of 16" dia      346.8   45.0   45.00        55.00    55.00          32.91        32.21
        2   D/I i li f of
            Improvement              8
                                   28.99    0
                                           13.8   13.89                                    3.00     3.00
        3      t       l
            Improvement tof        133.3    9
                                           25.6   25.62        44.71    44.71              3.00     3.00
        4      t        l t
            Provision of water       3
                                   35.10    2
                                           15.0   15.00        10.10    10.10          10.10        10.10
        5        l       li
            laying ofi water t     57.17    0
                                           40.0   40.00        17.17    17.17
        6        l i li
            Improvement ofi        39.28    0
                                           15.0   15.00        20.28    20.28              4.00     4.00
        7      t        l
            Sinking of tube        6.00     0
                                           6.00   6.00         9.00      9.00              5.50     5.50
        8     ll 12
            Improvement of                 0.09   0.09
        9     t      l
            Replacementt&                                      100.0    100.00             5.00     5.00
    10      l i     f  t
            Production well                                      0
                                                               40.23    40.23
    11                UGR
                  d llwater
            Provision                                          12.97    12.97              5.00     5.00
    12           l i
            Provision water                                    9.49      9.49
    13           l i
            Procurement of                                     23.20    23.20          32.00        32.00
    14              t &
            Improvement of                                                                 7.80     7.80
    15         t
            Sinking of l t                                                             22.23        22.23
    16         d ti        ll &
            Provision of trolley                                                           6.00     6.00
    17           t d     t
            Improvement of                                                             40.23        40.23
    18        t      l
            Improvement tof                                                                3.00     3.00
    19        t      l
            Improvement tof                                                                5.25     5.25
        1      t      l t
            13-4215 state plan             16.0   16.00        2.85      2.85              7.54     7.54       114.8   114.            271.52     271.52
        2   ( t t    t ) 02
            13-4215 state plan              0
                                           4.50   4.50         11.15    11.15                                    6
                                                                                                                8.00    86
                                                                                                                       8.00             7.81          7.81
        3   ( t t    t ) 02
            13-4216 Col. On-               1.35   1.35
            H     i   t t


     
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                           Comprehensive District Plan 2012-13, Ganjam District 




                                                                                        CHAPTER-XIII



                                       Left Wing Etremism-LWE



    13.0 Introduction

    Democracy has been hailed as the true and authentic voice of people, working for both their
    tangible and intangible interests. In a meaningful democracy, political stability and working
    within the conventional framework of law and ethics are the two most desired virtues. People
    across continents have long cherished the dream of living under healthy governance, which has
    led to their reaffirming the mandate for constitutionally approved governments irrespective of
    their efficiency levels or experience. Sometimes there is a limit to all that people can brook.
    Their faith in legal system fails them, the popular government becomes a toy in the hands of
    industrial bourgeoisie and capitalist entrepreneurs, they lose the power to govern even the
    aspects of their own lives and there is a sense of simmering anarchy. This is not a passing
    mood- it has been born out of a strong sense of being wronged and alienated amidst their land
    and property.

    The year was 1967. The place, Naxalbari. The young and fiery ideologies of the Marxist-Leninist
    movement in India formed the CPI(M-L), envisioning a spontaneous mass upsurge all over India
    that would create a 'liberated zone'. The Naxalite movement was born. Odisha has felt the
    nerves of naxal movement since 1968. But in the last twenty years or so the state has
    witnessed a strong naxalite movement. Earlier, it was Peoples' War Group (PWG) that was a
    dominant force in different parts with Maoist Communist Party (MCC) playing a lesser role in the
    progress of the movement. PWG was very influential in Gajapati, Ganjam, Koraput, Malkangiri,
    Nabarangapur and Rayagada districts.


    13.1 LWE its causes

    Several reasons are responsible for growth and expansion of naxalism in Ganjam but the single
    most reason is poverty. It is generally viewed that such a volatile phase of naxalism in the
    district is basically a product of the continuous process of underdevelopment. The other parts of
    Odisha which has otherwise been rich in minerals, and other natural resources the poverty is at
    large scale there. According to the Planning Commission and Census reports Odisha is the
    poorest state in India, with about 48% of its population below poverty line. This means that
    approximately 17-28 million people in the state itself are officially living under BPL category. The
    area with larger population under BPL and the areas under greater influence of the naxalites
    corroborate each other.Some of the reasons are summarized as below-




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    Transferring tribal land

    Odisha's quest for development has caused apart from other things, the commercialization of
    forest resources, thereby reducing the traditional right and access of the tribal inhabitants to the
    forested areas, which are still considered as their original homes of the tribal people. Moreover,
    the transfer of tribal land to the non-tribal people despite several legal strictures continues
    unabated.

    Commercialization of agriculture

    With the commercialization of agriculture, economic disparities widened. This polarized the
    agrarian classes and created an environment of confrontation.

    Social Iniquity and Exploitation

    The oppressed classes were not only exploited as sharecroppers and landless labourers by the
    landlords they also fell prey to money lenders. The groups constituting the sharecroppers and
    the landless laborers wanted a new social order with equity and the landed classes wanted to
    retain the prestige and status that was associated with the zamindars under the old system .
    Also, in India, since there wasn't any distinction between class and caste relationships at that
    time, class conflict was manifested as caste conflict. The manifestations of the caste struggle as
    part of the Naxal movement is region specific17. In Srikakulam, a government sponsored study
    noted that “Chronic poverty and destitution have become the patterns of tribal life”.

    Alienation of Forest Land

    Alienation of Tribal land was a major issue that crippled their economic welfare. This was
    evident in good measure in the Srikakulam Naxal movement.By the time of the uprising only
    one third of the tribals owned land . Alienation happened largely because of the money-lenders'
    trap but also because of the government's restrictions of access to forest land, traditionally the
    exclusive domain of the tribals. In implementing government regulations on forest access,
    government officials resorted to harassment of the tribals. Loss of access to forest produce
    which had constituted a significant part of their income and was also an integral part of their way
    of life, led to deep discontentment among the tribes. The people who were most affected by the
    status quo, therefore, were the fuel for the Naxalist fire.

        Tribals and Agricultural Laborers

    The policies of the state disturbed the equilibrium in tribal society. Their social structure was
    also more conducive to mass mobilization. This polarized the agrarian classes and created an
    environment of confrontation.They were the hardest hit by the agricultural commercialization
    and the government's forest policy. They also bore the brunt of social oppression. Their
    egalitarian social organization was very conducive to mass mobilization. The landless
    everywhere share the same woes. The Naxal cadres also hailed from the classes of agricultural
    workers, sharecroppers and tenants.




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    So, there has been a readymade resentment among the tribal populace and it could easily
    serve as a fertile ground for popularization of any anti-government or anti-mainstream ideology.
    The naxalites have realized this quite clearly and so they have been able to establish a good
    ground level support base in these areas. A central Naxalite agenda also includes tribal self-
    determination, which is, asserting the rights of the tribals over local resources.

     The government has several tribal development programmes aimed at overall progress of the
    people and the regions. But, it seems that all these programmes collectively have created an
    elite among the tribal population itself, leading to increased resentment among the tribals. The
    problem has been compounded by the massive out-migration due to increased poverty and
    income gap in the tribal society.

    13.2 Situation Analysis and strategies

    It is not as if government has not tried to sort out the problem but the lacunae are that these
    efforts were not well directed, that is why all the government efforts have failed to produce the
    desired results. The Naxal stronghold blocks or region where a number of special programmes
    are in operation but poverty refuses to subside.

    The development strategy of the government has t been a success story by popular measure.
    Though, many small industries were established and irrigation projects were laid down, the local
    population is still among the poorest ones. And, the reality of the well thought out development
    strategy in resettlement operations owing to construction of industry and irrigation project sites
    in Ganjam resulted in the majority of inhabitants ending up with lower incomes, less land than
    before, less work opportunities, inferior housing, less access to the resources of the commons
    such as fuel-wood and fodder; and worse nutrition and physical and mental health.

    Like everywhere else the Naxal movement has survived and sustained itself in Ganjam because
    it revolves around the life of marginalized people. The naxals have shown the poor people a
    dream of a society based on equality. Taking advantage of the acute poverty and rampant
    corruption in these remote corners of the district, the Naxals have shown them the dream of a
    revolution. It is high time that the government realizes that the Naxals have come to represent a
    serious internal security problem.

    13.3 Present status and degree of naxal hazard-

    The naxal intrusion in the district has spread in different interior regions and as per the data
    available in the district administration there is differential naxal impact and differential pattern of
    response. The number of blocks likely to be affected is 9 with correspondingly 51 GPs and 92
    villages. There are 9 Blocks, 46 GPs ,404 Villages already affected by naxals. The detail list of
    the affected, likely to be affected and vulnerable blocks, GPs and villages are annexed as
    Annexure-XIII




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                     Table-13.1                     No of GPs likely to be affected
    Blocks                         GPs                          Villages
    Patrapur                                   5                                    47
    Digapahandi                                10                                   26
    Chikiti                                     1                                    2
    Kukudakhandi                                5                                   19
    Soroda                                     19
    Sheragada                                   3
    Dharakote                                   4
    Bhanjanagar                                 1
    Sanakhemundi                                3
    Total                                      51                                   92


                            Table-13.2                  No of GPs affected
    Blocks                         GPs                          Villages
    Patrapur                                   1                                    13
    Soroda                                     19                                   208
    Sheragada                                   4                                    6
    Aska                                        1                                    8
    Dharakote                                   3                                   50
    Bellaguntha                                 3                                   13
    Bhanjanagr                                 13                                   91
    Jagannathprasad                             2                                   15
    Total                                      46                                   404


                            Table-13.3               No of GPs Vulnerable
    Police Station                            GPs                                 Villages
    Badagada                                   10                                   150
    Soroda                                      7                                   52
    Jagannathprasad                             2                                   15
    Bhanjanagar                                 4                                   24
    Total                                      23                                   241


    13.4 Strategies for strengthening security measures.

    The state government has emphasized on the modernization of State Police force and
    accordingly funds are given to the district under the Police Modernization Scheme to modernize
    their police forces in terms of modern weaponry, latest communication equipment, mobility and



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    other infrastructure. The naxal-affected blocks have also been asked to identify vulnerable
    police stations and outposts in the naxal areas and take up their fortification under the Scheme.

    The Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme of February 2005 has been revised. The level
    of reimbursement under the Scheme has been raised from 50% to 100% and new items like
    insurance scheme for police personnel, community policing, rehabilitation of surrendered
    naxalites, expenditure incurred on publicity to counter propaganda of naxalites, other security
    related items not covered under the Police Modernization Scheme etc., have been covered. The
    Scheme also allows release of funds to the naxal-affected districts as advance. In order to
    supplement the efforts of the district in providing an effective response to the naxal violence,
    Central Para Military Forces have been deployed on a long-term basis.




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                                                                                      CHAPTER-XIV



                             COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO LWE POCKETS



    14.1 Combating LWE through components specific approach

    The government has revised the recruitment guidelines to divert the youth from the naxal-
    affected areas to get into government jobs. Now, it has been permitted that 40% of the total
    recruitment in the Central Para Military Force (CRPF) can be taken up from the naxal or
    militancy affected areas.

    Another important measure of the government is related to the backward district development.
    The Central Government has provided financial assistance for 55 naxal affected districts in the 9
    States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya
    Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh & West Bengal under the Backward Districts Initiative (BDI) component
    of the Rsahtriya Sam Vikas Yojana (RSVY).

    The government has requested the Planning Commission to include other naxal affected areas
    under their proposed Scheme of Backward Regions Grant Funds (BRGF).

    The naxal problem has a very deep connection with the tribal and forested areas as even today
    the main base of the naxal movement comes from these places only. In order to address the
    areas of disaffection among the tribals, the government is making efforts on the legislation front
    also and the recognizing the right of the forest dwellers on the forest produces is an attempt to
    win over the tribals against the naxalites.

    Since their beginning the naxal groups have been raising land and livelihood related issues
    mainly. So the central government now is pushing the states to carry the land reforms as fast as
    possible. But land reforms in India has not been a political issue only rather a social and
    prestige issue also, so, it always seems difficult for the state governments to carry out any such
    legislative measures for the fear of losing vital middle class' support. The States have also been
    asked to put greater attention on creating employment opportunities in the naxal affected areas
    with special focus on creation of physical infrastructure in terms of roads, communication, power
    as also social infrastructure such as schools, hospitals etc.

    To do all this strategy of the government right now emphasizes on:

           To strengthen intelligence set-up at the state level;

           To pursue effective and sustained intelligence driven police action against naxalites and
            their infrastructure individually and jointly by the states




                                                                                                  
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              To accelerate development in the naxal affected areas.

    14.2 Social protection, Good governance and convergence

    The government has introduced a bill in the parliament for safeguarding the land rights of the
    locals in the tribal areas is a good move. Similarly the extension of the Panchayati Raj
    programmes to tribal areas by giving greater power to the tribal village assembly is a modest
    measure in the right direction, but unless structural deformities are addressed in proper manner
    and the measures are undertaken to restore rights over land and forest, there is every possibility
    that the Panchayati Raj structures would continue to be manipulated by local elites. And, with
    this there remains every single chance of disaffection among the rural and tribal populace,
    which would keep naxalism alive in India. Proper and successful implementation of welfare
    schemes like MGNREGA, PMGSY, IAY would be able to build a new relation between the
    government and tribal people.

                    BRGF fund flow for the LWE areas for the year 2012-13
    Blocks            No of Projects                     Total Amount (In Lakh)
    Patrapur                          26                                 64
    Digapahandi                       61                              170.69
    Chikiti                           24                               57.12
    Kukudakhandi                      50                               96.08
    Soroda                            28                               72.97
    Sheragada                         23                               72.78
    Dharakote                         36                               58.26
    Bhanjanagar                       42                                85.3
    Sanakhemundi                      43                                119
    Aska                              78                              168.52
    Bellaguntha                       32                               67.75
    Jagannathprasad                   21                               64.07
    Total                            464                              1096.54


                           BRGF Fund flow for the LWE GPs for the year 2012-13

    Sl.         Block             PS Share                    ZP Share                      GP Share
    No          Name
                             Total       No. of        Total        No. of        Total          No. of
                             Cost       Projects       Cost        Projects       Cost          Projects

    1         Aska           34.52         15            24           15              110          48
    2         Bellagunth     29.75         16            18           6               20           10
    3         Bhanjanag       37.3         22            18            9              30           11
    4         Chikiti        29.12         15            18            5              10            4
    5         Dharakote      30.26         23            18           10              10            3




                                                                                                         
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    6   Digapahan     52.19        19            32             11          86.5   31
    7   J.N.Prasad    36.07        11            18              7           10     3
    8   Kukudakh      38.08        24            18              7           40    19
    9   Patrapur       36          16            18              7           10     3
    10 Sanakhem        45           9            24             13           50    21
    11 Sheragada      33.87         8            19              8           20     7
    12 Surada         38.97        13            24             11           10     4
      Grand Total    441.13        191           249           109         406.5   164




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                  SUGGEST IONS AND RECO MMENDAT IONS OF DPC


    The meeting of the District Planning Committee Ganjam was held on 18.11.2011 at 11.00 AM in
    the Conference Hall of DRDA, Ganjam, Chatrapur under the Chairmanship of Sri Raghunath
    Mohanty, Hon’ble Minister, Industries, Steel & Mines and Parliamentary Affairs, Orissa. A total
    number of 99 Nos of participants were present in the meeting including DPC Chairperson &
    Members, Ganjam, Collector & DM, Ganjam, P.D. DRDA, Deputy Director, Planning,
    Representatives of CTRAN, DLOs and PRI Members, Special Invitees, and several other
    participants including representatives from press.

    The meeting started with the welcome address of the Collector who briefed the agenda note for
    discussion. The Chairman welcomed all the members and other participants. In his address, he
    reiterated the roll of the District Planning Committee not only for approval of the Comprehensive
    Annual Plan as well as Five Year Perspective Plan of the district but also their implementation
    so that the plans get reflected in to activities and the benefit reaches the intended beneficiaries
    for the overall development of the district in establishing social justice, equity uplifting the
    socially and economically marginalised strata of the society at par with other sections. There
    after the proceeding was carried on as per the agenda stipulated for the meeting. The various
    suggestions/recommendations are indicated below-

    a.     Confirmation of the last meeting of the DPC

    The proceedings of the meeting of the District Planning committee, Ganjam held on 02.11.2010
    had been sent to all its member vide L. No. 3369 (20) Dt. 20.12.2010 and all Hon’ble MPs and
    Hon’ble MLA of the district in the next memos. The compliances to those proceedings were
    apprised to the committee. Those proceedings were confirmed after a brief discussion.

    b.     Approval of Comprehensive Annual District Plan, 2012-13

                    The Comprehensive Annual District Plan, 2012-13 of the district prepared by the
    M/S CTRAN consulting Private Ltd, Bhubaneswar was placed before the Committee for
    discussion and approval. The representative of the above agency presented the salient features
    of the said plan. It was stated that the Annual Plan size of Ganjam district is Rs.1551.51 crore
    registering a decrease below that of the previous plan, 2011-12 of Rs.1644.00 crore by 5.62%,
    the cause of the decrease was reasoned to be the discontinuance of the scheme “RR&R of
    water bodies with domestic support” under Minor Irrigation, for which the outlay for 2011-12 was
    Rs. 303.34 crore. The Plan was stated to have been embedded with the plans for the flagship
    programmes namely BRGF, SSA, NRHM, PMGSY, MGNREGS. The presenter of the plan also
    stated that the plan has been prepared in a consultative and participatory process eyeing on the
    inclusive growth of the marginalised sections of the society. It was also learnt that steps have
    been taken for earmarking of maximum plan outlay under TSP, Scheduled Caste component
    plan proportionate to the population of these categories. The plan was also learnt to have
    featured the women’s (gender sub-plan) component plan which is an indicative of measures
    taken on social justice. The development indicators envisioned during beginning of the 11the
    plan period for 2020 were also stated to have progressed for attaining the Goals by 2020. The
    Annual plan was also explained to have attempted on attaining the national goals and balanced
    development. The intra district disparity has also been aimed to be narrowed through specific


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    approach in balancing the developmental activities between the developed and less developed
    areas. The Agriculture Plan has also been prepared with emphasis on scientific and
    technological intervention than the earlier practices so that better production and productivity
    would be ensured. The increase in irrigation has also been planned by better sustainable water
    resource management, water user’s participation and introduction of watershed development
    since the district is facing drought more often than not. The transport sector has also stated to
    have been prepared for a good communication network. The social sector has the stake of
    highest plan outlay among other sectors due to a good and well knit network of social
    infrastructures in the health, education, housing, development of SC, ST, OBCs and minorities,
    social welfare sectors. The optimal use of the resources of the lead sectors namely Agriculture
    and allied Sectors has been planned through convergence of inter-sectoral activities. The BRGF
    plan prepared through active participation of the people in the villages and urban areas forming
    an integral part of the Annual Plan involving Rs.38.18 crore was observed to bridge the critical
    gaps trailed through various developmental programmes. After discussion, the committee vetted
    the comprehensive Annual District Plan, 2012-13.

    c.     Approval of Comprehensive District Five Year Perspective Plan: 2012-17.

    The comprehensive District Five Year Perspective Plan: 2012-17 for Ganjam district prepared
    by the TSI was tabled before the Committee and its salient features, strategies, process of its
    formulation, policy frame works were explained by the representative of the TSI. It was stated to
    have been prepared with the Financial outlay of Rs. 7317.18 crore, the strategy of which is in
    consonance with that of the National Plan and State Plan in the same period which are
    reduction of poverty, disparity, establishment of social justice, increase in employment
    generation in both the organised and unorganised sectors, pumping of more institutional
    finance for more entrepreneurial activities and as farm loans. The Five year plan was also
    explained to have been prepared by optimal use of resources of human, financial and natural,
    with targets to increase in productivity by better farm management, scientific agricultural
    practice, dryland faming mixed cropping, farm mechanisation, increase in irrigation potential,
    optimal use of water through drip irrigation, conservation of water. The plan was also learnt to
    have envisaged schemes for increase in educational standard, reduction of gaps between the
    male and female literacy, reduction of dropouts, strengthening preschooling               through
    Anganwadies, implementation of social security measures, assuring quality health to the people
    through wide network of Health institutions, providing health services to all, reduction of IMR,
    MMR, birth rate, morbidity and checking endemic deceases. The other social services included
    in the plan document are the assured supply of potable drinking water to all habitations and
    100% coverage of sanitation. The draft plan was also stated to have harboured the plan policy
    to increase economic standards of people through effective implementation of MGNREGS,
    empowering women through SHGs. Expansion of horticultural activities through National
    Horticultural Mission has been well planned which would ensure the self sustenance of the
    people in nutritious food. Preservation of fruits and perishable vegetables, their processing and
    marketing was stated to have been well planned. The plan was also explained to be an inclusive
    one, growth oriented ensuring sustainable development. It was also learnt to have been
    embedded with the schemes of Bharat Nirman, flagship programmes namely NRHM, RKVY,
    BRGF, National Horticulture Mission, PMGSY. After a thorough discussion the committee
    approved the Five year Perspective plan, 2012-17.




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    d.     Approval of diversion of projects under BRGF

    Dovetailing of BRGF fund for Distribution Transformer Systems.

    The proposal of the Chief Secretary, Odisha received vide his L. No. 12808 (30) Dt.31.10.2011
    for dovetailing of Rs. 4.00 crore from the BRGF fund for each of the years 2011-12 and 2012-13
    for replacement of burnt transformers, supplementation of additional transformers, reconducting
    of 33 KV/11KV lines and installation of equipments like theft proof energy meters etc was placed
    before the Committee for discussion and decision. The committee was also apprised of the
    advisory issued by the Commissioner-cum-Secretary to Govt. in P.R. Department, Odisha to
    obtain the approval of the DPC on suitable modification of the approved Action Plan of BRGF,
    2011-12 and the proposal of dovetailing of Rs.4.00 crore from the BRGF, 2012-13 for the above
    purpose. The committee discussed the issue and felt the need of supplementing BRGF fund for
    Distribution Transformer Systems. But the Committee did not agree for dovetailing the BRGF
    fund, 2011-12 for the purpose due to the reason that works from the Action Plan already
    approved have commenced and modification of that list would not be possible However, a
    consensus was arrived at for dovetailing of Rs. 4.00 crore out of the BRGF, 2012-13 for
    Distribution Transformer Systems.

    The Committee approved these decisions.

    The Committee was apprised of the entitlement of the district under BRGF for 2012-13 and the
    size of the fund for which the Action Plan need be approved as per the following distribution.

    A.     Entitlement of Ganjam district under BRGF, 2012-13 Rs. 25.45 crore

    B.     Amount for which Action Plan need be prepared (25.45X150%): Rs.38.18 crore

    C.     Distribution of fund for which different Local Bodies are required for preparation of Action
           Plans.

    e.     Approval of projects for execution under BRGF interest money.

    The Committee approved the list of projects for Rs.170.65 lakh for execution with BRGF Interest
    money.

    f.     Diversion of projects under BRGF.

    District Planning Committee, Ganjam had earlier approved different projects for execution under
    BRGF for the year 2009-10 and 2010-11. Accordingly funds had been sanctioned and placed
    with different executing agencies for expenditure. But some BDOs and EO, NACs were learnt to
    have reported non-execution of some of those sanctioned projects under the Scheme due to the
    factors beyond control. As such alternate projects duly approved by the concerned local bodies
    had been received for approval in place of the non-feasible ones. The list of such non executed
    projects and the corresponding alternate projects proposed there against was placed before the
    Committe. Such proposal of diversion of earlier sanctioned projects to the substitute projects
    was approved by the Committee.




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    e.     Miscellaneous

    Hon’ble MLA, Khallikote wanted to know the position of execution of “RR&R of water bodies
    with domestic support”. It was stated by the EE, MI Divn. No. –II, Berhampur that 792 projects
    were approved at an estimated cost of Rs. 248.00 crore out of which 611 projects had been
    taken up and some of them had been completed. The rest of the projects would be completed
    by end of March as explained by the EE, MI Divn.-II, Berhampur. To a question of the Hon’ble
    MLA, Khallikote on non-payment in case of some projects, the EE reasoned the same for
    exhaustment of funds in the second phase. As regards execution of the project at Bada Hari
    Sikula which was at ongoing stage, the EE, MI Divn. stated that the project is under sub judice
    of the Hon’ble High Court, Odisha. Hon’ble MLA, Kabisurya Nagar also stated that payment in
    respect of many projects are not yet done. The EEs,MI of both the Divisions stated that receipt
    of supplementary fund is awaited which is expected in a month’s time after which the payment
    would be made.




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